Publications by authors named "Ahmedin Jemal"

455 Publications

Brain and other central nervous system tumor statistics, 2021.

CA Cancer J Clin 2021 Sep 24;71(5):381-406. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Hinsdale, Illinois.

Brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors are among the most fatal cancers and account for substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. Population-based data from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (a combined data set of the National Program of Cancer Registries [NPCR] and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [SEER] registries), NPCR, National Vital Statistics System and SEER program were analyzed to assess the contemporary burden of malignant and nonmalignant brain and other CNS tumors (hereafter brain) by histology, anatomic site, age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Malignant brain tumor incidence rates declined by 0.8% annually from 2008 to 2017 for all ages combined but increased 0.5% to 0.7% per year among children and adolescents. Malignant brain tumor incidence is highest in males and non-Hispanic White individuals, whereas the rates for nonmalignant tumors are highest in females and non-Hispanic Black individuals. Five-year relative survival for all malignant brain tumors combined increased between 1975 to 1977 and 2009 to 2015 from 23% to 36%, with larger gains among younger age groups. Less improvement among older age groups largely reflects a higher burden of glioblastoma, for which there have been few major advances in prevention, early detection, and treatment the past 4 decades. Specifically, 5-year glioblastoma survival only increased from 4% to 7% during the same time period. In addition, important survival disparities by race/ethnicity remain for childhood tumors, with the largest Black-White disparities for diffuse astrocytomas (75% vs 86% for patients diagnosed during 2009-2015) and embryonal tumors (59% vs 67%). Increased resources for the collection and reporting of timely consistent data are critical for advancing research to elucidate the causes of sex, age, and racial/ethnic differences in brain tumor occurrence, especially for rarer subtypes and among understudied populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.21693DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of obesity and annual health care utilization and spending among long-term cancer survivors.

Cancer 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Surveillance and Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Obesity is associated with a substantial health and economic burden in the general population in the United States. This study estimates the excess health care utilization and medical spending associated with overweight and obesity among long-term cancer survivors.

Methods: Long-term cancer survivors (≥2 years after their diagnosis) aged ≥18 years (N = 12,547) were identified from the nationally representative 2008-2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A 2-part modeling approach was used to calculate the average annual care utilization and spending by service type. Excess care utilization and spending associated with overweight (25 kg/m ≤ body mass index [BMI] < 30 kg/m ), obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m ), and severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m ), in comparison with normal weight (18.5 kg/m ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m ), were estimated.

Results: Compared with normal-weight cancer survivors, overweight survivors had comparable care utilization and medical spending; survivors with obesity had an additional $3216 (95% CI, $1940-$4492) of medical spending, including $1243 (95% CI, $417-$2070) on hospital inpatient services and $1130 (95% CI, $756-$1504) on prescriptions per person per year. The excess annual medical spending associated with obesity among long-term cancer survivors translated to $19.7 billion in 2016 in the United States. The excess medical spending was magnified in cancer survivors with severe obesity ($5317 [95% CI, $2849-$7785], which translated to $6.7 billion in 2016). Excess care utilization and medical spending were mostly explained by comorbid conditions related to obesity.

Conclusions: For long-term cancer survivors, obesity was associated with increased health care utilization and substantial excess medical spending. This suggests that policies and practices promoting a healthy lifestyle and achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight for cancer survivors may reduce their health care utilization and economic burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33842DOI Listing
August 2021

Updated Methodology for Projecting U.S.- and State-Level Cancer Counts for the Current Calendar Year: Part II: Evaluation of Incidence and Mortality Projection Methods.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the NCI collaborate every 5 to 8 years to update the methods for estimating the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the current year for the U.S. and individual states. Herein, we compare our current projection methodology with the next generation of statistical models.

Methods: A validation study was conducted comparing current projection methods (vector autoregression for incidence; Joinpoint regression for mortality) with the Bayes state-space method and novel Joinpoint algorithms. Incidence data from 1996-2010 were projected to 2014 using two inputs: modeled data and observed data with modeled where observed were missing. For mortality, observed data from 1995 to 2009, 1996 to 2010, 1997 to 2011, and 1998 to 2012, each projected 3 years forward to 2012 to 2015. Projection methods were evaluated using the average absolute relative deviation (AARD) between observed counts (2014 for incidence, 2012-2015 for mortality) and estimates for 47 cancer sites nationally and 21 sites by state.

Results: A novel Joinpoint model provided a good fit for both incidence and mortality, particularly for the most common cancers in the U.S. Notably, the AARD for cancers with cases in 2014 exceeding 49,000 for this model was 3.4%, nearly half that of the current method (6.3%).

Conclusions: A data-driven Joinpoint algorithm had versatile performance at the national and state levels and will replace the ACS's current methods.

Impact: This methodology provides estimates of cancer data that are not available for the current year, thus continuing to fill an important gap for advocacy, research, and public health planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1780DOI Listing
August 2021

Association between disparities in intergenerational economic mobility and cause-specific mortality among Black and White persons in the United States.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Jul 23:101998. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Surveillance and Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Evidence about the association between structural racism and mortality in the United States is limited. We examined the association between ongoing structural racism, measured as inequalities in adulthood income between White and Black children with similar parental household income (economic mobility gap) in a recent birth cohort, and Black-White disparities in death rates (mortality gap) overall and for major causes.

