Publications by authors named "Ai Koyanagi"

415 Publications

Induction and Maintenance Treatment of Lupus Nephritis: A Comprehensive Review of Meta-Analyses.

J Clin Med 2022 Jan 11;11(2). Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Centre for Health, Performance, and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK.

Background: Lupus nephritis (LN) is present in over 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) which is managed with immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies. However, several novel therapeutic approaches for LN are under investigation due to the adverse effects spectrum of conventional therapy; Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of meta-analyses aggregating the comparative efficacies of various pharmacotherapies for LN. We conducted a literature search and retrieved a total of 23 meta-analyses and network meta-analyses for summarization. Pharmacotherapies were evaluated across six major outcomes: remission, relapse, mortality, end stage kidney disease (ESKD) progression, infection, and malignancy.

Result: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), particularly tacrolimus (TAC), in combination with glucocorticoids (GC) outperformed cyclophosphamide (CPA) with GC in the rate of remission, either complete or partial remission, and in terms of infectious complications. In maintenance therapy, MMF was superior to azathioprine (AZA) as the MMF-treated patients had lower relapse rate.

Interpretation: This review aggregates evidence of therapy for clinicians and sheds light on comparative efficacies of alternative LN treatments. As more promising agents are entering the market, such as voclosporin, belimumab, and obinutuzumab, LN management might undergo significant changes during the next years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020343DOI Listing
January 2022

Association between back and neck pain and workplace absenteeism in the USA: the role played by walking, standing, and sitting difficulties.

Eur Spine J 2022 Jan 16. Epub 2022 Jan 16.

The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Purpose: There is a paucity of literature identifying factors that influence the back and neck pain (BNP)-workplace absenteeism relationship. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between BNP and workplace absenteeism and potential mediating variables in a large sample of the US population.

Methods: Nationally representative data collected in 2019 from the RAND American Life Panel (ALP) were used for this retrospective study. Workplace absenteeism was defined as the number of days of absence in the past 12 months for health-related reasons (count variable), while BNP corresponded to the presence of back pain due to spinal stenosis, back pain due to other causes, or neck pain (dichotomous variable). Control variables included sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, education, occupation, annual family income, health insurance, obesity, and diabetes. There were eight influential variables (depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, alcohol dependence, opioid dependence, walking difficulty, standing difficulty, and sitting difficulty). The association between BNP and workplace absenteeism was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model.

Results: There were 1,471 adults aged 22-83 years included in this study (52.9% of men; mean [standard deviation] age 44.5 [13.0] years). After adjusting for control variables, BNP was positively and significantly associated with workplace absenteeism (incidence rate ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.83). Walking, standing, and sitting difficulties individually explained between 24 and 43% of this association.

Conclusions: Workplace interventions focusing on the management of BNP and overcoming difficulties in walking, standing, and sitting, potentially utilizing exercise, therapy, and ergonomic interventions, may prevent absenteeism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-07084-9DOI Listing
January 2022

No significant association between COVID-19 diagnosis and the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder? A retrospective cohort study conducted in Germany.

J Psychiatr Res 2022 Jan 7;147:79-84. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Epidemiology, IQVIA, Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

Little is known about the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mental health compared with other respiratory infections. Thus, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with a significant increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder in patients followed in general practices in Germany compared with acute upper respiratory infection diagnosis. This study included all patients diagnosed with symptomatic or asymptomatic COVID-19 for the first time in 1198 general practices in Germany between March 2020 and May 2021. Patients diagnosed with acute upper respiratory infection were matched to those with COVID-19 using propensity scores based on sex, age, index month, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. The index date corresponded to the date on which either COVID-19 or acute upper respiratory infection was diagnosed. Differences in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder between the COVID-19 and the acute upper respiratory infection group were studied using conditional Poisson regression models. This study included 56,350 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and 56,350 patients diagnosed with acute upper respiratory infection (52.3% women; mean [SD] age 43.6 [19.2] years). The incidence of depression (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.95-1.10) and anxiety disorder (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.83-1.07) was not significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than in the upper respiratory infection group. Compared with acute upper respiratory infection diagnosis, COVID-19 diagnosis was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder in patients treated in general practices in Germany.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8741171PMC
January 2022

Effects of exogenous melatonin supplementation on health outcomes: An umbrella review of meta-analyses based on randomized controlled trials.

