Publications by authors named "Ahmet Alanay"

128 Publications

Evaluation of Global Alignment and Proportion Score in an Independent Database.

Spine J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Barnes-Jewish Institute of Health, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Background Context: Sagittal spinopelvic alignment has been associated with patient-reported outcome measures and mechanical complication rates. Recently, it was claimed that linear numerical values of pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis measurements may be misleading for patients that have different magnitudes of pelvic incidence. The use of "relative" measurements embedded in a weighted scoring of Global Alignment and Proportion (GAP) was proposed.

Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the GAP score in an independent database.

Study Design/setting: Retrospective Cohort Study PATIENT SAMPLE: Adult spinal deformity patients who underwent ≥7 levels posterior fusion to the pelvis between 2004 to 2014 were included.

Outcome Measures: Mechanical Complication Rates METHODS: Demographic, clinical, surgical and radiographic patient characteristics were recorded. Cochran-Armitage tests were used to compare mechanical complication rates in GAP categories. Uni and multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to obtain crude and adjusted Odds Ratios, of predictor (GAP categories) and the outcome (mechanical complication), and Risk Ratios were calculated. The diagnostic performance of the GAP score was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy in predicting mechanical complications.

Results: 322 patients (285F, 37M) with a mean age of 58.2±9.6 were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 69.7 months (range 24 to 177). Mechanical complications occurred in 52.2% of the patients. Mechanical complication rates in proportioned (GAP-P), moderately (GAP-MD) and severely disproportioned (GAP-SD) patients were 21.8%, 55.1% and 70.4%, respectively. AUC for the GAP score, at 2 years, was 0.682 (95% CI, 0.624 to 0.741, p<0.001). AUC at minimum 5 years follow-up was similar at 0.708, while AUC at minimum 7- and 12-years follow-up were 78.5 and 90.7, respectively. Having a postoperative spinopelvic alignment of GAP-MD and GAP-SD resulted in 2.5 and 3.2 folds of relative risk in incurring a mechanical complication when compared to having a proportioned spinopelvic state, respectively.

Conclusions: This study reports an association between the GAP Score and mechanical complications in an independent database. Increased association was noted as the years of follow-up increased. Aiming to achieve proportionate GAP Score postoperatively seems to be a viable option as lower GAP scores were associated with lower rates of mechanical complications, and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.04.004DOI Listing
April 2021

The dynamics of satisfaction in surgical and non-surgical adult spinal deformity patients.

Eur Spine J 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Spine Unit, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: For adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients receiving operative (op) and non-operative (non-op) treatment, the relationship between HRQoL measures, complications and self-reported satisfaction remains unclear. The objective of this analysis is to study nonlinear association dynamics between ASD patient satisfaction, HRQoL, and complications over a two-year follow-up period.

Methods: From a prospective multicenter international adult spinal deformity database, all patients with 2-year follow-up data on satisfaction (21st question of SRS-22r) were identified and included. A total of 12 LOESS (local polynomial fit) regressions were performed between patient satisfaction (SRS22 item 21) and HRQoL measures (ODI, SF36PCS and SRS22 subtotal) interacting with surgery at baseline, 6 months and 1 and 2 years of follow-up.

Results: A total of 856 patients (527 op and 329 non-op) were included. At baseline, satisfaction was lower for patients scheduled for surgery even when HRQL was similar to those elected for conservative treatment. The nonlinear correlations showed that for similar PROMs, op patients reached higher satisfaction levels during follow-up, especially at six months. In fact, at six months operated patients with a deterioration of their initial PROMs had some improvement in their satisfaction, which could not be further observed at the end of follow-up.

Conclusions: Satisfaction does not correlate well with other PROMs, and it might be subject to other external factors not directly related to treatment. Even if patient satisfaction is important in evaluating well-being and patient's experience with medical care, it should not be considered as an isolated proxy to measure quality of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06816-1DOI Listing
March 2021

How frequent should the radiographic examination be to monitor magnetically controlled growing rods? A retrospective look two to seven years postoperatively.

Eur Spine J 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University School of Medicine, Icerenkoy, Kayisdagi Cd. No:32, Atasehir, 34684, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) allow more frequent outpatient lengthenings to better mimic the physiological growth. The assessment of distractions with radiographs raised concerns regarding ionizing radiation exposure in growing children. The aim was to assess the necessity of radiographs after every lengthening of MCGR.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 30 consecutive patients (19F, 11 M) treated in a single institution between 2011 and 2017. Planned radiographs were taken based on a protocol, updated over the years to involve less frequent acquisitions. Unplanned radiographs were obtained after a patient complaint or a significant clinical examination finding. Outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative radiographic measurements, and complications such as proximal and distal junctional kyphosis and failure, rod or actuator breakage, collapse of previously achieved height or failure to lengthen and worsening of deformity.

Results: Mean age at surgery was 7.5 (4-11) years. Mean follow-up was 45 (24-84) months. Mean number of lengthenings and radiographs per patient were 14.4 (8-23), and 13.2 (5-46), respectively. Nine patients (30%) experienced a total of 13 mechanical complications. Almost all complications were detected in unplanned radiographs. The probability of detecting a mechanical complication was significantly lower (p < 0.00001) in planned radiographs.

Conclusions: Radiographs taken after routine lengthenings of MCGR are not likely to reveal any significant finding, since only 0.9% of planned radiographs displayed a mechanical complication. Exposing growing children to radiation with an intention of checking the MCGR device after every lengthening could not be justified. Obtaining post-lengthening radiographs with a decreased frequency and after a significant complaint or clinical finding may be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06752-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Intraoperative neuromonitoring practice patterns in spinal deformity surgery: a global survey of the Scoliosis Research Society.

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 23;9(2):315-325. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Although multimodal IONM has reached a widespread use, several unresolved issues have remained in clinical practice. The aim was to determine differences in approaches to form a basis for taking actions to improve patient safety globally.

Methods: A survey comprising 19 questions in four sections (demographics, setup, routine practices and reaction to alerts) was distributed to the membership of the SRS.

Results: Of the estimated 1300 members, 205 (~ 15%) completed the survey. Respondent demographics reflected SRS member distribution. Most of the respondents had > 10 years of experience. TcMEP and SSEP were available to > 95%. Less than 5% reported that a MD/PhD with neurophysiology background routinely examines patients preoperatively, while 19% would consult if requested. After an uneventful case, 36% reported that they would decrease sedation and check motor function if the patient was to be transferred to ICU intubated. Reactions to dropped signals that recovered or did not fully recover varied between attempting the same correction to aborting the surgery with no rods and returning another day, with or without implant removal. After a decrease of signals, 85.7% use steroids of varied doses. Of the respondents, 53.7% reported using the consensus-created checklist by Vitale et al. Approximately, 14% reported never using the wake-up test while others use it for various conditions.

