Publications by authors named "Ahmed Khalil"

194 Publications

-Mediated Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles and Their Antifungal Activity against in Faba Bean Plants.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;7(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Biology Department, College of Science, Taibah University, Yanbu 41911, Saudi Arabia.

Rhizoctonia root-rot disease causes severe economic losses in a wide range of crops, including worldwide. Currently, biosynthesized nanoparticles have become super-growth promoters as well as antifungal agents. In this study, biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) have been examined as growth promoters as well as antifungal agents against RCMB 031001 in vitro and in vivo. Se-NPs were synthesized biologically by ATCC 55000 and characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. TEM and DLS images showed that Se-NPs are mono-dispersed spheres with a mean diameter of 41.2 nm. Se-NPs improved healthy cv. Giza 716 seed germination, morphological, metabolic indicators, and yield. Furthermore, Se-NPs exhibited influential antifungal activity against in vitro as well as in vivo. Results revealed that minimum inhibition and minimum fungicidal concentrations of Se-NPs were 0.0625 and 1 mM, respectively. Moreover, Se-NPs were able to decrease the pre-and post-emergence of damping-off and minimize the severity of root rot disease. The most effective treatment method is found when soaking and spraying were used with each other followed by spraying and then soaking individually. Likewise, Se-NPs improve morphological and metabolic indicators and yield significantly compared with infected control. In conclusion, biosynthesized Se-NPs by ATCC 55000 are a promising and effective agent against damping-off and root rot diseases in as well as plant growth inducer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7030195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001679PMC
March 2021

Bilateral asymmetrical hip dislocations with acetabulum fractures; a case report.

Trauma Case Rep 2021 Apr 11;32:100453. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Ruth K M Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan.

Bilateral hip dislocation is a rare injury and asymmetrical hip dislocations are even very rare entities. We are reporting two cases of bilateral asymmetrical hip dislocations with associated acetabulum fractures. Mechanism of injury in first case was fall from height and in other case road traffic accident. Associated injuries were midshaft femur fracture and sciatic nerve (Peroneal part). Anterior hip dislocation in both cases is reduced closely but posterior hip dislocation in both cases relocated openly due to ipsilateral femur fracture in first case and unstable hip in second case. Acetabulum fractures fixed with reconstruction plate. Postoperative recovery of patient was uneventful except sciatic nerve injury (Peroneal part) lead to foot drop that is supported with ankle foot arthrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcr.2021.100453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985565PMC
April 2021

BRAVE-NET: Fully Automated Arterial Brain Vessel Segmentation in Patients With Cerebrovascular Disease.

Front Artif Intell 2020 25;3:552258. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

CLAIM - Charité Lab for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Arterial brain vessel assessment is crucial for the diagnostic process in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, such as time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) imaging are applied in the clinical routine to depict arteries. They are, however, only visually assessed. Fully automated vessel segmentation integrated into the clinical routine could facilitate the time-critical diagnosis of vessel abnormalities and might facilitate the identification of valuable biomarkers for cerebrovascular events. In the present work, we developed and validated a new deep learning model for vessel segmentation, coined BRAVE-NET, on a large aggregated dataset of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. BRAVE-NET is a multiscale 3-D convolutional neural network (CNN) model developed on a dataset of 264 patients from three different studies enrolling patients with cerebrovascular diseases. A context path, dually capturing high- and low-resolution volumes, and deep supervision were implemented. The BRAVE-NET model was compared to a baseline Unet model and variants with only context paths and deep supervision, respectively. The models were developed and validated using high-quality manual labels as ground truth. Next to precision and recall, the performance was assessed quantitatively by Dice coefficient (DSC); average Hausdorff distance (AVD); 95-percentile Hausdorff distance (95HD); and via visual qualitative rating. The BRAVE-NET performance surpassed the other models for arterial brain vessel segmentation with a DSC = 0.931, AVD = 0.165, and 95HD = 29.153. The BRAVE-NET model was also the most resistant toward false labelings as revealed by the visual analysis. The performance improvement is primarily attributed to the integration of the multiscaling context path into the 3-D Unet and to a lesser extent to the deep supervision architectural component. We present a new state-of-the-art of arterial brain vessel segmentation tailored to cerebrovascular pathology. We provide an extensive experimental validation of the model using a large aggregated dataset encompassing a large variability of cerebrovascular disease and an external set of healthy volunteers. The framework provides the technological foundation for improving the clinical workflow and can serve as a biomarker extraction tool in cerebrovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frai.2020.552258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861225PMC
September 2020

Neonates and Young Infants With COVID-19 Presented With Sepsis-Like Syndrome: A Retrospective Case Controlled Study.