Pharmacol Res 2022 Jan 6;176:106052. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Cambridge Centre for Health, Performance, and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Various melatonin supplementations have been developed to improve health outcomes in various clinical conditions. Thus, we sought to evaluate and summarize the effect of melatonin treatments in clinical settings for health outcomes. We searched PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to 4 February 2021. We included meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials investigating the melatonin intervention for any health outcome. Based on the different effect sizes of each meta-analysis, we calculated random models' standardized mean differences or risk ratios. We observed robust evidence supported by statistical significance with non-considerable heterogeneity between studies for sleep-related problems, cancer, surgical patients, and pregnant women. Patients with sleep disorder, sleep onset latency (SMD 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.56, P < 0.01) were significantly improved whereas no clear evidence was shown with sleep efficiency (1.10, 95% CI: -0.26 to 2.45). The first analgesic requirement time (SMD 5.81, 95% CI: 2.57-9.05, P < 0.001) of surgical patients was distinctly improved. Female patients under artificial reproductive technologies had significant increase in the top-quality embryos (SMD 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27 - 0.79, P < 0.001), but no statistically clear evidence was found in the live birth rate (SMD 1.20, 95% CI: 0.83 - 1.72). Survival at one year (RR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.28 - 2.83, P < 0.005) significantly increased with cancer patients. Research on melatonin interventions to treat clinical symptoms and sleep problems among diverse health conditions was identified and provided considerable evidence. Future well-designed randomized clinical trials of high quality and subgroup quantitative analyses are essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.106052DOI Listing
January 2022

Sleep problems and subjective cognitive complaints among middle-aged and older adults in 45 low- and middle-income countries.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, 08830, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Currently, a small body of evidence suggests that sleep problems are positively associated with subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). However, no studies on this topic exist from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association between sleep problems and SCC in a large sample of middle-age and older adults from 45 LMICs.

Methods: Cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative, community-based data were analyzed from the World Health Survey. Sleep problems (such as difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning) in the last 30 days were self-reported. Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used to create a SCC scale ranging from 0 (No SCC) to 100 (worse SCC). Multivariable linear regression was conducted to explore the association between sleep problems (exposure) and SCC (outcome).

Results: Data on 60,228 adults aged ≥ 50 years were analyzed [mean (SD) age 61.4 (9.9) years; 53.9% females]. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those without sleep problems, the mean SCC score for the multivariable model was 13.32 (95% CI 12.01, 14.63), 19.46 (95% CI 17.95, 20.98), 24.17 (95% CI 22.02, 26.33), and 31.39 (95% CI 28.13, 34.65) points higher for mild, moderate, severe, and extreme sleep problems, respectively. Similar results were found for analyses stratified by age and country-income level.

Conclusion: Sleep problems were positively associated in a dose-response manner with SCC among middle-aged and older adults in multiple LMICs. Addressing sleep problems may aid in the prevention of SCC and ultimately dementia, pending future longitudinal research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-021-02052-1DOI Listing
January 2022

Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass Are Associated With Incident Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 16;12:804560. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

National Research Council, Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch, Padova, Italy.

Recent literature suggests that sarcopenia, often represented by low lower limbs muscle mass and strength, can be considered a potential risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the available literature is still limited. We therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia is associated with a higher risk of radiographic (ROA) and symptomatic knee OA (SxOA) in a large cohort of North American people in the context of the OA initiative. Sarcopenia at baseline was diagnosed in case of low skeletal muscle mass (i.e., lower skeletal mass index) and poor performance in the chair stands test. The outcomes of interest for this study included ROA (radiographical osteoarthritis) if a knee developed a Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2 at follow-up, and SxOA (symptomatic osteoarthritis) defined as new onset of a combination of painful knee OA. Altogether, 2,492 older participants (mean age: 68.4 years, 61.4% females) were included. At baseline, sarcopenia was present in 6.1% of the population. No significant difference in ROA prevalence was observed between those with and without sarcopenia (p=0.76), whilst people with sarcopenia reported a significant higher prevalence of SxOA (p<0.0001). Using a logistic regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders at baseline and the diagnosis of sarcopenia during follow-up, sarcopenia was associated with a higher incidence of knee SxOA (odds ratio, OR=2.29; 95%CI [confidence interval]: 1.42-3.71; p=0.001), but not knee ROA (OR=1.48; 95%CI: 0.53-4.10; p=0.45). In conclusion, sarcopenia could be associated with a higher risk of negative knee OA outcomes, in particular symptomatic forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.804560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8716541PMC
December 2021

Loneliness and psychotic experiences among US university students: Findings from the Healthy Minds Study 2020.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Dec 26;308:114362. Epub 2021 Dec 26.