Conclusion: The responses of 205 experienced SRS members from different regions of the world showed that surgeons had different approaches in their routine IONM practices and in the handling of alerts. This survey indicates the need for additional studies to identify best practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00246-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Prediction of satisfaction after correction surgery for adult spinal deformity: differences between younger and older patients.

Eur Spine J 2020 12 1;29(12):3051-3062. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Spine Surgery Unit, Bordeaux University Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Achieving an adequate level of patient's satisfaction with results is one of the goals of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. However, it is unclear whether the same factors affect satisfaction in all patient populations. Patients' age influences the postoperative course and prevalence of complications after ASD surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors predicting satisfaction 2 years after ASD surgery in younger and older patients.

Methods: A total of 119 patients under 40 years old, 155 patients 40 to 65 years old, and 148 patients over 65 years old at surgery who were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery were included. Multivariate analysis was used to determine independent related factors with maximum AUC for satisfaction 2 years after surgery in each group. A propensity-matched cohort under equivalent demographic and clinical characteristics was used to confirm the results.

Results: Logistic regression analyses revealed satisfaction among the under-40 group corresponded to prior spine surgery, complications, and self-image. That among the 40-to-65 group corresponded to neurologic complication, revision surgery, pain, and sagittal vertical axis restoration. Among the over-65 group satisfaction correlated with revision surgery, standing ability, and lumbar lordosis index restoration. Propensity score matching confirmed that sagittal alignment correction led to substantial satisfaction.

Conclusions: In younger patients, avoiding complications and improving patients' self-image were essential for substantial satisfaction levels. In older patients, revision, standing ability, as well as sagittal spinopelvic alignment restoration, were the key factors. Surgeons should consider the differences in goals of each patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06611-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Thoracoscopic Vertebral Body Tethering for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Follow-up Curve Behavior According to Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Nov;45(22):E1483-E1492

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

Objective: To report the follow-up curve behaviors in different Sanders staging groups.

Summary Of Background Data: Vertebral body tethering (VBT) is a growth modulation technique that allows gradual spontaneous follow-up curve correction as the patient grows. There is a lack of scientific evidence regarding appropriate patient selection and timing of implantation.

Methods: Patients were grouped into five as: Sanders 1, 2, 3, 4-5, and 6-7. Data were collected preoperatively, at the day before discharge, and at each follow-up. Outcome measures were pulmonary and mechanical complications, readmission, and reoperation rates. Demographic, perioperative, clinical, radiographic, and complication data were compared using Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact tests for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis tests for the continuous variables.

Results: Thirty-one (29 F, 2 M) consecutive patients with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up were included. The mean age at surgery was 12.1 (10-14). The mean follow-up was 27.1 (12-62) months. The mean preoperative main thoracic curve magnitude was 47° ± 7.6°. For all curves, preoperative and first erect curve magnitudes, bending flexibility, and operative correction percentages were similar between groups (for all comparisons, P > 0.05). The median height gained during follow-up was different between groups (P < 0.001), which was reflected into median curve correction during follow-up. Total curve correction percentage was different between groups (P = 0.009). Four (12.9%) patients had pulmonary and six (19.4%) had mechanical complications. One (3.2%) patient required readmission and two (6.5%) required reoperation. Occurrence of pulmonary complications was similar in Sanders groups (P = 0.804), while mechanical complications and overcorrection was significantly higher in Sanders 2 patients (P = 0.002 and P = 0.018).

Conclusion: Follow-up curve behavior after VBT is different in patients having different Sanders stages. Sanders 2 patients experienced more overcorrection, thus timing and/or correction should be adjusted, since Sanders 3, 4, and 5 patients displayed a lesser risk of mechanical complications.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003643DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical Performance and Concurrent Validity of the Adult Spinal Deformity Surgical Decision-making Score.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Jul;45(14):E847-E855

Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Spine Unit 1, Bordeaux University Hospital, France.

Study Design: Multicenter, retrospective study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the performance and concurrent validity of the adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making (ASD-SDM) score compared to decision-making factors in the ASD population.

Summary Of Background Data: The ASD-SDM score, which has been recently proposed, is a scoring system to guide the selection of treatment modality for the ASD population. To secure the justification for its clinical use, it is necessary to verify its clinical performance and concurrent validity.

Methods: A multicenter prospective ASD database was retrospectively reviewed. The data were analyzed separately in younger (≤40 years) and older (≥41 years) age groups. The discriminating capacity of the ASD-SDM score in cases who selected surgical and nonsurgical management was compared using area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC). Concurrent validity was examined using Spearman correlation coefficients, comparing factors that are reported to be associated with the decision-making process for ASD, including baseline symptomatology, health-related quality of life measures, and the severity of radiographic spinal deformity.

Results: There were 338 patients (mean age: 26.6 years; 80.8% female; 129 surgical and 209 nonsurgical) in the younger age group and 750 patients (mean age: 63.5 years; 84.3% female; 410 surgical and 340 nonsurgical) in the older age group. In both younger and older patients, the ASD-SDM score showed a significantly higher performance for discriminating the surgical and nonsurgical cases (AUROC: 0.767, standard error [SE]: 0.026, P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.712-0.813; AUROC: 0.781, SE: 0.017, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.747-0.812, respectively) compared to the decision-making factors analyzed. In addition, the ASD-SDM showed significant correlations with multiple decision-making factors.

Conclusion: The ASD-SDM score alone can effectively grade the indication for surgical management whilst considering multiple decision-making factors.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003434DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy level on lordosis distribution and shape.

Eur Spine J 2020 06 23;29(6):1388-1396. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Spine Surgery Unit, Pellegrin University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Little is known about the qualitative results (postoperative upper/lower lumbar arches distribution and lumbar apex or inflection point positioning) of lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomies (L-PSO) depending on the level of L-PSO.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of adult deformity patients undergoing single-level L-PSO. We analyzed several variables in preoperative and postoperative sagittal radiographs: L-PSO level, Roussouly classification (R-type), inflection point (InfP), lumbar apex (LApex), spinopelvic parameters, lordosis distribution index (LDI = L4-S1/L1-S1), and number of levels in the lordosis (NVL). Comparisons between PSO levels were performed to determine lordosis distribution and sagittal shape using ANOVA test and Chi-squared statistics.