Front Pediatr 2021 25;9:634844. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Section of Academic General Paediatrics, Department of Paediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

We aimed to describe the presentations and biochemical characteristics of sepsis-like syndrome (SLS) in infants aged <2 months who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-in comparison to those in the same age group who were SARS-CoV-2-negative. COVID-19 presents with a spectrum of manifestations, and children seem to have a favorable clinical course compared to other age groups. Limited data are available for symptomatic infants. This was a case-controlled single-institution retrospective study on infants aged <2 months admitted with SLS between 1 April 2020 and 1 July 2020. These infants were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 ( = 41), infants with positive nasal/oropharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for SARS-CoV-2; and Group 2 ( = 40), infants with negative PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 (control group). Details between both groups were reviewed and analyzed. The clinical and laboratory data for SARS-CoV-2 -positive infants who presented with SLS may differ from those for infants with SLS who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 105 infants were admitted with clinical sepsis: 41 were SARS-CoV-2-positive, and 64 were negative. Fever was present in 90% of SARS-CoV-2-positive infants vs. 80% of the negative group. SARS-CoV-2-positive infants had a higher incidence of nasal congestion and cough (39 and 29%, respectively) compared to the SARS-CoV-2-negative group (20 and 3%, respectively) ( < 0.05). Poor feeding and hypoactivity occurred more frequently in the SARS-CoV-2-negative group (58 and 45%, respectively) than in the SARS-CoV-2-positive group (22 and 12%, respectively, < 0.004). Sepsis workup, including lumbar puncture, was performed in 67% and partial septic workup was performed in 23% of the SARS-CoV-2-positive infants. Full sepsis workup was performed in 92% of the SARS-CoV-2-negative group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were negative in 26/27SARS-CoV-2-positive infants (an infant had ). All the SARS-CoV-2-negative infants had negative CSF cultures. Blood culture was negative in both groups. Urine culture showed bacterial growth in 9 infants with SARS-CoV-2-negative sepsis. Our study showed that respiratory symptoms (cough and nasal congestion) were more prominent in the SARS-CoV-2-positive group, while poor feeding and hypoactivity were reported more frequently in the negative group. However, the clinical differentiation between COVID-19 disease and sepsis in such age groups is difficult. Therefore, screening young infants with SLS for SARS-CoV-2- is necessary during this pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.634844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947254PMC
February 2021

Asc-1 regulates white versus beige adipocyte fate in a subcutaneous stromal cell population.

Nat Commun 2021 03 11;12(1):1588. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

RG Adipocytes & Metabolism, Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany.

Adipose tissue expansion, as seen in obesity, is often metabolically detrimental causing insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. However, white adipose tissue expansion at early ages is essential to establish a functional metabolism. To understand the differences between adolescent and adult adipose tissue expansion, we studied the cellular composition of the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue of two and eight weeks old mice using single cell RNA sequencing. We identified a subset of adolescent preadipocytes expressing the mature white adipocyte marker Asc-1 that showed a low ability to differentiate into beige adipocytes compared to Asc-1 negative cells in vitro. Loss of Asc-1 in subcutaneous preadipocytes resulted in spontaneous differentiation of beige adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, this was mediated by a function of the amino acid transporter ASC-1 specifically in proliferating preadipocytes involving the intracellular accumulation of the ASC-1 cargo D-serine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21826-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952576PMC
March 2021

Insights of doxorubicin loaded graphene quantum dots: Synthesis, DFT drug interactions, and cytotoxicity.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Mar 29;122:111921. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Environmental and Smart Technology Group (ESTG), Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, 63514 Fayoum, Egypt; Materials Science & Engineering Department, School of Innovative Design Engineering, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST), 179 New Borg El-Arab City, Egypt. Electronic address:

Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), graphene oxide nanosheets (GO), single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, MWCNTs) exhibit different drug loading capacities, release rates, and targeting abilities. This explains the reported discrepancy of their associated therapeutic efficiencies when used as drug carrier systems. In this study, for the first time, two different types of GQDs named GQDs1 and GQDs2 were synthesized, fully characterized, loaded with the chemotherapeutic Doxorubicin (DOX) and compared with other CNMs under the same conditions. The effects of shape (spheres, tubes and sheets), size (30-180 nm), and surface charge (-64.9 to -11.85 mv) of the synthesized CNMs on DOX loading and release efficiency as well as cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells were investigated. Furthermore, the biosafety of the synthesized GQDs was studied both at the in vitro level using human WI-38 cells and at the in vivo level at low and high doses of 5 and 20 mg/Kg using healthy female Wister rats. Results revealed that GO nanosheets showed the highest DOX loading capacity reaching 2.85 mg/mg while GQDs1 exhibited the highest release rate of 78.1%. The in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation indicated that the smallest spherical nanomaterial among the tested CNMs, namely GQDs1 was the most efficient one on delivering DOX into the cells and inhibiting their proliferation. Regarding the biosafety, all CNMs displayed no noticeable cytotoxicity against WI-38, except for GQDs2. Moreover, hematological, biochemical and histological assessment of both kidneys and livers of treated rats assured the high biosafety level. We also present new insights on the first principle calculations investigating the adsorption of DOX on GO and GQDs. The calculations showed that DOX molecules adsorbed almost equally on both nanoforms, however, the flaky nature of our GO monolayers allowed for sandwich-like structures to exist making its loading capacity superior over GQDs. Based on this comprehensive study, GQDs is the most promising type of the tested CNMs to be used in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.111921DOI Listing
March 2021

Synthesizing anonymized and labeled TOF-MRA patches for brain vessel segmentation using generative adversarial networks.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 15;131:104254. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

CLAIM - Charité Lab for AI in Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.