Suzanne Dworak Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Loneliness and psychotic experiences (PEs) are common in university students. Despite this, little information is available on the association between loneliness and PEs in this population. In the present study, we studied 30,529 individuals from the Fall semester cohort of the 2020 Healthy Minds Study, a cross-sectional, web-based survey examining mental health and related factors in undergraduate and graduate students aged 18 years or older. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between loneliness (exposure) and PEs (outcome). Loneliness was significantly associated with increased odds of any PEs (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.29-1.36), adjusting for age, gender identity, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and international student status. This relationship was consistent across the subtypes of PEs, i.e., delusions (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.29-1.36) and hallucinations (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.34), adjusting for the same covariates. We found that loneliness is consistently associated with PEs across different subtypes in a university population sample. Future studies may consider testing whether interventions to reduce loneliness among young adults and university students can have an impact on PEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114362DOI Listing
December 2021

A Case of Untreated Myeloid Sarcoma of the Pancreas Head Region: Diagnostic Process of AML Subtyping in an Autoptic Case.

Case Rep Pathol 2021 21;2021:7439148. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Human Pathology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

This study describes an autopsy case of pancreatic/peripancreatic myeloid sarcoma in a 70-year-old man, initially presenting with obstructive jaundice. Pathologically, diffuse infiltration of round cells containing atypical nuclei with marked cleavage was observed mainly in the pancreas head, peripancreatic lymph nodes, spleen, bilateral lung, and bone marrow. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for CD20, CD79a, CD3, CD5, c-kit, CD34, and TdT and positive for myeloperoxidase, CD33, CD68, and CD163. Flow cytometry of the peripheral blood showed underexpression of CD11c and aberrant expression of CD56 in the monocyte subset. The peripheral blood smear showed an increase in monocytes and atypia in neutrophils and monocytes, as well as enlarged platelets and polychromatic erythroblasts. Hence, it was suggested that the myeloid sarcoma was derived from the acute transformation of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary-mass-forming hematologic malignancy that is difficult to diagnose, especially when the initial presentation is a pancreatic mass. However, early diagnosis is important for appropriate therapy. Although bone marrow examination could not be performed because of the patients' severe condition, the pathological specimen obtained with autopsy helped subtype the patient's leukemia. The immunohistochemical features of this case merit attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7439148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8714389PMC
December 2021

Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years for 29 Cancer Groups From 2010 to 2019: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Dec 30. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq.

Importance: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden.

Objective: To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic Index (SDI) quintiles from 2010 to 2019.

Evidence Review: The GBD 2019 estimation methods were used to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019 and over the past decade. Estimates are also provided by quintiles of the SDI, a composite measure of educational attainment, income per capita, and total fertility rate for those younger than 25 years. Estimates include 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Findings: In 2019, there were an estimated 23.6 million (95% UI, 22.2-24.9 million) new cancer cases (17.2 million when excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 10.0 million (95% UI, 9.36-10.6 million) cancer deaths globally, with an estimated 250 million (235-264 million) DALYs due to cancer. Since 2010, these represented a 26.3% (95% UI, 20.3%-32.3%) increase in new cases, a 20.9% (95% UI, 14.2%-27.6%) increase in deaths, and a 16.0% (95% UI, 9.3%-22.8%) increase in DALYs. Among 22 groups of diseases and injuries in the GBD 2019 study, cancer was second only to cardiovascular diseases for the number of deaths, years of life lost, and DALYs globally in 2019. Cancer burden differed across SDI quintiles. The proportion of years lived with disability that contributed to DALYs increased with SDI, ranging from 1.4% (1.1%-1.8%) in the low SDI quintile to 5.7% (4.2%-7.1%) in the high SDI quintile. While the high SDI quintile had the highest number of new cases in 2019, the middle SDI quintile had the highest number of cancer deaths and DALYs. From 2010 to 2019, the largest percentage increase in the numbers of cases and deaths occurred in the low and low-middle SDI quintiles.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this systematic analysis suggest that the global burden of cancer is substantial and growing, with burden differing by SDI. These results provide comprehensive and comparable estimates that can potentially inform efforts toward equitable cancer control around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.6987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8719276PMC
December 2021

Factor V Leiden and the 10-year incidence of depression: A retrospective cohort study conducted in Germany.