Results: A total of 126 patients were included in this study. L5-PSO mainly increased the lower lumbar arch, thereby increasing LDI. L4 increased upper/lower arches similarly. PSOs at and above L3 increased the upper lumbar arch, thereby decreasing LDI (P < 0.001). L4-PSO added 1 vertebra into the lordosis (NVL =  + 1.2 ± 2.2). PSOs above L3 added 2 vertebrae into the lordosis (NVL =  + 2.3 ± 1.4). Overall P = 0.007. PSOs above L4 shifted the LApex cranially in 70% of the cases (mean 1.12 levels) and the InfP in 85% of the cases (mean 2.4 levels). L5-PSO shifted the LApex caudally in 70% of the cases (mean - 1.1 levels) and the InfP in 50% of the cases (mean - 1.6 levels). Overall P < 0.006. The L-PSO level was not associated with a specific Roussouly-type P > 0.05.

Conclusions: The level of L-PSO influenced upper/lower lumbar arches distribution, and lumbar apex and inflection point positioning. The correct level should be chosen based on the individual assessment of each patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06421-8DOI Listing
June 2020

The effect of increasing body mass index on the pain and function of patients with adult spinal deformity.

J Spine Surg 2019 Dec;5(4):535-540

L'Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Both adult spinal deformity (ASD) and obesity are growing concerns internationally. This study therefore aims to determine the effect of increasing body mass index (BMI) on the pain and function of patients with ASD.

Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a multicentre European database was undertaken. Initially a univariate analysis was performed on the effect of BMI on the initial presentation of functional scores in patients with ASD. The functional scores included the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) back and leg score, Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) back score, SRS22 total score, Short Form 36 (SF-36) [general health, physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS)] and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score (including all domains). Subsequently a multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, comorbidities, employment status, smoking status and radiological parameters [coronal cobb, coronal balance, sagittal balance, global tilt, and pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI - LL) mismatch] was performed.

Results: A total of 1,004 patients were included in this study (166 male, 838 female). On univariate analysis a statistically significant (P<0.05) moderate correlation between NRS leg pain, ODI (walking, standing, sex life, social life and total score), SF-36 (physical component), sagittal balance, global tilt and age were recognised (P<0.05). A statistically significant low correlation was identified for all other outcomes, except coronal balance (P=0.640). On multivariate analysis BMI remained significantly related to all functional outcomes except ODI-pain and ODI-travelling (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Increasing BMI has a significant adverse effect on the pain and functioning of patients with ASD. Clinicians should recognise this association and treat patients accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jss.2019.11.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989938PMC
December 2019

Ideal sagittal profile restoration and ideal lumbar apex positioning play an important role in postoperative mechanical complications after a lumbar PSO.

Spine Deform 2020 06 8;8(3):491-498. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Spine Surgery Unit, Pellegrin University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

Objective: To determine the influence of postoperative ideal lordosis distribution and ideal sagittal harmony on mechanical complications in patients undergoing one-level lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (L-PSO). Many variables have been associated with mechanical complications after L-PSO. However, the impact of restoring the ideal inflexion point, lumbar apex, and sagittal shape is still underexplored.

Methods: Analyzed risk factors were: age and patient-related variables, PSO level, interbody cages, rod material/diameter, number of rods, upper instrumented vertebra, lower instrumented vertebra, PI-LL mismatch, global tilt (GT), postoperative level of lumbar apex (LApex), postoperative level of inflexion point (InfxP), and postoperative type of Roussouly sagittal profile (R-type). These last variables were compared to ideal (based on pelvic incidence). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risks for mechanical complications with a minimum 2-year follow-up.

Results: A total of 87 patients were included. Mean follow-up was 4.5 ± 1.7 years. 40.2% of the patients suffered postoperative mechanical complications (7 PJK, 4 PJF, 18 pseudoarthrosis/rod breakage, 6 screw pullout). Mean time for complications was 584 ± 416 days from surgery. Univariate analysis showed that age (63 vs 57 years; P = 0.04), BMI (28.1 vs 25.9; P = 0.024), preoperative-GT (50.7° vs 38.7°; P < 0.001), postoperative-GT (28.9° vs 23.4°; P = 0.018), postoperative LApex location mismatched from ideal (77.8% vs 22.2%; P = 0.036), and postoperative R-type mismatched from ideal (67.6% vs 22.6%; P < 0.001) were significantly related to mechanical complications. The independent factors selected by multivariate analysis were: postoperative R-type mismatched from ideal OR 11.3 (95% CI   3.9-32.6; P < 0.001), age OR 1.05 (95% CI 1-1.1; P = 0.03), and LApex matching OR 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.97; P = 0.04). The further the LApex was from its ideal position, the higher the risk of mechanical complications (P = 0.036).

Conclusions: Over other multiple suspected risk factors, proper lumbar apex position and ideal sagittal shape restoration played an important role in postoperative mechanical complications after L-PSO.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-019-00005-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Mental health status and sagittal spinopelvic alignment correlate with self-image in patients with adult spinal deformity before and after corrective surgery.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 31;29(1):63-72. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Spine Surgery Unit 1, Bordeaux University Pellegrin Hospital, Place Amélie Raba-Léon, 33076, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Preoperative patient self-image (SI) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) is the most relevant factor for surgical decision-making. Postoperative SI has an important role in a patient's satisfaction with surgery. However, few studies are available to describe these variables. The aim was to investigate the factors that correlate with SI before and 2 years after ASD surgery.

Methods: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected multicentric data. Patients who underwent ASD surgery with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were enrolled (n = 391). They were divided into high-SI and low-SI groups, both preoperatively and postoperatively, according to SRS-22R SI/appearance subdomain scores at baseline and at 2 years, respectively. Independently related factors for SI were determined using logistic regression analysis.

Results: Crucial factors for SI at baseline were the scores on the SRS-22R function/activity (OR: 2.61), SRS-22R mental health (OR: 2.63) subdomains, and relative spinopelvic alignment (RSA, OR: 0.95). SF-36 MCS (OR: 1.07) at baseline as well as sagittal vertical axis (SVA, OR: 0.99) at 2 years, and complications (OR: 0.44) were independent predictive factors for SI at 2 years. The patients who transitioned from the preoperative low-SI group to the postoperative high-SI group achieved larger global sagittal alignment restoration and had lesser complications than those who did not.

