Publications by authors named "Ahmed Said Ali"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effectiveness of the abdominal binder in relieving pain after cesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Abdominal binder is a non-pharmacological method of relieving pain after surgical procedures.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the abdominal binder in relieving pain and distress scores after cesarean delivery (CD).

Search Strategy: The following terms were searched: cesarean section, cesarean, caesarean, abdominal deliveries, C-section, abdominal delivery, abdominal binding, binder, and abdominal binder.

Selection Criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with patients undergoing CD receiving an abdominal binder compared with non-users of the abdominal binder.

Data Collection And Analysis: Five electronic databases were searched until November 2019. Records were screened for eligibility. Data were extracted independently and analyzed. The main outcomes were pain and distress scores.

Results: The final analysis included six RCTs. Overall effect estimate favored the abdominal binder group over the control group in the following outcomes: VAS pain scores after 24 h (mean difference [MD] -1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.14 to -0.39; P = 0.01), VAS scores after 48 h (MD -1.21; 95% CI -1.51 to -0.90; P < 0.001), distress score after 24 h (MD -1.87; 95% CI -3.01 to -0.73; P = 0.001), and distress score after 48 h (MD -1.87; 95% CI -3.07 to -0.67; P = 0.002).

Conclusion: The abdominal binder could be an effective, simple, non-pharmacological option of relieving pain and distress after CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13607DOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluating efficacy of intravenous carbetocin in reducing blood loss during abdominal myomectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

Fertil Steril 2021 Mar 16;115(3):793-801. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of carbetocin versus placebo in decreasing intraoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion during abdominal myomectomy.

Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Setting: Tertiary university hospital from September 2019 to February 2020.

Patient(s): A total of 138 women with symptomatic leiomyoma who were candidates for abdominal myomectomy (n = 69 in each group).

Intervention(s): We randomized the study participants in a 1:1 ratio to carbetocin and placebo groups. Intravenous 100 μg carbetocin or placebo was administered slowly after induction of anesthesia.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Intraoperative blood loss, need for blood transfusion, postoperative hemoglobin, operative time, length of hospitalization, and drug side-effects.

Result(s): The baseline characteristics were similar among all groups. Carbetocin had significantly lower intraoperative blood loss compared with placebo (mean difference 184 mL). Hemoglobin level 24 hours after surgery was significantly lower in the placebo group than in the carbetocin group (9.1 ± 0.8 vs. 10.3 ± 0.6 g/dL). Eight women in the carbetocin group needed blood transfusion compared with 17 in placebo group. Operative time, length of hospitalization, and side-effects were similar in both groups.

Conclusion(s): A single preoperative intravenous dose of 100 μg carbetocin is a simple, practical, and effective method of decreasing intraoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion during abdominal myomectomy, with tolerable, few, nonsignificant side-effects.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT04083625.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.09.132DOI Listing
March 2021

Safety and Efficacy of Teplizumab for Treatment of Type One Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut,. Egypt.

Background: Type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by gradual destruction of beta cells in islets of Langerhans. Teplizumab is a humanized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, which may have beneficial effects for T1DM patients.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of teplizumab in T1DM patients.

Methods: We searched electronic databases using related keywords for randomized clinical trials that assessing the safety and efficacy of teplizumab. We evaluated the retrieved citations for eligibility, and we extracted the data then analyzed it using Review Manager Software.

Results: We included eight randomized clinical trials with 866 patients. Teplizumab was associated with lower insulin use than placebo at 6 months (MD = -0.17, 95% CI [-0.24, -0.09], P < 0.001), 12 months (MD = -0.12, 95% CI [-0.18, -0.06], P < 0.001), 18 months (MD = -0.22, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.11], P < 0.001) and 24 months (MD = -0.17, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.06], P = 0.003). The area under the curve of C-peptide was significantly increased in teplizumab group at 12 months (MD = 0.08, 95% CI [0.01, 0.15], P = 0.03), 18 months (MD = 0.13, 95% CI [0.01, 0.25], P = 0.03) and 24 months (MD = 0.13, 95% CI [0.01, 0.24], P = 0.03). No significant effect of teplizumab on HbA1c levels at any time point. Teplizumab was associated with some side effects such as lymphopenia, skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders.