J Psychiatr Res 2022 Feb 22;146:87-91. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Epidemiology, IQVIA, Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

There is limited literature on the long-term relationship between the diagnosis of factor V Leiden (FVL) and depression. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between FVL and the 10-year incidence of depression in Germany. Patients diagnosed with FVL for the first time in one of 1,274 general practices in Germany between 2000 and 2019 were included in this study (index date). Patients without FVL were matched (1:5) to those with FVL by sex, age, index year, and the average number of consultations per year. In individuals without FVL, index date corresponded to a randomly selected visit date between 2000 and 2019. The association between the diagnosis of FVL and the 10-year incidence of depression was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models. This study included 1,070 patients with and 5,350 patients without FVL (64.9% women; 46.0 [16.5] years). Ten years after the index date, 21.4% and 14.1% of individuals with and without FVL were diagnosed with depression, respectively (log-rank p-value<0.001). After adjusting for thromboembolic events, the Cox regression analysis further showed that FVL was associated with a significant increase in the incidence of depression (HR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.33-1.95). In this study conducted in Germany, FVL was identified as a long-term risk factor for depression. More research is needed to confirm or refute the present findings in other settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.12.045DOI Listing
February 2022

Clinical significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Dec 25;116:114-121. Epub 2021 Dec 25.

Centre for Health, Performance and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare, serious complication after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration that can involve various organ systems. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in patients with VITT.

Methods: We searched PubMed ePubs, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies published until April 28, 2021, involving patients with VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including laboratory measurements, were collected and compared.

Results: Four case series and three case reports involving 48 cases of VITT were included. Hepatosplenic thrombosis was present in 8 cases (17%). Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had lower platelet counts (13,000 vs. 29,500/μL, p=0.016) and higher D-dimer levels (140.0 vs. 57.3 times upper limit of normal range, p=0.028). Multiple-site thrombosis was also associated with hepatosplenic thrombosis (88% vs. 15%, p<0.001).

Conclusions: This is the first study comparing clinical profiles of patients with VITT according to the presence of hepatosplenic thrombosis. Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had more severe presentations with lower platelet counts, higher D-dimer levels, and a higher rate of multiple-site thrombosis. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish definitive evidence regarding the significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in VITT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.12.352DOI Listing
December 2021

Gender Differences in the Association Between Cataract and Mental Health in Adults With Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From the Spanish National Health Survey 2017.

Front Public Health 2021 7;9:769155. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, School of Medicine, Vision and Eye Research Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

This study aimed to explore gender differences in the associations between cataracts and self-reported depression and chronic anxiety in Spanish adults with diabetes. Cross-sectional data from the Spanish Health Survey 2017 were analyzed. Inclusion criterion was a positive response to the question "Have you ever been diagnosed with diabetes?" Diabetes, cataracts, depression and chronic anxiety were based on self-reported lifetime diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between cataracts and depression or anxiety among respondents with diabetes, stratifying by gender. Out of a total 23,089 respondents, 2,266 people self-reported suffering from diabetes (50.2% women; average age 69.7 ± 12.7 years; age range 15-98 years). In people with diabetes, the presence of cataracts was associated with significantly higher odds for depression (OR = 1.655; 95% CI = 1.295-2.115). Gender-stratified analyses showed that only women with cataracts were significantly associated with higher odds for depression (OR = 1.762; 95% CI = 1.307-2.374) and chronic anxiety (OR = 1.519; 95% CI = 1.067-2.163). Cataracts are a significant risk factor for depression and chronic anxiety in Spanish women with diabetes, but not in men. Women with both diabetes and cataracts require assessment for depression and chronic anxiety, and possibly earlier interventions in order to reduce the potential risk of further mental health complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.769155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8688691PMC
December 2021

The collaborative outcomes study on health and functioning during infection times in adults (COH-FIT-Adults): Design and methods of an international online survey targeting physical and mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Affect Disord 2022 02 19;299:393-407. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

University of Padua, Neurosciences Department, Padua, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed.

Methods: . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/regions, endorsed by national/international professional associations. COH-FIT is a multi-wave, on-line anonymous, cross-sectional survey [wave 1: 04/2020 until the end of the pandemic, 12 months waves 2/3 starting 6/24 months threreafter] for adults, adolescents (14-17), and children (6-13), utilizing non-probability/snowball and representative sampling. COH-FIT aims to identify non-modifiable/modifiable risk factors/treatment targets to inform prevention/intervention programs to improve social/health outcomes in the general population/vulnerable subgrous during/after COVID-19. In adults, co-primary outcomes are change from pre-COVID-19 to intra-COVID-19 in well-being (WHO-5) and a composite psychopathology P-Score. Key secondary outcomes are a P-extended score, global mental and physical health. Secondary outcomes include health-service utilization/functioning, treatment adherence, functioning, symptoms/behaviors/emotions, substance use, violence, among others.