Methods: Sex-, race/ethnicity-, and county-specific data were used to examine sex-specific associations between economic mobility and mortality gaps for all causes combined, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), injury/violence, all malignant cancers, and 14 cancer types. Economic mobility data for 1978-1983 birth cohorts and death rates during 2011-2018 were obtained from the Opportunity Atlas and National Center for Health Statistics, respectively. Data from 471 counties were included in analyses of all-cause mortality at ages 30-39 years during 2011-2018 (corresponding to partially overlapping 1978-1983 birth cohorts); and from 1,572 and 1,248 counties in analyses of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in all ages combined, respectively.

Results: In ages 30-39 years, a one percentile increase in the economic mobility gap was associated with a 6.8 % (95 % confidence interval 1.8 %-11.8 %) increase in the Black-White mortality gap among males and a 13.5 % (8.9 %-18.1 %) increase among females, based on data from 471 counties. In all ages combined, the corresponding percentages based on data from 1,572 counties were 10.2 % (7.2 %-13.2 %) among males and 14.8 % (11.4 %-18.2 %) among females, equivalent to an increase of 18.4 and 14.0 deaths per 100,000 in the mortality gap, respectively. Similarly, strong associations between economic mobility gap and mortality gap in all ages were found for major causes of death, notably for potentially preventable conditions, including COPD, injury/violence, and cancers of the lung, liver, and cervix.

Conclusions: Economic mobility gap conditional on parental income in a recent birth cohort as a marker of ongoing structural racism is strongly associated with Black-White disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from several causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2021.101998DOI Listing
July 2021

Presentation, patterns of care, and outcomes of patients with prostate cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: A population-based registry study.

Cancer 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometrics and Informatics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Background: Although prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), little is known about its management and survival. The objective of the current study was to describe the presentation, patterns of diagnosis, treatment, and survival of patients with PCa in 10 countries of SSA.

Methods: In this observational registry study with data collection from 2010 to 2018, the authors drew a random sample of 738 patients with PCa who were registered in 11 population-based cancer registries. They described proportions of patients receiving recommended care and presented survival estimates. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios comparing the survival of patients with and without cancer-directed therapies (CDTs).

Results: The study included 693 patients, and tumor characteristics and treatment information were available for 365 patients, 37.3% of whom had metastatic disease. Only 11.2% had a complete diagnostic workup for risk stratification. Among the nonmetastatic patients, 17.5% received curative-intent therapy, and 27.5% received no CDT. Among the metastatic patients, 59.6% received androgen deprivation therapy. The 3- and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 491 patients with survival time information was 58.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.5%-67.7%) and 56.9% (95% CI, 39.8%-70.9%), respectively. In a multivariable analysis, survival was considerably poorer among patients without CDT versus those with therapy.

Conclusions: This study shows that a large proportion of patients with PCa in SSA are not staged or are insufficiently staged and undertreated, and this results in unfavorable survival. These findings reemphasize the need for improving diagnostic workup and access to care in SSA in order to mitigate the heavy burden of the disease in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33818DOI Listing
July 2021

Lung Cancer Screening Rates During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Chest 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Surveillance and Health Equity Sciences, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.07.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294072PMC
July 2021

Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, Part 1: National Cancer Statistics.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: The American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer incidence and mortality and trends by cancer type, sex, age group, and racial/ethnic group in the United States. In this report, we also examine trends in stage-specific survival for melanoma of the skin (melanoma).

Methods: Incidence data for all cancers from 2001 through 2017 and survival data for melanoma cases diagnosed during 2001-2014 and followed up through 2016 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- and National Cancer Institute-funded population-based cancer registry programs compiled by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Data on cancer deaths from 2001 through 2018 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics' National Vital Statistics System. Trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates and 2-year relative survival were estimated by joinpoint analysis, and trends in incidence and mortality were expressed as average annual percent change (AAPC) during the most recent 5 years (2013-2017 for incidence and 2014-2018 for mortality).

Results: Overall cancer incidence rates (per 100,000 population) for all ages during 2013-2017 were 487.4 among males and 422.4 among females. During this period, incidence rates remained stable among males but slightly increased in females (AAPC = 0.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1% to 0.2%). Overall cancer death rates (per 100,000 population) during 2014-2018 were 185.5 among males and 133.5 among females. During this period, overall death rates decreased in both males (AAPC = -2.2%; 95% CI = -2.5% to - 1.9%) and females (AAPC = -1.7%; 95% CI = -2.1% to - 1.4%); death rates decreased for 11 of the 19 most common cancers among males and for 14 of the 20 most common cancers among females, but increased for 5 cancers in each sex. During 2014-2018, the declines in death rates accelerated for lung cancer and melanoma, slowed down for colorectal and female breast cancers, and leveled off for prostate cancer. Among children younger than age 15 years and adolescents and young adults aged 15-39 years, cancer death rates continued to decrease in contrast to the increasing incidence rates. Two-year relative survival for distant-stage skin melanoma was stable for those diagnosed during 2001-2009 but increased by 3.1% (95% CI = 2.8% to 3.5%) per year for those diagnosed during 2009-2014, with comparable trends among males and females.