Conclusions: Mental status and sagittal spinopelvic alignment are key determinants of SI. The results indicate that considering mental status, preventing complications, and global sagittal alignment, restoration is crucial for achieving substantial SI scores after ASD surgery. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06200-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Team Approach: Contemporary Treatment of Congenital Scoliosis.

JBJS Rev 2019 10;7(10):e5

Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Istanbul, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.19.00001DOI Listing
October 2019

Restoring the ideal Roussouly sagittal profile in adult scoliosis surgery decreases the risk of mechanical complications.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 22;29(1):54-62. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Spine Surgery Unit, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: There are still no data proving whether restoring the ideal sagittal profile (according to Roussouly classification) in adult scoliosis (AS) patients leads to any additional benefit, especially regarding mechanical complications.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of operated AS patients recorded in a prospective multicenter database. Demographic and radiographic (preoperative and 6-week postoperative) data were analyzed. Patients with and without mechanical complications were compared looking especially at the surgical restoration of the ideal (based on Pelvic Incidence) sagittal profile. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify causes of mechanical complications at 2-year minimum follow-up.

Results: Ninty-six AS patients were analyzed. Thirty-nine patients suffered a mechanical complication (18 PJK, 11 pseudoarthrosis, 10 screw pull-out), and 57 patients had no mechanical complications. Postoperatively, 72% of patients not matching the ideal Roussouly-type suffered mechanical complications compared to 15% of matched patients (P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that older patients 64.9 ± 13 versus 40.7 ± 15.6 years (P < 0.001), higher postoperative Global Tilt (27° vs. 14.7°) and Pelvic Tilt (25° vs. 16°) (P < 0.001), upper instrumented vertebra at the thoracolumbar junction (62% vs. 21%) (P < 0.001), fixation to the Iliac (76% vs. 6%) (P < 0.001), and postoperative Roussouly-type mismatch (72% vs. 15%) (P < 0.001) significantly increased the rate of mechanical complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected: postoperative Roussouly-type mismatch (OR = 41.9; 95%CI = 5.5-315.7; P < 0.001), iliac instrumentation (OR = 19.4; 95%CI = 2.6-142.5; P = 0.004), and age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.02-1.16; P = 0.004), as the most important variables.

Conclusions: Adult scoliosis surgery should restore the ideal Roussouly sagittal profile to decrease the rate of mechanical complications, especially in patients older than 65, instrumented to the pelvis. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06176-xDOI Listing
January 2020

Adult Spinal Deformity Over 70 Years of Age: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

Int J Spine Surg 2019 Aug 31;13(4):336-344. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Ankara Spine Center, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD) in elderly patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the factors leading to the surgical treatment by comparing the baseline characteristics of operative versus nonoperative patients, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgery, and to compare operative and nonoperative management of elderly ASD patients at the end of the 2-year follow-up period.

Methods: Retrospective review of a multicenter, prospective ASD database was performed. Patients over 70 years of age with ASD who were scheduled to undergo surgical treatment and who were treated and/or followed without surgical intervention participated in the study. Demographic, clinical, surgical, and radiological characteristics and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) (Core Outcome Measures Index [COMI], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Short-Form-36 Mental Component Summary [SF-36 MCS], Short-Form-36 Physical Component Summary [SF36-PCS], and Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22]) parameters of such group of patients were evaluated pre- and posttreatment.

Results: A total 90 patients (females: 71, males: 29; operative: 61, nonoperative: 29) made up the study group. The comparison between the operative and the nonoperative groups at baseline showed statistical significance for all the HRQOL parameters and the major coronal Cobb angle ( < .05). The calculated optimal cutoff values to diverge operative and nonoperative groups for COMI, ODI, SF-36 PCS, and SRS-22 were 5.7, 37.0, 37.5, and 3.2, respectively ( < .05). All operative patients were treated with posterior surgery. Overall, 135 complications (71 major, 64 minor) and 1 death were observed. Surgically treated patients were found to be improved both clinically and in HRQOL parameters 2 years after surgery for all HRQOL parameters except SF-36 MCS, even in the presence of complications ( < .05), while nonoperative patients have not changed or deteriorated at the end of 2 years.

Conclusions: Despite a relatively high incidence of complications, the likelihood of achieving a clinically significant and relevant HRQOL improvement was superior for patients who were treated surgically in the present population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14444/6046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724754PMC
August 2019

Opioids and analgesics use after adult spinal deformity surgery correlates with sagittal alignment and preoperative analgesic pattern.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 6;29(1):73-84. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Orthopedic Spinal Surgery Unit 1, Bordeaux Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: To assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and sagittal parameters of adult spinal deformity (ASD)-operated patients in the context of their analgesic consumption especially opioids (narcotics) over the first year postoperative period.

Methods: In total, 372 patients from a multicenter database were stratified into 3 groups at baseline: 241 patients in the minimal group (no analgesic, or NSAIDs/narcotics weekly or less), 64 in the NSAIDs every day group and 67 in the narcotics every day group. HRQOL and back and leg pain scores were evaluated at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Also several sagittal alignment parameters were assessed.

Results: Significant improvements in pain and HRQOL scores were observed across all 3 groups by 1 year (P < 0.05) postoperatively. While the minimal group had the best pre- and postoperative HRQOL scores, the NSAID group demonstrated the best improvement in HRQOL. Only the minimal group displayed continued improvement from 6 months to 1 year. 90%, 65% and 40% of minimal, NSAID and narcotic groups of patients, respectively, no longer took any analgesics at 1 year postoperatively. Alternatively, 36% of patients in the narcotics group continued to take narcotics at 1 year. Residual malalignment increased NSAIDs consumption in different groups at 1 year.

Conclusion: This study evaluated the analgesics use after ASD surgery in relation to the clinical and radiological outcomes. Despite important postoperative opioids consumption in the narcotics group, clinical outcome yet improved. Malalignment parameters demonstrated a predictive value in regard to NSAIDs' usage. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06141-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Development of predictive models for all individual questions of SRS-22R after adult spinal deformity surgery: a step toward individualized medicine.

Eur Spine J 2019 Sep 19;28(9):1998-2011. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Economics and Business, Center for Research in Health and Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Office 23.111 Merce Rodoreda Building (Ciutadella Campus), Ramon Trias Fargas, 25-27, 08005, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) instruments are essential in value-driven health care, but patients often have more specific, personal priorities when seeking surgical care. The Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R), an HRQL instrument for spinal deformity, provides summary scores spanning several health domains, but these may be difficult for patients to utilize in planning their specific care goals. Our objective was to create preoperative predictive models for responses to individual SRS-22R questions at 1 and 2 years after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery to facilitate precision surgical care.