Results: . Starting 04/26/2020, up to 14/07/2021 >151,000 people from 155 countries/territories/regions and six continents have participated. Representative samples of ≥1,000 adults have been collected in 15 countries. Overall, 43.0% had prior physical disorders, 16.3% had prior mental disorders, 26.5% were health care workers, 8.2% were aged ≥65 years, 19.3% were exposed to someone infected with COVID-19, 76.1% had been in quarantine, and 2.1% had been COVID 19-positive.

Limitations: . Cross-sectional survey, preponderance of non-representative participants.

Conclusions: . Results from COH-FIT will comprehensively quantify the impact of COVID-19, seeking to identify high-risk groups in need for acute and long-term intervention, and inform evidence-based health policies/strategies during this/future pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288233PMC
February 2022

Longitudinal association between perceived stress and depression among community-dwelling older adults: Findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

J Affect Disord 2022 02 21;299:457-462. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Mental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, Barcelona 08010, Spain.

Background: Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of stress on depression. However, the impact of perceived stress on late-life depression is understudied in large community samples. Thus, the present study used data from a population-based sample of Irish older adults to examine the longitudinal association between perceived stress and late-life depression.

Methods: Data from Wave 1 (2009-2011) and Wave 2 (2012-2013) of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. Depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), while the 4-item version of the Perceived Stress Scale was used for perceived stress. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between perceived stress (exposure) and depression (outcome).

Results: The analytical sample consisted of 5238 individuals aged ≥50 years [mean (SD) age 63.2 (9.1) years; 49.4% females] who did not have depression at Wave 1. The mean perceived stress score at baseline was much lower among those who did not develop depression at Wave 2 compared to those who did (3.85 vs. 6.33). Compared to those in the lowest quartile of levels of perceived stress at baseline, those in the highest quartile had 2.65 (95%CI=1.56-4.49) times higher risk for depression onset.

Limitations: Some baseline information including that of perceived stress could have changed within the two-year follow-up period.

Conclusions: Greater levels of perceived stress at baseline was associated with higher risk for depression onset at two-year follow-up among older adults in Ireland. Individualized interventions addressing stress may be beneficial in the prevention of depression among older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.12.041DOI Listing
February 2022

Association between autism spectrum disorder and inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Autism Res 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently diagnosed with co-occurring medical conditions including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To investigate the association, we conducted a systematic review registered in PROSPERO (ID:CRD42021236263) with a random-effects meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo (last search on January 25, 2021), and manually searched relevant publications. We included observational studies measuring the association between ASD and IBD. The primary outcome was the association (odds ratio, OR) between ASD and later development of IBD. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by quality, confounding adjustment, and study design. We performed meta-regression analyses and assessed heterogeneity, publication bias, and quality of studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Overall, we included six studies consisting of eight datasets, including over 11 million participants. We found that ASD was significantly associated with subsequent incident IBD (any IBD, OR = 1.66, 95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.25-2.21, p < 0.001; ulcerative colitis, OR = 1.91, 95%CI = 1.41-2.6, p < 0.001; Crohn's disease, OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.15-1.88, p = 0.002). ASD and IBD were also associated regardless of temporal sequence of diagnosis (any IBD, OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.28-1.93, p < 0.001; ulcerative colitis, OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.36-2.12, p < 0.001; Crohn's disease, OR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.12-1.69, p = 0.003). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the findings of the main analysis. Meta-regression did not identify any significant moderators. Publication bias was not detected. Quality was high in four datasets and medium in four. In conclusion, our findings highlight the need to screen for IBD in individuals with ASD, and future research should identify who, among those with ASD, has the highest risk of IBD, and elucidate the shared biological mechanisms between ASD and IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2656DOI Listing
December 2021

The Association of Objective and Subjective Vision Impairment With Self-Reported Time Spent in Sedentary Behaviors in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

J Phys Act Health 2021 Dec 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Background: There is a scarcity of studies on the relationship between visual impairment (VI) and time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association of objectively and subjectively measured VI with SB in adults aged ≥18 years across 6 LMICs.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Objective and subjective visual acuity were measured. Information on self-reported SB was also collected. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess associations with time spent in SB as the outcome.