Conclusions: Cancer death rates in the United States continue to decline overall and for many cancer types, with the decline accelerated for lung cancer and melanoma. For several other major cancers, however, death rates continue to increase or previous declines in rates have slowed or ceased. Moreover, overall incidence rates continue to increase among females, children, and adolescents and young adults. These findings inform efforts related to prevention, early detection, and treatment and for broad and equitable implementation of effective interventions, especially among under-resourced populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab131DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of the COVID-19 Pandemic with Patterns of Statewide Cancer Services.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to delayed medical care in the US. We examined changes in patterns of cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment between January 1 and December 31 in 2020 and 2019 with real-time electronic pathology report data from population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries from Georgia and Louisiana. During 2020, there were 29,905 fewer pathology reports than in 2019, representing a 10.2% decline. Declines were observed in all age groups, including children and adolescents less than18 years. The nadir was early April 2020, with 42.8% fewer reports than in April 2019. Numbers of reports through December 2020 never consistently exceeded those in 2019 after first declines. Patterns were similar by age group and cancer site. Findings suggest substantial delays in diagnosis and treatment services for cancers during the pandemic. Ongoing evaluation can inform public health efforts to minimize any lasting adverse effects of the pandemic on cancer diagnosis, stage, treatment, and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab122DOI Listing
June 2021

Colorectal cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa by age, stage at diagnosis and Human Development Index: A population-based registry study.

Int J Cancer 2021 10 21;149(8):1553-1563. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

There are limited population-based survival data for colorectal cancer (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, 1707 persons diagnosed with CRC from 2005 to 2015 were randomly selected from 13 population-based cancer registries operating in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Vital status was ascertained from medical charts or through next of kin. 1-, 3- and 5-year overall and relative survival rates for all registries and for each registry were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Multivariable analysis was used to examine the associations of 5-year relative survival with age at diagnosis, stage and country-level Human Development Index (HDI). Observed survival for 1448 patients with CRC across all registries combined was 72.0% (95% CI 69.5-74.4%) at 1 year, 50.4% (95% CI 47.6-53.2%) at 3 years and 43.5% (95% CI 40.6-46.3%) at 5 years. We estimate that relative survival at 5 years in these registry populations is 48.2%. Factors associated with poorer survival included living in a country with lower HDI, late stage at diagnosis and younger or older age at diagnosis (<50 or ≥70 years). For example, the risk of death was 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1) times higher for patients residing in medium-HDI and 2.7 (95% CI 2.2-3.4) times higher for patients residing in low-HDI compared to those residing in high-HDI countries. Survival for CRC remains low in sub-Saharan African countries, though estimates vary considerably by HDI. Strengthening health systems to ensure access to prevention, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is critical in improving outcomes of CRC in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33715DOI Listing
October 2021

Updated Methodology for Projecting U.S.- and State-Level Cancer Counts for the Current Calendar Year: Part I: Spatio-temporal Modeling for Cancer Incidence.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Sep 22;30(9):1620-1626. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, NCI, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the NCI collaborate every 5-8 years to update the methods for estimating numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the current year in the United States and in every state and the District of Columbia. In this article, we reevaluate the statistical method for estimating unavailable historical incident cases which are needed for projecting the current year counts.

Methods: We compared the current county-level model developed in 2012 (M0) with three new models, including a state-level mixed effect model (M1) and two state-level hierarchical Bayes models with varying random effects (M2 and M3). We used 1996-2014 incidence data for 16 sex-specific cancer sites to fit the models. An average absolute relative deviation (AARD) comparing the observed with the model-specific predicted counts was calculated for each site. Models were also cross-validated for six selected sex-specific cancer sites.

Results: For the cross-validation, the AARD ranged from 2.8% to 33.0% for M0, 3.3% to 31.1% for M1, 6.6% to 30.5% for M2, and 10.4% to 393.2% for M3. M1 encountered the least technical issues in terms of model convergence and running time.

Conclusions: The state-level mixed effect model (M1) was overall superior in accuracy and computational efficiency and will be the new model for the ACS current year projection project.

Impact: In addition to predicting the unavailable state-level historical incidence counts for cancer surveillance, the updated algorithms have broad applicability for disease mapping and other activities of public health planning, advocacy, and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419141PMC
September 2021

Health Insurance Disruptions and Care Access and Affordability in the U.S.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Jul 24;61(1):3-12. Epub 2021 May 24.

Surveillance and Health Equity Science Department, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Introduction: Health insurance is associated with better care in the U.S., but little is known about the associations of coverage disruptions (i.e., periods without insurance) with care access, receipt, and affordability.

Methods: Adults aged 18-64 years with current private (n=124,746), public (n=30,932), or no (n=31,802) insurance coverage were identified from the 2011-2018 National Health Interview Survey. Data were analyzed in 2020. Separate multivariable logistic regressions evaluated the associations of having coverage disruptions or being uninsured with care access, receipt, and affordability.