Methods: Two prospective observational cohorts were queried for ASD patients with SRS-22R data at baseline and 1 and 2 years after surgery. In total, 150 covariates were used in training machine learning models, including demographics, surgical data and perioperative complications. Validation was accomplished via an 80%/20% data split for training and testing, respectively. Goodness of fit was measured using area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves.

Results: In total, 561 patients met inclusion criteria. The AUROC ranged from 56.5 to 86.9%, reflecting successful fits for most questions. SRS-22R questions regarding pain, disability and social and labor function were the most accurately predicted. Models were less sensitive to questions regarding general satisfaction, depression/anxiety and appearance.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explicitly model the prediction of individual answers to the SRS-22R questionnaire at 1 and 2 years after deformity surgery. The ability to predict individual question responses may prove useful in preoperative counseling in the age of individualized medicine. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06079-xDOI Listing
September 2019

Adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making score. Part 2: development and validation of a scoring system to guide the selection of treatment modalities for patients above 40 years with adult spinal deformity.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 17;29(1):45-53. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

L'Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: We aimed to develop and internally validate a scoring system, the adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making (ASD-SDM) score, to guide the decision-making process for ASD patients aged above 40 years.

Methods: A multicentre prospective ASD database was retrospectively reviewed. The scoring system was developed using data from a derivation set and was internally validated in a validation set. The performance of the ASD-SDM score for predicting surgical management was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: A total of 702 patients were included for analysis in the present study. The scoring system developed based on 562 patients, ranging from 0 to 12 points, included five parameters: leg pain scored by the numerical rating scale; pain and self-image domains in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 score; coronal Cobb angle; and relative spinopelvic alignment. Surgical indication was graded as low (score 0 to 4), moderate (score 5 to 7), and high (score 8 to 12) groups. In the validation set of 140 patients, the AUC for predicting surgical management according to the ASD-SDM score was 0.797 (standard error = 0.037, P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval = 0.714 to 0.861), and in the low, moderate, and high surgical indication groups, 23.7%, 43.5%, and 80.4% of the patients, respectively, were treated surgically.

Conclusions: The ASD-SDM score demonstrated reliability, with higher scores indicating a higher probability of surgery. This index could aid in the selection of surgery for ASD patients in clinical settings. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06068-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Development and validation of risk stratification models for adult spinal deformity surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Jun 28:1-13. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

15Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery has a high rate of major complications (MCs). Public information about adverse outcomes is currently limited to registry average estimates. The object of this study was to assess the incidence of adverse events after ASD surgery, and to develop and validate a prognostic tool for the time-to-event risk of MC, hospital readmission (RA), and unplanned reoperation (RO).

Methods: Two models per outcome, created with a random survival forest algorithm, were trained in an 80% random split and tested in the remaining 20%. Two independent prospective multicenter ASD databases, originating from the European continent and the United States, were queried, merged, and analyzed. ASD patients surgically treated by 57 surgeons at 23 sites in 5 countries in the period from 2008 to 2016 were included in the analysis.

Results: The final sample consisted of 1612 ASD patients: mean (standard deviation) age 56.7 (17.4) years, 76.6% women, 10.4 (4.3) fused vertebral levels, 55.1% of patients with pelvic fixation, 2047.9 observation-years. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that 12.1% of patients had at least one MC at 10 days after surgery; 21.5%, at 90 days; and 36%, at 2 years. Discrimination, measured as the concordance statistic, was up to 71.7% (95% CI 68%-75%) in the development sample for the postoperative complications model. Surgical invasiveness, age, magnitude of deformity, and frailty were the strongest predictors of MCs. Individual cumulative risk estimates at 2 years ranged from 3.9% to 74.1% for MCs, from 3.17% to 44.2% for RAs, and from 2.67% to 51.9% for ROs.

Conclusions: The creation of accurate prognostic models for the occurrence and timing of MCs, RAs, and ROs following ASD surgery is possible. The presented variability in patient risk profiles alongside the discrimination and calibration of the models highlights the potential benefits of obtaining time-to-event risk estimates for patients and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.3.SPINE181452DOI Listing
June 2019

Impact of resolved early major complications on 2-year follow-up outcome following adult spinal deformity surgery.

Eur Spine J 2019 09 27;28(9):2208-2215. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Spine Center Division, Schulthess Klinik, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Major complications are a concern following ASD surgery. Even when properly managed and resolved, they may still have a relevant impact on HRQL. We aimed to investigate the impact of resolved early major complications on 2-year outcome after ASD surgery.

Methods: Two groups of consecutive surgical patients were extracted from a prospective multicentre database. Major complication group (MCG) included patients with any major complication, resolved within 6 months after surgery. Patients with further major complications during follow-up were excluded. Control group (CG) included patients with no major complications over the entire follow-up. Analysis of covariance adjusting for preoperative baseline values was used to compare improvements in HRQL measures at 2 years.

Results: One hundred and seventy-five patients met the inclusion criteria and had complete HRQL data at 2 years (24 MCG, 151 CG). MCG patients were older and had more severe deformity and poorer baseline HRQL. There were 27 resolved major complications at 6 months needing 19 additional surgeries (18 revisions, 1 cholecystectomy). At 2 years, and after adjusting for preoperative data, outcome in MCG patients was as follows: scores were 5.98 (SE 3.03) points higher for the ODI (p = 0.05), 0.36 (SE 0.13) lower SRS-22 function (p = 0.01), 4.07 (SE 1.93) lower SF-36 PCS (p = 0.04), and 0.16 (SE 0.13) lower SRS-22 subtotal (p = 0.22).

Conclusion: The results indicate that patients experiencing major complications after ASD surgery have significantly less functional improvement (SRS-22 function, ODI, SF-36 PCS) than their complication-free counterparts, even when complications were considered resolved, and the outcome was measured after an 18-month complication-free period. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06041-xDOI Listing
September 2019

Artificial Intelligence Based Hierarchical Clustering of Patient Types and Intervention Categories in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Towards a New Classification Scheme that Predicts Quality and Value.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 Jul;44(13):915-926

Center for Research in Health and Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively-collected, multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) databases.