Results: The sample consisted of 42,489 individuals (mean age = 43.8 [14.4] y; 50.1% females). Only severe objective VI (vs no VI) was significantly associated with ≥11 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) (odds ratio = 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-12.92). Increasing severity of subjective VI was associated with greater odds for ≥8 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) dose dependently.

Conclusions: The present study identified an association of both objectively and subjectively measured VI with time spent in SB in adults residing in LMICs, with subjectively measured VI being a stronger predictor of time spent in SB. Targeted interventions to decrease SB especially in those who perceive themselves to have VI are needed in LMICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2021-0302DOI Listing
December 2021

Body Mass Index and Mild Cognitive Impairment Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults from Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Dec 10. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr.Antoni Pujadas, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The effect of weight modification on future dementia risk is currently a subject of debate and may be modified by age.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) status with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (a preclinical stage of dementia) in middle-aged and older adults residing in six low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative data.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) were analyzed. MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. BMI (kg/m2) was based on measured weight and height and categorized as: underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30.0). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations.

Results: Data on 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities were analyzed [mean (SD) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 51.7% females]. Among those aged 50-64 years, compared to normal weight, underweight (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.14-1.81), overweight (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.002-1.37), and obesity (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.09-1.94) were all significantly associated with higher odds for MCI. In those aged ≥65 years, underweight (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54-0.95) and overweight (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.55-0.94) were associated with significantly lower odds for MCI, while obesity was not significantly associated with MCI.

Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the association between BMI and MCI is likely moderated by age. Future longitudinal studies are required to confirm or refute the present findings before recommendations for policy and practice can be made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-215345DOI Listing
December 2021

Association between osteoarthritis and the incidence of Parkinson's disease in the United Kingdom.

Clin Park Relat Disord 2021 24;5:100120. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Epidemiology, IQVIA, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Little is known on the potential relationship between osteoarthritis and Parkinson's disease.

Objective: Therefore, the objective of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between osteoarthritis and the incidence of Parkinson's disease in patients followed up for up to 10 years in general practices in the United Kingdom.

Methods: This study included patients diagnosed for the first time with osteoarthritis in one of 256 general practices in the United Kingdom between 2000 and 2016 (index date). Patients without osteoarthritis were matched (1:1) to those with osteoarthritis using propensity scores based on sex, age and index year. In individuals without osteoarthritis, index date corresponded to a randomly selected visit date. The outcome of this study was the 10-year cumulative incidence of Parkinson's disease in patients with and without osteoarthritis. Cox regression analyses were adjusted for common comorbidities.

Results: This study included 260,224 patients (62.0% women; mean [SD] age 66.4 [12.7] years). The 10-year cumulative incidence of Parkinson's disease was 1.2% in patients with osteoarthritis and 0.6% in their counterparts without osteoarthritis (log-rank p-value < 0.001). The adjusted Cox regression model further showed a positive and significant association between osteoarthritis and the incidence of Parkinson's disease (HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.63-2.02). Similar results were obtained in all sex and age subgroups.

Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort study conducted in the United Kingdom, there was a positive association between osteoarthritis and the incidence of Parkinson's disease. More research is warranted to confirm or refute these findings in other settings and countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prdoa.2021.100120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8637132PMC
November 2021

COVID-19 Infection and Psychotic Experiences: Findings From the Healthy Minds Study 2020.

Biol Psychiatry Glob Open Sci 2021 Dec 28;1(4):310-316. Epub 2021 May 28.

Fordham University, New York, New York.

Background: Clinical reports from across the world have documented psychosis in the context of COVID-19 infection; however, there has yet to be a large-scale epidemiological study to confirm this association.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Healthy Minds Study ( = 15,935; conducted between September and December 2020), which was administered online to students attending one of 28 colleges in the United States. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the associations between COVID-19 infection/severity and psychotic experiences over the past 12 months, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and international student status as well as anxiety and depression.

Results: More than one fifth of the analytic sample reported COVID-19 infection, and about one in six students with COVID-19 infection reported psychotic experiences over the past 12 months. In weighted multivariable logistic regression models, COVID-19 infection was associated with significantly greater odds of having psychotic experiences (adjusted odds ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.48). Compared with being asymptomatic, having moderate (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.31) or severe (adjusted odds ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.11-2.77) symptoms was associated with significantly greater odds of having psychotic experiences. These associations became statistically nonsignificant when adjusting for depression and anxiety. Hospitalization was not significantly associated with psychotic experiences among students with COVID-19 infection.

