Publications by authors named "Ahmet Varol"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cross-linking of T cell to B cell lymphoma by the T cell bispecific antibody CD20-TCB induces IFNγ/CXCL10-dependent peripheral T cell recruitment in humanized murine model.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(1):e0241091. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Roche Innovation Center Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are a highly heterogeneous subtype of Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), accounting for about 25% of NHL. Despite an increased progression-free survival upon therapy, 40-50% of patients develop relapse/refractory disease, therefore there remains an important medical need. T cell recruiting therapies, such as the CD20xCD3 T cell bi-specific antibody CD20-TCB (RG6026 or glofitamab), represent a novel approach to target all stages of DLBCL, especially those that fail to respond to multiple lines of treatment. We aimed for a better understanding of the molecular features related to the mode of action (MoA) of CD20-TCB in inducing Target/T cell synapse formation and human T cell recruitment to the tumor. To directly evaluate the correlation between synapse, cytokine production and anti-tumor efficacy using CD20-TCB, we developed an innovative preclinical human DLBCL in vivo model that allowed tracking in vivo human T cell dynamics by multiphoton intravital microscopy (MP-IVM). By ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we revealed that CD20-TCB is inducing strong and stable synapses between human T cell and tumor cells, which are dependent on the dose of CD20-TCB and on LFA-1 activity but not on FAS-L. Moreover, despite CD20-TCB being a large molecule (194.342 kDa), we observed that intra-tumor CD20-TCB-mediated human T cell-tumor cell synapses occur within 1 hour upon CD20-TCB administration. These tight interactions, observed for at least 72 hours post TCB administration, result in tumor cell cytotoxicity, resident T cell proliferation and peripheral blood T cell recruitment into tumor. By blocking the IFNγ-CXCL10 axis, the recruitment of peripheral T cells was abrogated, partially affecting the efficacy of CD20-TCB treatment which rely only on resident T cell proliferation. Altogether these data reveal that CD20-TCB's anti-tumor activity relies on a triple effect: i) fast formation of stable T cell-tumor cell synapses which induce tumor cytotoxicity and cytokine production, ii) resident T cell proliferation and iii) recruitment of fresh peripheral T cells to the tumor core to allow a positive enhancement of the anti-tumor effect.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241091PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787458PMC
April 2021

Oral ferroportin inhibitor ameliorates ineffective erythropoiesis in a model of β-thalassemia.

J Clin Invest 2019 12 9;130(1):491-506. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

β-Thalassemia is a genetic anemia caused by partial or complete loss of β-globin synthesis, leading to ineffective erythropoiesis and RBCs with a short life span. Currently, there is no efficacious oral medication modifying anemia for patients with β-thalassemia. The inappropriately low levels of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin enable excessive iron absorption by ferroportin, the unique cellular iron exporter in mammals, leading to organ iron overload and associated morbidities. Correction of unbalanced iron absorption and recycling by induction of hepcidin synthesis or treatment with hepcidin mimetics ameliorates β-thalassemia. However, hepcidin modulation or replacement strategies currently in clinical development all require parenteral drug administration. We identified oral ferroportin inhibitors by screening a library of small molecular weight compounds for modulators of ferroportin internalization. Restricting iron availability by VIT-2763, the first clinical stage oral ferroportin inhibitor, ameliorated anemia and the dysregulated iron homeostasis in the Hbbth3/+ mouse model of β-thalassemia intermedia. VIT-2763 not only improved erythropoiesis but also corrected the proportions of myeloid precursors in spleens of Hbbth3/+ mice. VIT-2763 is currently being developed as an oral drug targeting ferroportin for the treatment of β-thalassemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI129382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934209PMC
December 2019

The role of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 in prion pathogenesis.

PLoS Pathog 2014 Dec 11;10(12):e1004531. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263757PMC
December 2014