Conclusions: Teplizumab is associated with lower insulin use and higher AUC of C-peptide in type 1 diabetic patients with no significant effect on Hb1c levels. Besides, teplizumab showed some adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530320999201209222921DOI Listing
December 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Tramadol versus Intravenous Paracetamol for Relief of Acute Pain of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2020 19;85(5):388-395. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Many pharmaceutical, surgical, and complementary medical interventions are used for primary dysmenorrhea treatment. However, no consensus has been reached about the most effective intervention.

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of IV tramadol versus IV paracetamol in relieving acute pain of primary dysmenorrhea.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital and included 100 patients between 18 and 35 years old diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea. Patients received either 1-g paracetamol or 100-mg tramadol in 100-mL normal saline as an IV infusion over 10 min. Pain intensity was measured by using a visual analog scale at 15, 30, 60 min, and 2 h. We recorded drug side effects and requirements for rescue analgesics.

Results: Pain scores were significantly lower in the tramadol group compared with the paracetamol group at 15, 30, 60 min, and 2 h (p < 0.001). Fewer patients in the tramadol group needed rescue analgesics compared with the paracetamol group (p = 0.04). No significant differences were reported in side effects between both groups.

Conclusions: IV tramadol is superior to IV paracetamol in relieving acute pain of primary dysmenorrhea with a comparable side effect profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000510268DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of self-administered vaginal dinoprostone on pain perception during copper intrauterine device insertion in parous women: a randomized controlled trial.

Fertil Steril 2020 10 28;114(4):861-868. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective(s): To assess efficacy and safety of self-administered 3 mg dinoprostone vaginally in reducing pain during copper intrauterine device (IUD) insertion in parous women.

Design: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

Setting: Family planning clinic in a tertiary referral hospital.

Patient(s): Multiparous women who were attending a family planning clinic and requesting copper IUD insertion.

Interventions(s): We randomly assigned 160 participants into two groups: The dinoprostone group (n = 80) received 3 mg dinoprostone vaginally, and the placebo group (n = 80) received placebo vaginally.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Our primary outcome was mean pain scores during IUD insertion. Our secondary outcomes were mean pain scores during tenaculum application, during uterine sounding, and 15 minutes after insertion, ease of insertion, satisfaction score, need for additional analgesics, and side-effects.

Result(s): Both groups showed no significant difference in anticipated pain score (P=.41), pain during tenaculum placement (P=.22), and pain during sound insertion (P=.07). The dinoprostone group had significantly lower pain scores during IUD insertion (34.8 ± 10.1 vs. 57.8 ± 11.8) and 15 minutes after insertion (20.6 ± 6.4 vs. 29.6 ± 6.2), easier IUD insertion (43.6 ± 21.9 vs. 64.7 ± 18.1), and higher satisfaction (83.9 ± 11.6 vs. 63.0 ± 9.1) compared with the placebo group. Fewer patients required additional analgesics in the dinoprostone group compared with the placebo group (P=.01). Side-effects were similar between the groups.