Conclusions: Psychotic experiences are associated with COVID-19 infections, though much of the association is attenuated when accounting for anxiety and depression. Findings based on this sample of college students should be replicated outside of the college context to determine whether psychosis is a neuropsychiatric symptom during and after COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8639180PMC
December 2021

Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of myocarditis associated with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

J Med Virol 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Cambridge Centre for Health, Performance, and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of myocarditis after administration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. Nine case series and 15 case reports (74 patients) of myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. We analyzed clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and outcomes. In addition, we performed a pooled analysis and investigated risk factors leading to admission to the intensive care unit and recovery with conservative care. Most patients were male (94.6%), and the median age (range) was 17.6 (14-70) years. Patients who received the BNT162b2 (n = 58, 78.4%) vaccine presented fewer systemic symptoms and left ventricular dysfunction than mRNA-1273 recipients. Although patients under 20 years experienced more fever and myalgia, they had better ejection fraction and less prominent myocardial inflammation in magnetic resonance imaging than older patients. The clinical course of all patients was favorable without mortality, and one-third of patients resolved with conservative care alone. Risk factor analyses revealed that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms required intensive care (odds ratio: 20.3, 95% confidence interval 1.90-217, p = 0.013). The risk of fatality in myocarditis subjected to mRNA vaccination seems to be low. However, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms received more intensive care, and a significant proportion of patients recovered with conservative management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27501DOI Listing
December 2021

Anxiety symptoms among informal caregivers in 47 low- and middle-income countries: A cross-sectional analysis of community-based surveys.

J Affect Disord 2022 02 14;298(Pt A):532-539. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona 08830, Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg, Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain.

Background: There are no multi-country studies on the association between informal caregiving and anxiety from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated this relationship in a large predominantly nationally representative sample from 47 LMICs.

Methods: Cross sectional data from the World Health Survey were analyzed. Anxiety symptoms referred to severe or extreme problems with worries or anxiety in the past 30 days. Information on caregiving in the past 12 months was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, household size, employment, disability, and country was conducted. Data on 237,952 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 50.8% female] were analyzed.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, caregiving was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.65). Greater number of caregiving activities was associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms dose-dependently, with the OR (95%CI) for engagement in 5 activities (vs. no caregiving) being 2.19 (1.86-2.58).

Conclusion: Caregiving is associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms among adults in LMICs. Given the increasing importance of informal caregivers in long-term care provision and the fact that good health of caregivers is vital to sustain this system, interventions to address mental health of caregivers in LMICs are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.11.029DOI Listing
February 2022

Multimorbidity increases the risk for sarcopenia onset: Longitudinal analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Dec 9;156:111624. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona 08830, Spain; ICREA, Pg, Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that multimorbidity is associated with sarcopenia. However, to date, this association has not been extensively investigated longitudinally. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to explore the association between multimorbidity at baseline and sarcopenia onset over 12 years of follow-up in a large representative sample of the English older adult population.

Methods: Representative data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. Multimorbidity at baseline was defined as ≥2 medical conditions, of 17 conditions included. Participants were considered to have sarcopenia if they had low handgrip strength and skeletal muscle mass (i.e., lower skeletal mass index) at waves 4, 6, 8. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess prospective associations between multimorbidity at baseline and sarcopenia at follow-up.

Results: 2873 older participants (mean age: 69.1 years, 54% females) who did not have sarcopenia at baseline were included. The prevalence of multimorbidity at baseline was 57.3%. Over twelve years of follow-up, 394 participants (=13.7% of the initial population) became sarcopenic. The presence of multimorbidity at baseline was associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia during follow-up (OR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.61-2.62) in the univariable analysis, and even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders (OR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.61).

Conclusions: In this large representative sample of older adults from the UK, multimorbidity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia during twelve-year follow-up. It may be prudent to target those with multimorbidity to aid in the prevention of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111624DOI Listing
December 2021

Impact of data extraction errors in meta-analyses on the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers: an umbrella review.

Psychol Med 2021 Nov 9:1-14. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Lab, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies.

Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof.

Results: Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1β, are associated with depression.

Conclusions: These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721003767DOI Listing
November 2021

Cardiovascular events and safety outcomes associated with remdesivir using a World Health Organization international pharmacovigilance database.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Oct 31. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13168DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparative safety of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines to influenza vaccines: A pharmacovigilance analysis using WHO international database.