Results: Overall, 5.0% of currently insured adults with private and 10.7% with public insurance reported a coverage disruption in the previous year, representing nearly 9.1 million adults in 2018. Among currently uninsured, 24.9% reported coverage loss within the previous year, representing nearly 8.1 million adults in 2018. Among adults with current private or current public coverage, disruptions were associated with lower receipt of all preventive services (AOR=0.42, 95% CI=0.37, 0.46 and AOR=0.48, 95% CI=0.40, 0.58, respectively), with forgoing any needed care because of cost (AOR=4.79, 95% CI=4.44, 5.17 and AOR=4.28, 95% CI=3.86, 4.75), and with medication nonadherence because of cost (AOR=3.55, 95% CI=3.13, 4.03 and AOR=4.09, 95% CI=3.43, 4.88) compared with that among adults with continuous coverage (p<0.05). Longer disruptions among currently insured adults were significantly associated with worse care access, receipt, and affordability, with dose-response patterns. Currently uninsured adults, especially those with longer uninsured periods, reported significantly worse care access, receipt, and affordability than currently insured adults with coverage disruptions or continuous coverage.

Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of continuous insurance coverage; disruptions owing to the COVID-19 pandemic will likely have adverse consequences for care access and affordability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.02.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Screening for Colorectal Cancer in the United States: Correlates and Time Trends by Type of Test.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Aug 4;30(8):1554-1565. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: It is strongly recommended that adults aged 50-75 years be screened for colorectal cancer. Recommended screening options include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, CT colonography, guaiac fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), or the more recently introduced FIT-DNA (FIT in combination with a stool DNA test). Colorectal cancer screening programs can benefit from knowledge of patterns of use by test type and within population subgroups.

Methods: Using 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data, we examined colorectal cancer screening test use for adults aged 50-75 years ( = 10,595). We also examined time trends in colorectal cancer screening test use from 2010-2018.

Results: In 2018, an estimated 66.9% of U.S. adults aged 50-75 years had a colorectal cancer screening test within recommended time intervals. However, the prevalence was less than 50% among those aged 50-54 years, those without a usual source of health care, those with no doctor visits in the past year, and those who were uninsured. The test types most commonly used within recommended time intervals were colonoscopy within 10 years (61.1%), FOBT or FIT in the past year (8.8%), and FIT-DNA within 3 years (2.7%). After age-standardization to the 2010 census population, the percentage up-to-date with CRC screening increased from 61.2% in 2015 to 65.3% in 2018, driven by increased use of stool testing, including FIT-DNA.

Conclusions: These results show some progress, driven by a modest increase in stool testing. However, colorectal cancer testing remains low in many population subgroups.

Impact: These results can inform efforts to achieve population colorectal cancer screening goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8338800PMC
August 2021

Association of Medicaid Expansion with Cancer Stage and Disparities in Newly Diagnosed Young Adults.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Young adults (YAs) experience higher uninsurance rates and more advanced stage at cancer diagnosis than older counterparts. We examined the association of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion with insurance coverage and stage at diagnosis among YAs newly diagnosed with cancer.

Methods: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 309,413 YAs aged 18-39 years who received a first cancer diagnosis in 2011-2016. Outcomes included percentages of YAs without health insurance at diagnosis, with stage I (early-stage) diagnoses, and with stage IV (advanced-stage) diagnoses. We conducted difference-in-difference (DD) analyses to examine outcomes, before and after states implemented Medicaid expansion compared with non-expansion states. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: The percentage of uninsured YAs decreased more in expansion than non-expansion states (adjusted DD = -1.0 percentage points [ppt]; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = -1.4 to -0.7 ppt; p<0.001). The overall percentage of stage I diagnoses increased (adjusted DD = 1.4 ppt; 95% CI = 0.6 to 2.2 ppt; p<0.001) in expansion compared with non-expansion states, with greater improvement among YAs in rural areas (adjusted DD = 7.2 ppt; 95% CI = 0.2 to 14.3 ppt; p=0.045) than metropolitan areas (adjusted DD = 1.3 ppt; 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.2 ppt; p=0.004), and among non-Hispanic Black patients (adjusted DD = 2.2 ppt; 95% CI = -0.03 to 4.4 ppt; p=0.05) than non-Hispanic White patients (adjusted DD = 1.4 ppt; 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.3 ppt; p=0.008). Despite the non-statistically significant change in stage IV diagnoses overall, the percentage declined more (adjusted DD = -1.2 ppt; 95% CI = -2.2 to -0.2 ppt; p=0.02) among melanoma patients in expansion relative to non-expansion states.

Conclusions: We provide the first evidence on the association of Medicaid expansion with shifts to early-stage cancer at diagnosis and a narrowing of rural-urban and Black-White disparities in YA cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab105DOI Listing
May 2021

The Association Between the Affordable Care Act and Insurance Status, Stage and Treatment in Patients with Testicular Cancer.

Urol Pract 2020 Jul 1;7(4):252-258. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Yale Cancer Outcomes Public Policy and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center.