Objective: To apply artificial intelligence (AI)-based hierarchical clustering as a step toward a classification scheme that optimizes overall quality, value, and safety for ASD surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Prior ASD classifications have focused on radiographic parameters associated with patient reported outcomes. Recent work suggests there are many other impactful preoperative data points. However, the ability to segregate patient patterns manually based on hundreds of data points is beyond practical application for surgeons. Unsupervised machine-based clustering of patient types alongside surgical options may simplify analysis of ASD patient types, procedures, and outcomes.

Methods: Two prospective cohorts were queried for surgical ASD patients with baseline, 1-year, and 2-year SRS-22/Oswestry Disability Index/SF-36v2 data. Two dendrograms were fitted, one with surgical features and one with patient characteristics. Both were built with Ward distances and optimized with the gap method. For each possible n patient cluster by m surgery, normalized 2-year improvement and major complication rates were computed.

Results: Five hundred-seventy patients were included. Three optimal patient types were identified: young with coronal plane deformity (YC, n = 195), older with prior spine surgeries (ORev, n = 157), and older without prior spine surgeries (OPrim, n = 218). Osteotomy type, instrumentation and interbody fusion were combined to define four surgical clusters. The intersection of patient-based and surgery-based clusters yielded 12 subgroups, with major complication rates ranging from 0% to 51.8% and 2-year normalized improvement ranging from -0.1% for SF36v2 MCS in cluster [1,3] to 100.2% for SRS self-image score in cluster [2,1].

Conclusion: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering can identify data patterns that may augment preoperative decision-making through construction of a 2-year risk-benefit grid. In addition to creating a novel AI-based ASD classification, pattern identification may facilitate treatment optimization by educating surgeons on which treatment patterns yield optimal improvement with lowest risk.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000002974DOI Listing
July 2019

Responding to Intraoperative Neuromonitoring Changes During Pediatric Coronal Spinal Deformity Surgery.

Global Spine J 2019 May 8;9(1 Suppl):15S-21S. Epub 2019 May 8.

AOSpine Knowledge Forum Deformity, Davos, Switzerland.

Study Design: Retrospective case study on prospectively collected data.

Objectives: The purpose of this explorative study was: 1) to determine if patterns of spinal cord injury could be detected through intra-operative neuromonitoring (IONM) changes in pediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity corrections, 2) to identify if perfusion based or direct trauma causes of IONM changes could be distinguished, 3) to observe the effects of the interventions performed in response to these events, and 4) to attempt to identify different treatment algorithms for the different causes of IONM alerts.

Methods: Prospectively collected neuromonitoring data in pre-established forms on consecutive pediatric patients undergoing coronal spinal deformity surgery at a single center was reviewed. Real-time data was collected on IONM alerts with >50% loss in signal. Patients with alerts were divided into 2 groups: unilateral changes (direct cord trauma), and bilateral MEP changes (cord perfusion deficits).

Results: A total of 97 pediatric patients involving 71 females and 26 males with a mean age of 14.9 (11-18) years were included in this study. There were 39 alerts in 27 patients (27.8% overall incidence). All bilateral changes responded to a combination of transfusion, increasing blood pressure, and rod removal. Unilateral changes as a result of direct trauma, mainly during laminotomies for osteotomies, improved with removal of the causative agent. Following corrective actions in response to the alerts, all cases were completed as planned. Signal returned to near baseline in 20/27 patients at closure, with no new neurological deficits in this series.

Conclusion: A high incidence of alerts occurred in this series of cases. Dividing IONM changes into perfusion-based vs direct trauma directed treatment to the offending cause, allowing for safe corrections of the deformities. Patients did not need to recover IONM signal to baseline to have a normal neurological examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568219836993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512195PMC
May 2019

Factors influencing patient satisfaction after adult scoliosis and spinal deformity surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 May;31(3):408-417

1Spine Surgery Unit 1, Bordeaux University Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Objective: Achieving high patient satisfaction with management is often one of the goals after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. However, literature on associated factors and their correlations with patient satisfaction is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and radiographic factors independently correlated with patient satisfaction in terms of management at 2 years after surgery.

Methods: A multicenter prospective database of ASD surgery was retrospectively reviewed. The demographics, complications, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) subdomains, and radiographic parameters were examined to determine their correlation coefficients with the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire (SRS-22R) satisfaction scores at 2 years (Sat-2y score). Subsequently, factors determined to be independently associated with low satisfaction (Sat-2y score ≤ 4.0) were used to construct 2 types of multivariate models: one with 2-year data and the other with improvement (score at 2 years - score at baseline) data.

Results: A total of 422 patients who underwent ASD surgery (mean age 53.1 years) were enrolled. All HRQOL subdomains and several coronal and sagittal radiographic parameters had significantly improved 2 years after surgery. The Sat-2y score was strongly correlated with the SRS-22R self-image (SI)/appearance subdomain (r = 0.64), followed by moderate correlation with subdomains related to standing (r = 0.53), body pain (r = 0.49-0.55), and function (r = 0.41-0.55) at 2 years. Conversely, the correlation between radiographic or demographic parameters with Sat-2y score was weak (r < 0.4). Multivariate analysis to eliminate confounding factors revealed that a worse Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score for standing (≥ 2 points; OR 4.48) and pain intensity (≥ 2 points; OR 2.07), SRS-22R SI/appearance subdomain (< 3 points; OR 2.70) at 2 years, and a greater sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (> 5 cm; OR 2.68) at 2 years were independent related factors for low satisfaction. According to the other model, a lower improvement in ODI for standing (< 30%; OR 2.68), SRS-22R pain (< 50%; OR 3.25) and SI/appearance (< 50%; OR 2.18) subdomains, and an inadequate restoration of the SVA from baseline (< 2 cm; OR 3.16) were associated with low satisfaction.

Conclusions: Self-image, pain, standing difficulty, and sagittal alignment restoration may be useful goals in improving patient satisfaction with management at 2 years after ASD surgery. Surgeons and other medical providers have to take care of these factors to prevent low satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.2.SPINE181486DOI Listing
May 2019

Development of Deployable Predictive Models for Minimal Clinically Important Difference Achievement Across the Commonly Used Health-related Quality of Life Instruments in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 Aug;44(16):1144-1153

Center for Research in Health and Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively-collected, multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) databases.

Objective: To predict the likelihood of reaching minimum clinically important differences in patient-reported outcomes after ASD surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: ASD surgeries are costly procedures that do not always provide the desired benefit. In some series only 50% of patients achieve minimum clinically important differences in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Predictive modeling may be useful in shared-decision making and surgical planning processes. The goal of this study was to model the probability of achieving minimum clinically important differences change in PROs at 1 and 2 years after surgery.