Conclusion(s): Self-administered 3 mg dinoprostone vaginally before copper IUD insertion in parous women reduces pain scores during IUD insertion, making insertion easier and increasing women's satisfaction, with tolerable side-effects.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT04046302.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.05.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Medical therapy options for endometriosis related pain, which is better? A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Jan 29;50(1):101798. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Our objective was to assess and rank different pharmacological interventions for relieving endometriosis-related pain. We conducted an online bibliographic search in different databases from their inception until March 2019. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed different medical therapies in the management of endometriosis-related pain. We applied this network meta-analysis (NMA) based on the frequentist approach using statistical package "netmeta" (version 1.0-1) in R software. Our main outcomes were the change in severity of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea score, non-menstrual pelvic pain score, and dyspareunia score. Overall, 36 RCTs were included in this study (patients no. = 7942). Dienogest (0.94), combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) (0.782), and elagolix (0.38) were the highest-ranked interventions for reducing the severity of pelvic pain at three months, while at six months, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues (0.75), levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) (0.73), and dienogest (0.65) were linked to more reduction in pelvic pain. The ranking p-score showed that GnRH analogues was the highest-ranked treatment for reducing dysmenorrhea at 3 months (1.00), while CHCs were the highest-ranked treatment at 6 months (0.97), followed by GnRH analogues (0.89). GnRH analogues (0.63) and elagolix (0.54) at three months while desogestrel (0.94) and CHCs (0.91) at six months were the highest-ranked treatment to reduce non-menstrual pelvic pain. GnRH analogues and elagolix were the highest-ranked pharmacologic therapies for reducing dyspareunia. In conclusion, CHCs, GnRH analogues, progesterone, and elagolix were the best approaches in reducing the pain of endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101798DOI Listing
January 2021

Antenatal perineal massage benefits in reducing perineal trauma and postpartum morbidities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int Urogynecol J 2020 09 12;31(9):1735-1745. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Most vaginal births are associated with trauma to the perineum. The morbidity associated with perineal trauma can be significant, especially when it leads to third- and fourth-degree perineal tears. We hypothesized that antenatal perineal massage could decrease the incidence of perineal trauma, particularly severe perineal tears and other postpartum complications.

Methods: We searched four different databases from inception until August 2019 for the available trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which assessed the effect of antenatal perineal massage (intervention group) versus control group (no antenatal perineal massage) in perineal trauma patients. Data were extracted from eligible studies and meta-analyzed using RevMan software. Primary outcomes were the risk of episiotomies and perineal tears. Secondary outcomes were perineal pain, second stage of labor duration, wound healing, anal incontinence, and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min.

Results: Eleven RCTs with 3467 patients were analyzed. Women who received antenatal perineal massage had significantly lower incidence of episiotomies (RR = 0.79, 95% CI [0.72, 0.87], p < 0.001) and perineal tears (RR = 0.79, 95% CI [0.67, 0.94], p = 0.007), particularly the risk of third- and fourth-degree perineal tears (p = 0.03). Better wound healing and less perineal pain were evident in the antenatal perineal massage group. Antenatal perineal massage reduced the second stage of labor duration (p = 0.005) and anal incontinence (p = 0.003) with significant improvement in Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Antenatal perineal massage is associated with a lower risk of severe perineal trauma and postpartum complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-020-04302-8DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparative Efficacy of Vaginal Misoprostol vs Vaginal Dinoprostone Administered 3 Hours Prior to Copper T380A Intrauterine Device Insertion in Nulliparous Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2020 Oct 21;33(5):559-565. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Study Objective: To compare the effectiveness of misoprostol and dinoprostone tablets administered vaginally 3 hours before copper intrauterine device (IUD) insertion vs placebo in reducing pain and increasing ease of insertion among nulliparous women.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Tertiary referral hospital.

Participants: A total of 129 nulliparous women requesting a Copper T380A IUD insertion.

Interventions: Women were randomized to receive 200 μg misoprostol or 3 mg dinoprostone or placebo 3 hours before IUD insertion.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Primary outcome was patient-reported pain during IUD insertion using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes include provider ease of insertion, women satisfaction level, and side effects.

Results: Participants' baseline characteristics were comparable between the study groups. Mean pain score during IUD insertion was lower with misoprostol than placebo (3.1 ± 2.3 vs 4.4 ± 2.2; P = .02) and dinoprostone compared to placebo (2.4 ± 1.8 vs 4.4 ± 2.2; P < .001). Clinicians reported easier IUD insertion with misoprostol than placebo (2.4 ± 1.7 vs 4.0 ± 2.4; P = .001) and dinoprostone compared to placebo (2.0 ± 1.5 vs 4.0 ± 2.4; P < .001). Women's satisfaction levels were higher with both misoprostol and dinoprostone than placebo (P < .001). Side effects did not differ among the 3 study groups.