Purpose: We aimed to determine whether insurance expansions implemented through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) were associated with changes in coverage status, disease stage, and treatment of younger adults with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT).

Materials And Methods: We identified men aged 18-64 diagnosed with testicular GCTs between 2010 and 2015 in the National Cancer Data Base. We defined time periods as: pre-ACA (2010-2013) and post-ACA (2014-2015) and used difference-in-differences (DID) modeling to examine associations between state Medicaid expansion status and changes in insurance, stage at diagnosis, and treatment.

Results: Following the ACA, the proportion of patients with any health insurance increased 3.7% (95% CI 3-4.5) in Medicaid expansion states and 3.0% (95% CI 1.5-4.5) in non-expansion states, mainly by gaining Medicaid and private insurance, respectively. The largest increases occurred in low-income patients, where Medicaid expansion was associated with an adjusted increase of 14.5 percentage points (95% CI 7.2-21.8) in Medicaid coverage following the ACA. We did not observe reductions in late-stage diagnoses during the observation period. Changes in the proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation for advanced-stage cancers were ongoing prior to the ACA and differed between expansion and non-expansion states, limiting assessment of ACA-related effects on individual treatments.

Conclusions: Post-ACA, the proportion of newly diagnosed testicular cancer patients with health insurance increased, with the largest effects seen among lowest income individuals. Our findings that changes in practice preceded the ACA and differed by expansion status highlight the need for caution in assessing the legislation's impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/upj.0000000000000109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130174PMC
July 2020

Updated Review of Major Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Test Use in the United States in 2018 and 2019, with a Focus on Smoking Cessation.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jul 19;30(7):1287-1299. Epub 2021 May 19.

Surveillance & Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Cancer prevention and early detection efforts are central to reducing cancer burden. Herein, we present estimates of cancer risk factors and screening tests in 2018 and 2019 among US adults, with a focus on smoking cessation. Cigarette smoking reached a historic low in 2019 (14.2%) partly because 61.7% (54.9 million) of all persons who had ever smoked had quit. Yet, the quit ratio was <45% among lower-income, uninsured, and Medicaid-insured persons, and was <55% among Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, lower-educated, lesbian, gay or bisexual, and recent immigrant persons, and in 12 of 17 Southern states. Obesity levels remain high (2017-2018: 42.4%) and were disproportionately higher among Black (56.9%) and Hispanic (43.7%) women. HPV vaccination in adolescents 13 to 17 years remains underutilized and over 40% were not up-to-date in 2019. Cancer screening prevalence was suboptimal in 2018 (colorectal cancer ≥50 years: 65.6%; breast ≥45 years: 63.2%; cervical 21-65 years: 83.7%), especially among uninsured adults (colorectal: 29.8%; breast: 31.1%). This snapshot of cancer prevention and early detection measures was mixed, and substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities persisted. However, gains could be accelerated with targeted interventions to increase smoking cessation in under-resourced populations, stem the obesity epidemic, and improve screening and HPV vaccination coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1754DOI Listing
July 2021

Associations of Medicaid Expansion With Insurance Coverage, Stage at Diagnosis, and Treatment Among Patients With Genitourinary Malignant Neoplasms.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e217051. Epub 2021 May 3.

Surveillance and Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Health insurance coverage is associated with improved outcomes in patients with cancer. However, it is unknown whether Medicaid expansion through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with genitourinary cancer.

Objective: To assess the association of Medicaid expansion with health insurance status, stage at diagnosis, and receipt of treatment among nonelderly patients with newly diagnosed kidney, bladder, or prostate cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-control study included adults aged 18 to 64 years with a new primary diagnosis of kidney, bladder, or prostate cancer, selected from the National Cancer Database from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2016. Patients in states that expanded Medicaid were the case group, and patients in nonexpansion states were the control group. Data were analyzed from January 2020 to March 2021.

Exposures: State Medicaid expansion status.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Insurance status, stage at diagnosis, and receipt of cancer and stage-specific treatments. Cases and controls were compared with difference-in-difference analyses.

Results: Among a total of 340 552 patients with newly diagnosed genitourinary cancers, 94 033 (27.6%) had kidney cancer, 25 770 (7.6%) had bladder cancer, and 220 749 (64.8%) had prostate cancer. Medicaid expansion was associated with a net decrease in uninsured rate of 1.1 (95% CI, -1.4 to -0.8) percentage points across all incomes and a net decrease in the low-income population of 4.4 (95% CI, -5.7 to -3.0) percentage points compared with nonexpansion states. Expansion was also associated with a significant shift toward early-stage diagnosis in kidney cancer across all income levels (difference-in-difference, 1.4 [95% CI, 0.1 to 2.6] percentage points) and among individuals with low income (difference-in-difference, 4.6 [95% CI, 0.3 to 9.0] percentage points) and in prostate cancer among individuals with low income (difference-in-difference, 3.0 [95% CI, 0.3 to 5.7] percentage points). Additionally, there was a net increase associated with expansion compared with nonexpansion in receipt of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer of 4.1 (95% CI, 2.9 to 5.3) percentage points across incomes and 4.5 (95% CI, 0 to 9.0) percentage points among patients in low-income areas.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that Medicaid expansion was associated with decreases in uninsured status, increases in the proportion of kidney and prostate cancer diagnosed in an early stage, and higher rates of active surveillance in the appropriate, low-risk prostate cancer population. Associations were concentrated in population residing in low-income areas and reinforce the importance of improving access to care to all patients with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.7051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134994PMC
May 2021

Risks of subsequent primary cancers among breast cancer survivors according to hormone receptor status.

