Publications by authors named "Ai-Wei Lin"

7 Publications

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Efficacy and safety of interferon α-2b spray for herpangina in children: a randomized, controlled trial.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The treatment of acute herpangina is inconsistent. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interferon α-2b spray versus Ribavirin for the disease.

Methods: A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in eight hospitals in China between 2016 and 2018. 668 patients (1-7 years old) were randomized into experimental group (treated with Interferon α-2b spray) or control group (received Ribavirin Aerosol). Body temperature returned to normal within 72 hours and remained for 24 hours was the primary outcome; release of oral herpes and adverse events were the secondary outcomes.

Results: (1) The average age of onset was 2.5 years old. (2) After 72 hours' treatment, body temperature of 98.5% patients in experimental group and 94.3% in control group returned to normal and lasted for 24 hours (P = 0.004). The differences were greater at 48 hours' treatment (95.2% vs. 85.9%, P < 0.001) and at 24 hours (77.5% vs. 66.5%, P = 0.001). (3) The rate of improved oral herpes in experimental group were higher than that in control group (46.7% vs.37.1%, P = 0.011). No adverse reaction occurred.

Conclusions: Local application of recombinant interferon α-2b spray showed better efficacy for acute herpangina in children. It was safe for use.
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April 2021

Response to: Comment on "Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Isolates from Children in 2016: A Multicenter Study in China".

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2021 13;2021:1541506. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.

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February 2021

Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Isolates from Children in 2016: A Multicenter Study in China.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2019 14;2019:6456321. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.

Background And Objective: (HI) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. In many countries, HI strains are increasingly resistant to ampicillin and other commonly prescribed antibiotics, posing a challenge for effective clinical treatment. This study was undertaken to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of HI isolates from Chinese children and to provide guidelines for clinical treatment.

Methods: Our Infectious Disease Surveillance of Pediatrics (ISPED) collaboration group includes six children's hospitals in different regions of China. The same protocols and guidelines were used by all collaborators for the culture and identification of HI. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to test antibiotic susceptibility, and a cefinase disc was used to detect -lactamase activity.

Results: We isolated 2073 HI strains in 2016: 83.9% from the respiratory tract, 11.1% from vaginal secretions, and 0.5% from blood. Patients with respiratory isolates were significantly younger than nonrespiratory patients ( < 0.001). Of all 2073 strains, 50.3% were positive for -lactamase and 58.1% were resistant to ampicillin; 9.3% were -lactamase-negative and ampicillin-resistant. The resistance rates of the HI isolates to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, and meropenem were 71.1%, 32.0%, 31.2%, 17.6%, 5.9%, and 0.2%, respectively.

Conclusions: More than half of the HI strains isolated from Chinese children were resistant to ampicillin, primarily due to the production of -lactamase. Cefotaxime and other third-generation cephalosporins could be the first choice for the treatment of ampicillin-resistant HI infections.
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August 2019

Diagnosis and treatment of herpangina: Chinese expert consensus.

World J Pediatr 2020 Apr 25;16(2):129-134. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Infectious Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Beijing Ditan Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Herpangina is a common infectious disease in childhood caused by an enterovirus. This consensus is aiming to standardize and improve herpangina prevention and clinical diagnosis.

Methods: The Subspecialty Group of Infectious Diseases, the Society of Pediatric, Chinese Medical Association and Nation Medical Quality Control Center for Infectious Diseases gathered 20 experts to develop the consensus, who are specialized in diagnosis and treatment of herpangina.

Results: The main pathogenic serotypes of herpangina include Coxsackievirus-A, Enterovirus-A and Echovirus. Its diagnosis can be rendered on the basis of history of epidemiology, typical symptoms, characteristic pharyngeal damage and virological tests. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, and incorporates topical oral spray with antiviral drugs. The course of herpangina generally lasts 4-6 days with a good prognosis.

Conclusion: The consensus could provide advices and references for the diagnosis, treatment and management of herpangina in children.
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April 2020

[Clinical characteristics and drug sensitivity in children with invasive pneumococcal disease: a multicenter study].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Jul;21(7):644-649

Department of Infectious Disease, Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310052, China.

Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, drug sensitivity of isolated strains, and risk factors of drug resistance in children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).