Methods: Two prospective observational ASD cohorts were queried. Patients with Scoliosis Research Society-22, Oswestry Disability Index , and Short Form-36 data at preoperative baseline and at 1 and 2 years after surgery were included. Seventy-five variables were used in the training of the models including demographics, baseline PROs, and modifiable surgical parameters. Eight predictive algorithms were trained at four-time horizons: preoperative or postoperative baseline to 1 year and preoperative or postoperative baseline to 2 years. External validation was accomplished via an 80%/20% random split. Five-fold cross validation within the training sample was performed. Precision was measured as the mean average error (MAE) and R values.

Results: Five hundred seventy patients were included in the analysis. Models with the lowest MAE were selected; R values ranged from 20% to 45% and MAE ranged from 8% to 15% depending upon the predicted outcome. Patients with worse preoperative baseline PROs achieved the greatest mean improvements. Surgeon and site were not important components of the models, explaining little variance in the predicted 1- and 2-year PROs.

Conclusion: We present an accurate and consistent way of predicting the probability for achieving clinically relevant improvement after ASD surgery in the largest-to-date prospective operative multicenter cohort with 2-year follow-up. This study has significant clinical implications for shared decision making, surgical planning, and postoperative counseling.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003031DOI Listing
August 2019

Adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making score : Part 1: development and validation of a scoring system to guide the selection of treatment modalities for patients below 40 years with adult spinal deformity.

Eur Spine J 2019 07 7;28(7):1652-1660. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Bordeaux University Hospital, L'Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: We aimed to develop and internally validate a simple scoring system: the adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgical decision-making (ASD-SDM) score, which is specific to the decision-making process for ASD patients aged below 40 years.

Methods: A multicentre prospective ASD database was retrospectively reviewed. The scoring system was developed using data from a derivation cohort and was internally validated in a validation cohort. The accuracy of the ASD-SDM score was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: A total of 316 patients were randomly divided into derivation (253 patients, 80%) and validation (63 patients, 20%) cohorts. A 10-point scoring system was created from four variables: self-image score in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 score, coronal Cobb angle, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis mismatch, and relative spinopelvic alignment, and the surgical indication was graded into low (score 0-4), moderate (score 5-7), and high (score 8-10) surgical indication groups. In the validation cohort, the AUC for selecting surgical management according to the ASD-SDM score was 0.789 (SE 0.057, P < 0.001, 95% CI 0.655-0.880). The percentage of patients treated surgically were 21.1%, 55.0%, and 80.0% in the low, moderate, and high surgical indication groups, respectively.

Conclusions: The ASD-SDM score, to the best of our knowledge, is the first algorithm to guide the decision-making process for the ASD population and could be one of the indices for aiding the selection of treatment for ASD. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-05932-3DOI Listing
July 2019

The Influence of Diagnosis, Age, and Gender on Surgical Outcomes in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity.

Global Spine J 2018 Dec 29;8(8):803-809. Epub 2018 Apr 29.

ARTES Spine Center, Ankara, Turkey.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a multicentric database.

Objectives: To determine the clinical impact of diagnosis, age, and gender on treatment outcomes in surgically treated adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients.

Methods: A total of 199 surgical patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included and analyzed for baseline characteristics. Patients were separated into 2 groups based on improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters by minimum clinically important difference. Statistics were used to analyze the effect of diagnosis, age, and gender on outcome measurements followed by a multivariate binary logistic regression model for these results with statistical significance.

Results: Age was found to affect SF-36 PCS (Short From-36 Physical Component Summary) score significantly, with an odds ratio of 1.017 (unit by unit) of improving SF-36 PCS score on multivariate analysis ( < .05). The breaking point in age for this effect was 37.5 years (AUC = 58.0, = .05). A diagnosis of idiopathic deformity would increase the probability of improvement in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) by a factor of 0.219 and in SF-36 PCS by 0.581 times ( < .05). Gender was found not to have a significant effect on any of the HRQOL scores.

Conclusions: Age, along with a diagnosis of degenerative deformity, may have positive effects on the likelihood of improvement in SF-36 PCS (for age) and ODI (for diagnosis) in surgically treated patients with ASD and the breaking point of this effect may be earlier than generally anticipated. Gender does not seem to affect results. These may be important in patient counseling for the anticipated outcomes of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568218772568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293420PMC
December 2018

Radiographic Axial Malalignment is Associated With Pretreatment Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: Implementation of a Novel Radiographic Software Tool.

Spine Deform 2018 Nov - Dec;6(6):745-752

Spine Surgery Unit, Vall d'Hebron Hospital, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: Retrospective study of prospectively collected data.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between apical vertebral axial rotation and pretreatment patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL), disability, and pain in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) using a novel radiographic software tool.

Summary Of Background Data: Recent studies have demonstrated that in ADS, sagittal and coronal plane deformity are weakly to moderately associated with HRQOL, disability, and pain. However, as ADS is a three-dimensional spinal deformity, the impact of axial malalignment on HRQOL is yet to be determined.

Methods: A total of 74 ADS patients were enrolled. HRQOL measures included the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2) and Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22r). Disability and pain measures included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scale back and leg pain. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle (CA), sagittal spinopelvic parameters, lateral and anteroposterior (AP) translation of the apical vertebra. The amount of apical vertebral axial rotation was measured on digital AP radiograph images using a novel software technology. Subjects were stratified into four clinical groups based on the degree of apical vertebral axial rotation.

Results: Apical vertebral axial rotation showed no association with lateral (r = 0.21; p = .15) and AP (r = 0.08, p = .80) translation of the apical vertebra. A significant moderate association was found between apical vertebral axial rotation and Cobb angle (r = 0.57; p < .05). Patients in the group with the highest degree of apical vertebral axial rotation reported significantly worse ODI and SRS-22r Subtotal and Pain scores (p < .05), irrespective of sagittal spinopelvic parameters.

Conclusions: This is the first study that reports on the association between apical vertebral axial rotation and pretreatment HRQOL, disability, and pain in ADS. This study suggests that increased apical vertebral axial rotation is associated with suboptimal pretreatment health status scores.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2018.03.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of Adult Scoliosis on Roussouly Sagittal Shape Classification.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 02;44(4):270-279

Spine Surgery Unit, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively in an adult spine deformity multicenter database.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of adult scoliosis (AS) on the type of Roussouly sagittal shape in terms of classification applicability, scoliosis modification of a patient theoretical sagittal shape, and coronal-sagittal deformity associations.