Conclusions: Premedication with vaginal misoprostol or dinoprostone effectively lowered pain during copper IUD insertion. However, the reduction in pain scores was clinically significant only in women who received dinoprostone. In both the misoprostol and dinoprostone groups, clinicians found the procedure easier, and women were more satisfied with IUD insertion. Side effects and complications were similar in all groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2020.04.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Benefits of Self-administered Vaginal Dinoprostone 12 Hours before Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine Device Insertion in Nulliparous Adolescents and Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2020 Aug 28;33(4):382-387. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Study Objective: To assess safety and efficacy of self-administered vaginal dinoprostone 12 hours before a 52-mg levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) insertion in adolescents and young nulliparous women.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Tertiary referral hospital.

Participants: Nulliparous adolescents and young women aged 18-22 years.

Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups; the dinoprostone group (n = 65) received dinoprostone 3 mg vaginally, and the placebo group (n = 65) received placebo tablets vaginally.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was pain scores during LNG-IUD insertion measured using a visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes were pain scores during speculum insertion, tenaculum placement, uterine sounding, and 20 minutes postprocedure, ease of insertion, Women's satisfaction score, need for additional analgesics, and side effects.

Results: The dinoprostone group had significantly lower pain scores during LNG-IUD insertion (2.83 ± 1.08 vs 3.95 ± 1.63), tenaculum placement (2.97 ± 1.41 vs 4.55 ± 1.53) and sounding of uterus (3.55 ± 1.71 vs 5.12 ± 1.37) compared with the placebo group (P < .001). No significant differences were found between both groups regarding anticipated pain scores (P = .85), pain during speculum insertion and 20 minutes postinsertion and insertion duration (P = .53). Women's satisfaction, provider reported ease of insertion, and need for additional analgesia were significantly better among dinoprostone users (P < .001, < .001, and .02, respectively). Side effects and procedure complications were similar for the 2 groups.

Conclusion: Self-administered dinoprostone 3 mg vaginally 12 hours before a 52-mg LNG-IUD insertion in nulliparous adolescent and young women effectively reduced pain during insertion and increased women's satisfaction and ease of insertion reported by clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2020.02.010DOI Listing
August 2020

An updated systematic review and meta-analysis about the safety and efficacy of infliximab biosimilar, CT-P13, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2019 Oct 6;34(10):1633-1652. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, El-Sharkia, Egypt.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of infliximab biosimilar, CT-P13, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, and Web of Science for relevant clinical trials discussing CT-P31 administration for IBD patients either naïve to biological therapy or switched from IFX therapy. Data of the rates of clinical response, clinical remission, and adverse events were extracted and pooled in a random effect model meta-analysis using CMA version 2.

Results: Thirty-two studies with a total of 3464 IBD patients treated with CT-P13 were identified. The pooled rates of clinical response among Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) at 8-14 weeks were 0.81 (95% CI = 0.72 to 0.87) and 0.68 (95% CI = 0.63 to 0.72), respectively, and at 48-63 weeks were 0.69 (95% CI = 0.48 to 0.85) and 0.54 (95% CI = 0.45 to 0.63) respectively. After switching from IFX to CT-P13, the pooled rates of sustained clinical response among CD and UC at 30-32 weeks were 0.84 (95% CI = 0.57 to 0.96) and 0.96 (95% CI = 0.58 to 0.99), respectively, and at 48-63 weeks were 0.51 (95% CI = 0.22 to 0.79) and 0.83 (95% CI = 0.19 to 0.99) respectively. Moreover, adverse events were reported (CD = 0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.22; UC = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.15).