Methods: The clinical characteristics and drug sensitivity of the isolated strains of 246 hospitalized children with IPD in nine grade A tertiary children's hospitals from January 2016 to June 2018 were analyzed.

Results: Of the 246 children with IPD, there were 122 males and 124 females. Their ages ranged from 1 day to 14 years, and among them, 68 (27.6%) patients were less than 1 year old, 54 (22.0%) patients were 1 to 2 years old, 97 (39.4%) patients were 2 to 5 years old, and 27 (11.0%) patients were 5 to 14 years old. Pneumonia with sepsis was the most common infection type (58.5%, 144/246), followed by bloodstream infection without focus (19.9%, 49/246) and meningitis (15.0%, 37/246). Forty-nine (19.9%) patients had underlying diseases, and 160 (65.0%) had various risk factors for drug resistance. The isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin, 90% sensitive to ertapenem, ofloxacin, and ceftriaxone, but had a low sensitivity to erythromycin (4.2%), clindamycin (7.9%), and tetracycline (6.3%).

Conclusions: IPD is more common in children under 5 years old, especially in those under 2 years old. Some children with IPD have underlying diseases, and most of the patients have various risk factors for drug resistance. Pneumonia with sepsis is the most common infection type. The isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are highly sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem, and ceftriaxone in children with IPD.
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July 2019

A multi-center clinical investigation on invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infection in China, 2010-2017.

BMC Pediatr 2019 06 5;19(1):181. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chongqing Medical University Affiliated Children's Hospital, Chongqing, 400014, People's Republic of China.

Background: Invasive S. pyogenes diseases are uncommon, serious infections with high case fatality rates (CFR). There are few publications on this subject in the field of pediatrics. This study aimed at characterizing clinical and laboratory aspects of this disease in Chinese children.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted and pediatric in-patients with S. pyogenes infection identified by cultures from normally sterile sites were included, who were diagnosed and treated in 9 tertiary hospitals during 2010-2017.

Results: A total of 66 cases were identified, in which 37 (56.1%) were male. The median age of these patients, including 11 neonates, was 3.0 y. Fifty-nine (89.4%) isolates were determined from blood. Fever was the major symptom (60/66, 90.9%) and sepsis was the most frequent presentation (64/66, 97.0%, including 42.4% with skin or soft tissue infections and 25.8% with pneumonia. The mean duration of the chief complaint was (3.8 ± 3.2) d. Only 18 (27.3%) patients had been given antibiotics prior to the hospitalization. Among all patients, 15 (22.7%) developed streptococcal toxin shock syndrome (STSS). No S. pyogenes strain was resistant to penicillin, ceftriaxone, or vancomycin, while 88.9% (56/63) and 81.4% (48/59) of the tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin respectively. Most of the patients were treated with β-lactams antibiotics and 36.4% had been treated with meropenem or imipenem. Thirteen (19.7%) cases died from infection, in which 9 (13.6%) had complication with STSS.

Conclusions: Invasive S. pyogenes infections often developed from skin or soft tissue infection and STSS was the main cause of death in Chinese children. Ongoing surveillance is required to gain a greater understanding of this disease.
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June 2019

Clinical characteristics and etiology of bacterial meningitis in Chinese children >28 days of age, January 2014-December 2016: A multicenter retrospective study.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Sep 6;74:47-53. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and etiology of bacterial meningitis (BM) in Chinese children.

Method: BM cases in children 28days to 18 years old were collected from January 2014-December 2016 and screened according to World Health Organization standards. Clinical features, pathogens, and resistance patterns were analyzed.

Results: Overall, 837 cases were classified into five age groups: 28 days-2 months (17.0%), 3-11 months (27.8%), 12-35 months (24.0%), 3-6 years (13.9%), and >6years (17.3%). Major pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, n=136, 46.9%), group B Streptococcus (GBS, n=29, 10.0%), and Escherichia coli (E. coli, n=23, 7.9%). In infants <3 months old, GBS (46.5%) and E. coli (23.3%) were most common; in children >3 months old, S. pneumoniae (54.7%), which had a penicillin non-susceptibility rate of 55.4% (36/65), was most frequent. The resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and E. coli to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were 14.0%/40.0% and 11.3%/68.4%, respectively. All GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin.

Conclusions: The occurrence of BM peaked in the first year of life, while S. pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen in children >3months of old. The antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae was a concern.
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September 2018