Publications by authors named "Ahmed N Alkanaq"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of mitochondrial DNA variants detection using short- and long-read sequencing.

J Hum Genet 2019 Nov 13;64(11):1107-1116. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

The recent advent of long-read sequencing technologies is expected to provide reasonable answers to genetic challenges unresolvable by short-read sequencing, primarily the inability to accurately study structural variations, copy number variations, and homologous repeats in complex parts of the genome. However, long-read sequencing comes along with higher rates of random short deletions and insertions, and single nucleotide errors. The relatively higher sequencing accuracy of short-read sequencing has kept it as the first choice of screening for single nucleotide variants and short deletions and insertions. Albeit, short-read sequencing still suffers from systematic errors that tend to occur at specific positions where a high depth of reads is not always capable to correct for these errors. In this study, we compared the genotyping of mitochondrial DNA variants in three samples using PacBio's Sequel (Pacific Biosciences Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) long-read sequencing and illumina's HiSeqX10 (illumine Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) short-read sequencing data. We concluded that, despite the differences in the type and frequency of errors in the long-reads sequencing, its accuracy is still comparable to that of short-reads for genotyping short nuclear variants; due to the randomness of errors in long reads, a lower coverage, around 37 reads, can be sufficient to correct for these random errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0654-9DOI Listing
November 2019

MYRF haploinsufficiency causes 46,XY and 46,XX disorders of sex development: bioinformatics consideration.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 07;28(14):2319-2329

Department of Human Genetics.

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are defined as congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. In many DSD cases, genetic causes remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed a case-control exome sequencing study comparing gene-based burdens of rare damaging variants between 26 DSD cases and 2625 controls. We found exome-wide significant enrichment of rare heterozygous truncating variants in the MYRF gene encoding myelin regulatory factor, a transcription factor essential for oligodendrocyte development. All three variants occurred de novo. We identified an additional 46,XY DSD case of a de novo damaging missense variant in an independent cohort. The clinical symptoms included hypoplasia of Müllerian derivatives and ovaries in 46,XX DSD patients, defective development of Sertoli and Leydig cells in 46,XY DSD patients and congenital diaphragmatic hernia in one 46,XY DSD patient. As all of these cells and tissues are or partly consist of coelomic epithelium (CE)-derived cells (CEDC) and CEDC developed from CE via proliferaiton and migration, MYRF might be related to these processes. Consistent with this hypothesis, single-cell RNA sequencing of foetal gonads revealed high expression of MYRF in CE and CEDC. Reanalysis of public chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data for rat Myrf showed that genes regulating proliferation and migration were enriched among putative target genes of Myrf. These results suggested that MYRF is a novel causative gene of 46,XY and 46,XX DSD and MYRF is a transcription factor regulating CD and/or CEDC proliferation and migration, which is essential for development of multiple organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz066DOI Listing
July 2019

RNA sequencing solved the most common but unrecognized NEB pathogenic variant in Japanese nemaline myopathy.

Genet Med 2019 07 23;21(7):1629-1638. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

Purpose: The diagnostic rate for Mendelian diseases by exome sequencing (ES) is typically 20-40%. The low rate is partly because ES misses deep-intronic or synonymous variants leading to aberrant splicing. In this study, we aimed to apply RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to efficiently detect the aberrant splicings and their related variants.

Methods: Aberrant splicing in biopsied muscles from six nemaline myopathy (NM) cases unresolved by ES were analyzed with RNA-seq. Variants related to detected aberrant splicing events were analyzed with Sanger sequencing. Detected variants were screened in NM patients unresolved by ES.

Results: We identified a novel deep-intronic NEB pathogenic variant, c.1569+339A>G in one case, and another novel synonymous NEB pathogenic variant, c.24684G>C (p.Ser8228Ser) in three cases. The c.24684G>C variant was observed to be the most frequent among all NEB pathogenic variants in normal Japanese populations with a frequency of 1 in 178 (20 alleles in 3552 individuals), but was previously unrecognized. Expanded screening of the variant identified it in a further four previously unsolved nemaline myopathy cases.

Conclusion: These results indicated that RNA-seq may be able to solve a large proportion of previously undiagnosed muscle diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0360-6DOI Listing
July 2019