Conclusion: CT-P13 is effective and well tolerated in short and long-term periods. Switching to CT-P13 is recommended for the management of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-019-03354-7DOI Listing
October 2019

The Effect of Zumba Exercise on Reducing Menstrual Pain in Young Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2019 Oct 11;32(5):541-545. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Study Objective: To study the effectiveness of performing Zumba exercise on the severity and duration of pain in patients with primary dysmenorrhea.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Cairo University gynecology Hospital and Bahgat gym and fitness center.

Participants: Ninety-eight women diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea.

Interventions: Study participants were divided randomly into 2 equal groups: group I included women who engaged in Zumba exercise for 60 minutes twice weekly for 8 weeks, and group II was a control group with no intervention.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the menstrual pain intensity measured using the visual analogue scale scores at 4 and 8 weeks after starting Zumba exercise. The secondary outcome was the difference in the duration of pain in both groups.

Results: Both groups were homogeneous regarding the baseline demographic characteristics. The severity of primary dysmenorrhea at the beginning of the study was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Menstrual pain intensity was significantly decreased in the Zumba group after 4 and 8 weeks of Zumba compared with the control group (mean difference, -2.94 [95% confidence interval, -3.39 to -2.48] and -3.79 [95% confidence interval, -4.16 to -3.43], respectively; P = .001). Also, the duration of pain was shorter in the Zumba group compared with the control group at 8 weeks (4.92 ± 1.90 vs 9.10 ± 2.92 hours, respectively; P = .001).

Conclusion: The Zumba intervention can reduce the severity and duration of menstrual pain thus suggesting that regularly performing Zumba might be a possible complementary treatment for primary dysmenorrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2019.06.001DOI Listing
October 2019

The safety and effectiveness of Bakri balloon in the management of postpartum hemorrhage: a systematic review.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jan 24;34(2):300-307. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a direct cause of maternal death all over the world. A Bakri balloon is recommended by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and World Health Organization (WHO) as a treatment line for PPH unresponsive to uterotonics. We carried out a systematic review to assess the safety and effectiveness of Bakri balloon in the management of PPH. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, central Cochrane, and Web of Science, from 2001 to 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of Bakri balloon on refractory PPH. Twenty-eight articles were included for analysis. The primary indication for the use of a Bakri balloon tamponade was PPH. Only 67.9% (19/28) quantified the estimate blood loss necessary to use the balloon. Uterine atony was the underlying cause of PPH in 75% (21/28) of studies. Most of the studies on Bakri balloon are followed by vaginal birth (3/4). Bakri balloon displacement from the uterine cavity was reported by five publications, with the overall rate being 9% (95% CI: 5-15%). Hysterectomy was necessary for 1% (95% CI: 0-8%) of the women who required the balloon. Bakri balloon seems to be a less effective tool for management of PPH either after vaginal or cesarean delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1605349DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy and safety of tramadol in pain relief during diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Fertil Steril 2019 03 30;111(3):547-552. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the evidence about the safety and efficacy of tramadol in pain relief during diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy (OH).

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Setting: Not applicable.

Patient(s): Patients undergoing diagnostic OH received tramadol versus those who were administered placebo.

Intervention(s): Electronic databases were searched using the following MeSH terms (tramadol OR opioids OR opioid OR narcotic OR narcotics) AND (hysteroscopy OR hysteroscopic).

Main Outcome Measure(s): Pain assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) during OH, immediately and 30 minutes after the procedure.

Result(s): One hundred thirteen studies were identified of which four randomized clinical trials were deemed eligible for this review (tramadol: n = 209; placebo: n = 209). The pooled estimate showed that tramadol significantly reduced VAS during procedure than placebo (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.78 to -0.88, I = 3%, P = .36). In addition, tramadol significantly reduced VAS immediately after the procedure (WMD = -1.05; 95% CI -1.49 to -0.61, I= 0, P = .84) and 30 minutes after (WMD = -0.98; 95% CI -1.30 to -0.65, I = 0, P = .88).

Conclusion(s): This meta-analysis suggests that tramadol is safe, effective, and gives favorable results in reducing pain during diagnostic OH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.10.026DOI Listing
March 2019