Cancer 2021 Sep 18;127(18):3310-3324. Epub 2021 May 18.

Surveillance and Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: This study was aimed at examining the risks of subsequent primary cancers (SPCs) among breast cancer survivors by hormone receptor (HR) status and age at diagnosis.

Methods: Data from 12 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries were used to identify 431,222 breast cancer survivors (at least 1 year) diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 84 years from 1992 to 2015. Risks of SPCs were measured as the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and the excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10,000 person-years. Poisson regression was used to test the difference in SIRs by HR status.

Results: In comparison with the general population, the risk of new cancer diagnoses among survivors was 20% higher for those with HR-positive cancers (SIR, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.21; EAR, 23.3/10,000 person-years) and 44% higher for those with HR-negative cancers (SIR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.41-1.47; EAR, 45.2/10,000 person-years), with the risk difference between HR statuses statistically significant. The higher risk after HR-negative cancer was driven by acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and breast, ovarian, peritoneal, and lung cancers. By age at diagnosis, the total EAR per 10,000 person-years ranged from 15.8 (95% CI, 14.1-17.5; SIR, 1.11) among late-onset (age, 50-84 years) HR-positive survivors to 69.4 (95% CI, 65.1-73.7; SIR, 2.24) among early-onset (age, 20-49 years) HR-negative survivors, with subsequent breast cancer representing 73% to 80% of the total EAR. After breast cancer, the greatest EARs were for ovarian cancer among early-onset HR-negative survivors, lung cancer among early- and late-onset HR-negative survivors, and uterine corpus cancer among late-onset HR-positive survivors.

Conclusions: Risks of SPCs after breast cancer differ substantially by subtype and age. This suggests that more targeted approaches for cancer prevention and early-detection strategies are needed in survivorship care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33602DOI Listing
September 2021

Association between waiting time for radiotherapy initiation and disease progression among women with cervical cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Int J Cancer 2021 09 22;149(6):1284-1289. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Surveillance & Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

There is shortage of radiotherapy machines in low-income countries, including Ethiopia. Data on adverse effects of this on cancer outcomes are limited, however. Herein, we examined the extent of waiting time for radiotherapy and its association with disease progression based on a prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with stage IA-IVA cervical cancer in Addis Ababa and who were scheduled to receive radiotherapy at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, the only hospital that provides radiotherapy services in the country. Association was examined using Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression model. Among the 178 women with cervical cancer scheduled for receipt of radiotherapy and with vital status information, 16 deceased (9.0%) while waiting for radiotherapy. For the remaining 162 women who initiated radiotherapy, the median treatment waiting period was 137 days (IQR = 60-234 days), with 74.1% of women waiting for >60 days. Tumor progressed to higher stage for 44.4% of these women. Compared to those women who initiated radiotherapy ≤60 days after diagnostic confirmation, the odds of tumor progression to higher stage was three times higher in those women who initiated radiotherapy between 120-179 days (aOR =3.30, 95%CI: 1.18-9.27) and ≥180 days (aOR =3.06, 95%CI: 1.24-7.52). Waiting period for receipt of radiotherapy among women with cervical cancer is exceedingly long in Addis Ababa, and it is associated with disease progression to higher stages. These findings reinforce the need to expand radiotherapy infrastructure in order to mitigate the undue high burden of the disease in Ethiopia and other parts of Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33689DOI Listing
September 2021

Cancer Outcomes Among Medicare Beneficiaries And Their Younger Uninsured Counterparts.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2021 05;40(5):754-762

Helmneh Sineshaw is principal scientist, Epidemiology-Oncology Core, at Merck Research Laboratories, in West Point, Pennsylvania. He was a senior scientist in the Surveillance and Health Services Research Department, American Cancer Society, when this work was conducted.

Proposals for expanding Medicare insurance coverage to uninsured Americans approaching the Medicare eligibility age of sixty-five has been the subject of intense debate. We undertook this study to assess cancer survival differences between uninsured patients younger than age sixty-five and older Medicare beneficiaries by using data from the National Cancer Database from the period 2004-16. The main outcomes were survival at one, two, and five years for sixteen cancer types in 1,206,821 patients. We found that uninsured patients ages 60-64 were nearly twice as likely to present with late-stage disease and were significantly less likely to receive surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy than Medicare beneficiaries ages 66-69, despite lower comorbidity among younger patients. Compared with older Medicare patients, younger uninsured patients had strikingly lower five-year survival across cancer types. For instance, five-year survival in younger uninsured patients with late-stage breast or prostate cancer was 5-17 percent lower than that among older Medicare patients. We conclude that survival after a diagnosis of cancer is considerably lower in younger uninsured patients than in older Medicare patients. Expanding comprehensive health insurance coverage to people approaching Medicare age eligibility may improve cancer outcomes in the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01839DOI Listing
May 2021

Cancer Stage, Treatment, and Survival Among Transgender Patients in the United States.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Sep;113(9):1221-1227

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Transgender persons face many barriers to health care that may delay cancer diagnosis and treatment, possibly resulting in decreased survival. Yet, data on cancer in this population are limited. We examined cancer stage at diagnosis, treatment, and survival among transgender patients compared with cisgender patients in the National Cancer Database (NCDB).