Summary Of Background Data: Roussouly described a four-type sagittal shape classification in healthy individuals, which has been also applied to patients with degenerative spinal disease. However, it remains uncertain if its principles can be applied to AS patients.

Methods: AS patients recorded in a prospective multicenter database of adult spinal deformity were included. Preoperative sagittal radiographs were analyzed using the KEOPS software to measure pelvic parameters, global sagittal alignment, and the various criteria used for the Roussouly classification. The different sagittal shape types were compared using the Chi-square and McNemars tests, and analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction.

Results: The classification was applicable to all of the 190 analyzed AS patients. In addition to Roussouly criteria, two parameters helped differentiate the different shapes: T10-L2 angle (24° ± 19 type-1; 14° ± 15 type-2; 3° ± 15 type-3; 0.4° ± 14 type-4; P < 0.001), and lordosis distribution index (90% ± 17 type-1; 83% ± 16 type-2; 73% ± 21 type-3; 63% ± 16 type-4; P < 0.001). AS changed the theoretical shape in 34% of the patients (P < 0.001). Curve etiology and curve pattern were not associated with any particular type of sagittal shape (P > 0.05). Type-1 was associated with older patients (P = 0.02), degenerative curves (P = 0.02), and greater PI-LL mismatch (P = 0.012). Types 3 to 4 were associated with younger age and idiopathic etiology (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Roussouly four-type sagittal shape classification could be applied to AS patients. AS modified the theoretical type in one of every three patients. No particular association was found between the sagittal types and specific coronal deformities. Sagittal shape recognition in patients with AS will help restore the appropriate theoretical shape through surgery, which can eventually lead to better surgical outcomesLevel of Evidence: 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000002800DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of deep surgical site infection on surgical outcomes after posterior adult spinal deformity surgery: a matched control study.

Eur Spine J 2018 10 4;27(10):2518-2528. Epub 2018 May 4.

Hospital Universitari de la Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: The impact of deep surgical site infection (SSI) on surgical outcomes after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is still unclear. We aimed to study the morbidity of SSI in ASD and its impact on deformity correction and functional outcome.

Methods: Prospective multicenter matched-cohort study including consecutively enrolled ASD patients. Patients developing SSI were matched to similar controls in terms of age, gender, ASA, primary or revision, extent of fusion, and use of tri-columnar osteotomies. Preoperative parameters, surgical variables, and complications were recorded. Deformity parameters and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) scores were obtained preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Independent t test and Fischer's exact test were used for comparisons.

Results: 444 surgical ASD patients with more than 2 years of follow-up were identified. 20 sustained an acute SSI and 60 controls were accordingly matched. No differences were observed between groups in preoperative radiological and HRQoL variables confirming comparable groups. SSI patients had longer hospital stay and more mechanical complications including proximal junctional kyphosis. Infection was associated with more unrelated complications and revisions. Deformity correction was maintained equally at the different time intervals. One death was related to SSI. SSI patients had worse overall HRQoL status at 1 year and were less likely to experience improvement. However, no significant differences were recorded thereafter.

Conclusion: SSI significantly affects the first postoperative year after posterior ASD surgery. It is associated with more complications, unrelated revisions, and worst quality of life. However it's negative impact seems to be diluted by the second postoperative year as differences in HRQoL scores between the two groups decrease. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-5583-3DOI Listing
October 2018

External validation of the adult spinal deformity (ASD) frailty index (ASD-FI).

Eur Spine J 2018 09 30;27(9):2331-2338. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To assess the ability of the recently developed adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI) to predict odds of perioperative complications, odds of reoperation, and length of hospital stay after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery using a database other than the one used to create the index.

Methods: We used the ASD-FI to calculate frailty scores for 266 ASD patients who had minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years in the European Spine Study Group (ESSG) database. Patients were enrolled from 2012 through 2013. Using ASD-FI scores, we categorized patients as not frail (NF) (< 0.3 points), frail (0.3-0.5 points), or severely frail (SF) (> 0.5 points). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for preoperative and surgical factors such as operative time and blood loss, was performed to determine the relationship between ASD-FI category and odds of major complications, odds of reoperation, and length of hospital stay.

Results: We categorized 135 patients (51%) as NF, 90 patients (34%) as frail, and 41 patients (15%) as SF. Overall mean ASD-FI score was 0.29 (range 0-0.8). The adjusted odds of experiencing a major intraoperative or postoperative complication (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.0-10) or having a reoperation (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-8.9) were higher for SF patients compared with NF patients. Mean hospital stay was 2.1 times longer (95% CI 1.8-2.4) for SF patients compared with NF patients.

Conclusions: Greater patient frailty, as measured by the ASD-FI, is associated with longer hospital stays and greater odds of major complications and reoperation. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-5575-3DOI Listing
September 2018

Decision-making factors in the treatment of adult spinal deformity.

Eur Spine J 2018 09 30;27(9):2312-2321. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

L'Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Bordeaux University Hospital, Place Amélie Raba-Léon, 33076, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: We aimed to elucidate the factors for the decision-making process in the treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD), including sagittal parameters, that impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

Methods: A multicenter prospective ASD database was retrospectively reviewed. The demographic data, HRQOL, and radiographic measures were analyzed using multivariate analyses in younger (≤ 50 years) and older (> 50 years) age groups.

Results: This study included 414 patients (134 surgical and 280 nonsurgical; mean age 30.7 years) in the younger age group and 575 patients (323 surgical and 252 nonsurgical; mean age 65.8 years) in the older age group. Worse HRQOL measures drove surgical treatment, both in younger and older patients. The SRS-22 self-image score was the most differentiating domain, both in the younger and older age groups, and an additional significant factor in the older age group was pain and disability. Coronal deformity drove surgical treatment for the younger age group; however, older surgical patients were less likely to have coronal malalignment. Sagittal parameters were associated with the decision-making process. Greater pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis mismatch in the younger age group and smaller lumbar lordosis index in the older age group were most correlated with the decision to undergo surgery.

Conclusions: Aside from the HRQOL measures and coronal deformity, sagittal parameters were identified as significant factors for the decision-making process in the ASD population, and the lack of lumbar lordosis in relation to pelvic incidence was a strong driver to pursue surgical treatment. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-5572-6DOI Listing
September 2018