J Med Virol 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Centre for Health, Performance, and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8662238PMC
October 2021

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and COVID-19 Susceptibility and Outcomes: a Korean Nationwide Cohort.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Oct 25;36(41):e291. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Data Science, Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes.

Methods: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death.

Results: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort.

Conclusion: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8546310PMC
October 2021

Body mass index categories and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥ 50 years from low and middle income countries.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, 08830, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Body weight may be a risk factor for anxiety; however, there is a scarcity of studies on this association in older adults especially from low and middle income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥ 50 years from 6 LMICs.

Methods: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The BMI was based on measured weight and height and was categorized as: < 18.5 kg/m (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m (normal weight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m (overweight), 30.0-34.9 kg/m (obesity class I), 35.0-39.9 kg/m (obesity class II), and ≥ 40 kg/m (obesity class III). Anxiety symptoms referred to severe/extreme problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted.

Results: Data on 34,129 individuals aged ≥ 50 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD 16.0 years; 52.1% female) were analyzed. Overall, compared to normal weight, only underweight was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.26-1.95). Obesity class III (vs. normal weight) was associated with significantly increased odds for anxiety symptoms (OR = 4.15; 95%CI = 1.49-11.59) only among males.

Conclusion: In this large representative sample of older adults from LMICs, underweight was associated with anxiety symptoms in males and females. Class III obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only in males. Future studies to shed light on the reason why severe obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only among males in LMICs are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-021-01954-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Association between diabetes and edentulism and their joint effects on health status in 40 low and middle-income countries.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 10;9(1)

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain.

Introduction: Previous studies on the diabetes-edentulism relationship have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes and edentulism, and their joint effects on health status in adults from 40 low and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Research Design And Methods: Data from the World Health Survey were used for this cross-sectional study (2002-2004). Forty countries (18 low-income and 22 middle-income countries) were included. Edentulism and diabetes were assessed using yes-no questions based on self-report. Health status was assessed in seven different domains (self-care, pain/discomfort, cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, affect, and perceived stress). The association between diabetes (exposure) and edentulism (outcome) was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models, while their joint effects on health status were assessed using multivariable linear regression models.

Results: There were 175 814 adults aged ≥18 years included in this study (mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 49.3% men). Overall, the prevalence of edentulism was 6.0% and diabetes was 2.9%. There was a positive and significant association between diabetes and edentulism in the overall sample (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.66), in low-income countries (OR=1.78, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.62) and in middle-income countries (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.47). In addition, people with comorbid diabetes and edentulism had worse health status in the domains of cognition, sleep/energy, and perceived stress, compared with those with diabetes only.

Conclusions: Diabetes was positively associated with edentulism in this sample of more than 175 000 individuals living in LMICs. Providing oral care to individuals with diabetes may potentially lead to a reduction in their risk of edentulism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8499266PMC
October 2021

Physical and mental health impact of COVID-19 on children, adolescents, and their families: The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times - Children and Adolescents (COH-FIT-C&A).

J Affect Disord 2022 02 2;299:367-376. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

University of Padua, Neurosciences Department, Padua, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered daily routines and family functioning, led to closing schools, and dramatically limited social interactions worldwide. Measuring its impact on mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents is crucial.

Methods: The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT - www.coh-fit.com) is an on-line anonymous survey, available in 30 languages, involving >230 investigators from 49 countries supported by national/international professional associations. COH-FIT has thee waves (until the pandemic is declared over by the WHO, and 6-18 months plus 24-36 months after its end). In addition to adults, COH-FIT also includes adolescents (age 14-17 years), and children (age 6-13 years), recruited via non-probability/snowball and representative sampling and assessed via self-rating and parental rating. Non-modifiable/modifiable risk factors/treatment targets to inform prevention/intervention programs to promote health and prevent mental and physical illness in children and adolescents will be generated by COH-FIT. Co-primary outcomes are changes in well-being (WHO-5) and a composite psychopathology P-Score. Multiple behavioral, family, coping strategy and service utilization factors are also assessed, including functioning and quality of life.

Results: Up to June 2021, over 13,000 children and adolescents from 59 countries have participated in the COH-FIT project, with representative samples from eleven countries.

Limitations: Cross-sectional and anonymous design.

Conclusions: Evidence generated by COH-FIT will provide an international estimate of the COVID-19 effect on children's, adolescents' and families', mental and physical health, well-being, functioning and quality of life, informing the formulation of present and future evidence-based interventions and policies to minimize adverse effects of the present and future pandemics on youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.09.090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486586PMC
February 2022
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