Methods: Gender (male, female, or transgender) was extracted from medical records from patients diagnosed with cancer between 2003 and 2016. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between gender and stage at diagnosis and treatment receipt. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between gender and all-cause survival.

Results: Among 11 776 699 persons with cancer in NCDB, 589 were transgender. Compared with cisgender patients, transgender patients may be more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage lung cancer (OR = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95 to 3.28); be less likely to receive treatment for kidney (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.47) and pancreas (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.95) cancers; and have poorer survival after diagnosis with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.51 to 3.63), prostate (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.06 to 3.45), and bladder cancers (HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.36 to 6.00). Similar associations were found for other cancer sites, although not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Transgender patients may be diagnosed at later stages, be less likely to receive treatment, and have worse survival for many cancer types. Small sample size hampered our ability to detect statistically significant differences for some cancer sites. There is a need for transgender-focused cancer research as the population ages and grows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab028DOI Listing
September 2021

Breast Awareness, Self-Reported Abnormalities, and Breast Cancer in Rural Ethiopia: A Survey of 7,573 Women and Predictions of the National Burden.

Oncologist 2021 06 19;26(6):e1009-e1017. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometrics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and leading cause of cancer deaths among women in low-income countries. Ethiopia does not have a national BC screening program, and over 80% of patients are diagnosed with advanced stage disease. The aim of this study was to assess how many women self-report a breast abnormality and to determine their diagnoses in rural Ethiopia.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 7,573 adult women. Women were interviewed and educated about breast awareness, and those who reported breast abnormalities underwent clinical examination by experienced surgeons. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was obtained, and cytological analysis was performed. The findings were projected to the female population of Ethiopia to estimate current and future burden of diseases.

Findings: Of the 7,573 women surveyed, 258 (3.4%) reported a breast abnormality, 246 (3.2%) received a physical examination, and 49 (0.6%) were found to be eligible for ultrasound-guided FNAC or nipple discharge evaluation. Of all the cases, five (10.2%) breast malignancies were diagnosed. We projected for Ethiopia that, approximately, 1 million women could self-report a breast abnormality, 200,000 women could have a palpable breast mass, and 28,000 women could have BC in the country.

Conclusion: The health care system needs to build capacity to assess and diagnose breast diseases in rural areas of Ethiopia. These data can be used for resource allocation to meet immediate health care needs and to promote detecting and treating BC at earlier stages of disease.

Implications For Practice: Routine mammography screening in a resource-limited country with a young population is neither sensitive nor affordable. Clinical breast examination with consecutive ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology may ensure early diagnosis, downstage disease, and reduce breast cancer mortality. This study had the unique opportunity to educate over 7,573 rural women about breast abnormalities and offer clinical and cytological diagnosis for reported breast abnormalities. The findings were extrapolated to show the nationwide burden of breast abnormalities and unmet diagnostic needs. These data will serve as policy guide to improve adequate referral mechanisms and breast diagnostic and treatment facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176994PMC
June 2021

Delayed initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy among women with breast cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jun 18;187(3):877-882. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: Chemotherapy within 90 days following surgery for non-metastatic breast cancer is the standard of care. There are no data, however, on the extent of time to initiation of chemotherapy (TTC) in Africa settings, including Ethiopia.

Methods: A total of 223 women with stage I-III breast cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy during 2017-2019 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were included in the analysis. Based on information from medical records, we calculated TTC from date of surgery and completion of planned chemotherapy, with TTC > 90 days considered delayed and receipt of 85% of planned therapy as complete. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was used to assess whether TTC > 90 days was associated with sociodemographic or clinical factors.

Results: The median TTC was 63 days. Chemotherapy initiation was delayed in 30% (95% CI 24.4-36.6%) of patients, with the risk significantly higher in low-income women. For example, the risk of delay in women with lowest quartile family monthly income group (US$ < 61) was 3.98 (95% CI 1.67-9.46) higher than in those women with highest quartile family income group (US$ > 194). Remarkably, adjuvant chemotherapy was completed in 95% of patients.

Conclusions: A staggering one-in-three women with breast cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, delay to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy, with the delay more common in low-income women and yet with remarkably high degree of treatment adherence. These findings underscore the need for public policy to expand health care to low-income population to improve breast cancer care and other health outcomes in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06131-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multinational Population-Based Cohort Study of Care and Guideline Adherence.

Oncologist 2021 05 10;26(5):e807-e816. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.

Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is the most common female cancer in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We assessed treatment guideline adherence and its association with overall survival (OS).

Methods: Our observational study covered nine population-based cancer registries in eight countries: Benin, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Random samples of 44-125 patients diagnosed from 2010 to 2016 were selected in each. Cancer-directed therapy (CDT) was evaluated for degree of adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (U.S.) Guidelines.

Results: Of 632 patients, 15.8% received CDT with curative potential: 5.2% guideline-adherent, 2.4% with minor deviations, and 8.2% with major deviations. CDT was not documented or was without curative potential in 22%; 15.7% were diagnosed with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV disease. Adherence was not assessed in 46.9% (no stage or follow-up documented, 11.9%, or records not traced, 35.1%). The largest share of guideline-adherent CDT was observed in Nairobi (49%) and the smallest in Maputo (4%). In patients with FIGO stage I-III disease (n = 190), minor and major guideline deviations were associated with impaired OS (hazard rate ratio [HRR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-8.37; HRR, 1.97; CI, 0.59-6.56, respectively). CDT without curative potential (HRR, 3.88; CI, 1.19-12.71) and no CDT (HRR, 9.43; CI, 3.03-29.33) showed substantially worse survival.

Conclusion: We found that only one in six patients with cervical cancer in SSA received CDT with curative potential. At least one-fifth and possibly up to two-thirds of women never accessed CDT, despite curable disease, resulting in impaired OS. Investments into more radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgical training could change the fatal outcomes of many patients.

Implications For Practice: Despite evidence-based interventions including guideline-adherent treatment for cervical cancer (CC), there is huge disparity in survival across the globe. This comprehensive multinational population-based registry study aimed to assess the status quo of presentation, treatment guideline adherence, and survival in eight countries. Patients across sub-Saharan Africa present in late stages, and treatment guideline adherence is remarkably low. Both factors were associated with unfavorable survival. This report warns about the inability of most women with cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa to access timely and high-quality diagnostic and treatment services, serving as guidance to institutions and policy makers. With regard to clinical practice, there might be cancer-directed treatment options that, although not fully guideline adherent, have relevant survival benefit. Others should perhaps not be chosen even under resource-constrained circumstances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100544PMC
May 2021

Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries.

CA Cancer J Clin 2021 May 4;71(3):209-249. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.21660DOI Listing
May 2021

Late-Stage Diagnosis and Associated Factors Among Breast Cancer Patients in South and Southwest Ethiopia: A Multicenter Study.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 02 1;21(1):e112-e119. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometrics, and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany; Department of Gynaecology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in low- and middle-income countries, largely because of late-stage diagnosis. Yet studies are very limited in the Ethiopian context. Therefore, we determined the occurrence of late-stage disease and associated factors in selected public hospitals in south and southwest Ethiopia.

Patients And Methods: A 5-year retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on breast cancer patient medical records from January 2013 to December 2017 in 6 hospitals. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with late-stage disease (stage III and IV). Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals were used. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Overall, 426 breast cancer patients were identified, and 72.5% were diagnosed with late-stage disease. The mean ± standard deviation patient age was 42.8 ± 13.4 years. Factors associated with late diagnosis were patient delay in seeking care (AOR = 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-4.16); health system delays (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.02-2.59); female sex (AOR = 3.46; 95% CI, 1.50-7.98); rural residence (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.45-3.86); chief complaint of breast lump (AOR = 3.01; 95% CI, 1.49-6.07); and history of comorbidities (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.02-2.91).

Conclusion: The majority of patients were diagnosed with late-stage diagnosis of breast cancer. Patient delays in seeking care, health system delays, being female, rural residence, and patient comorbidities were associated factors. These findings provide evidence that efforts to increase public and health provider awareness to promote early breast cancer diagnosis, particularly in rural areas, are needed in south and southwest Ethiopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2020.08.011DOI Listing
February 2021

Cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking in 152 U.S. metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas, 2013-2017.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Mar 26;32(3):311-316. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Data Science Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: There are limited data on the burden of cancer attributable to cigarette smoking by metropolitan areas to inform local tobacco control policies in the USA. We estimated the proportion of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking (or population attributable fraction [PAF]) in 152 U.S. metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs).

Methods: Smoking-related PAFs for cancer mortality in ages ≥ 30 years in 2013-2017 were estimated using cross-sectional age-, sex-, and MMSA-specific cigarette smoking prevalence and cancer mortality data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the U.S. Cancer Statistics Database, respectively.

Results: Overall smoking-related PAFs of cancer ranged from 8.8% (95% CI, 6.3-11.9%) to 35.7% (33.3-37.9%); MMSAs with the highest PAFs were in the South region and Appalachia. PAFs also substantially varied across MMSAs within regions or states. In the Northeast, for example, the PAF ranged from 24.2% (23.7-24.7%) to 33.7% (31.3-36.2%).

Conclusion: The proportion of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking is considerable in each MMSA, with as many as 4 in 10 cancer deaths attributable to smoking in the South region and Appalachia. Broad and equitable implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions at all government levels could avert many cancer deaths across the USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01385-yDOI Listing
March 2021
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