Anonymization and data sharing are crucial for privacy protection and acquisition of large datasets for medical image analysis. This is a big challenge, especially for neuroimaging. Here, the brain's unique structure allows for re-identification and thus requires non-conventional anonymization. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have the potential to provide anonymous images while preserving predictive properties. Analyzing brain vessel segmentation, we trained 3 GANs on time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) patches for image-label generation: 1) Deep convolutional GAN, 2) Wasserstein-GAN with gradient penalty (WGAN-GP) and 3) WGAN-GP with spectral normalization (WGAN-GP-SN). The generated image-labels from each GAN were used to train a U-net for segmentation and tested on real data. Moreover, we applied our synthetic patches using transfer learning on a second dataset. For an increasing number of up to 15 patients we evaluated the model performance on real data with and without pre-training. The performance for all models was assessed by the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the 95th percentile of the Hausdorff Distance (95HD). Comparing the 3 GANs, the U-net trained on synthetic data generated by the WGAN-GP-SN showed the highest performance to predict vessels (DSC/95HD 0.85/30.00) benchmarked by the U-net trained on real data (0.89/26.57). The transfer learning approach showed superior performance for the same GAN compared to no pre-training, especially for one patient only (0.91/24.66 vs. 0.84/27.36). In this work, synthetic image-label pairs retained generalizable information and showed good performance for vessel segmentation. Besides, we showed that synthetic patches can be used in a transfer learning approach with independent data. This paves the way to overcome the challenges of scarce data and anonymization in medical imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104254DOI Listing
April 2021

Variation in the HA antigenicity of A(H1N1)pdm09-related swine influenza viruses.

J Gen Virol 2021 Mar 22;102(3). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Japan.

Since the influenza pandemic in 2009, the causative agent 'A(H1N1)pdm09 virus', has been circulating in both human and swine populations. Although phylogenetic analyses of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene segment have revealed broader genetic diversity of A(H1N1)pdm09-related swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) compared with human A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, it remains unclear whether the genetic diversity reflects the antigenic differences in HA. To assess the impact of the diversity of the HA gene of A(H1N1)pdm09-related swIAVs on HA antigenicity, we characterized 12 swIAVs isolated in Japan from 2013 to 2018. We used a ferret antiserum and a panel of anti-HA mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against an early A(H1N1)pdm09 isolate. The neutralization assay with the ferret antiserum revealed that five of the 12 swIAVs were significantly different in their HA antigenicity from the early A(H1N1)pdm09 isolate. The mAbs also showed differential neutralization patterns depending on the swIAV strains. In addition, the single amino acid substitution at position 190 of HA, which was found in one of the five antigenically different swIAVs but not in human isolates, was shown to be one of the critical determinants for the antigenic difference of swIAV HAs. Two potential N-glycosylation sites at amino acid positions 185 and 276 of the HA molecule were identified in two antigenically different swIAVs. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of HA in the A(H1N1)pdm09-related swIAVs is associated with their HA antigenic variation. Our findings highlighted the need for surveillance to monitor the emergence of swIAV antigenic variants with public health importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001569DOI Listing
March 2021

Incidence of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Associated Outcomes During the First 24 Hours.

Cureus 2021 Jan 10;13(1):e12599. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Statistics, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, PAK.

Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most life-threatening manifestation of coronary artery diseases. The majority of deaths in AMI are due to arrhythmias. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors and outcomes of cardiac arrhythmias in AMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the first 24 hours of the index hospitalization. Methodology This prospective observational study was conducted at the adult cardiology department of the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan. Patients undergoing primary PCI were included in this study. All the patients were kept under observation for the first 24 hours of AMI and monitored through telemetry system monitoring and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and the outcomes were recorded. Results A total of 110 patients were included; the mean age was 59.6±13.1 years. Most of them were male (70.9%). Arrhythmias were observed in 89.1% of the patients, with 169 episodes. The accelerated idioventricular rhythm was the most common type of arrhythmia (37.3%) followed by sinus tachycardia (36.4%), ventricular tachycardia (22.7%), and complete heart block (20.0%). Lethal arrhythmias were observed in 64.5% (71) of the patients. During the hospital course, 65.5% developed arrhythmias during arrival to balloon time, 30% during the procedure, and 53.6% within 24 hours of the procedure. The in-hospital mortality rate was 15.5% with a significant association with the development of lethal arrhythmias within 24 hours of the procedure (21.1% vs. 5.1%; p=0.026). Conclusions The incidence of arrhythmias within 24 hours of hospitalization is high in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI, and it has been observed to be associated with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871363PMC
January 2021

Peak systolic velocity of fetal middle cerebral artery to predict anemia in Red Cell Alloimmunization in un-transfused and transfused fetuses.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 29;258:437-442. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the accuracy of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) in prediction of severe fetal anemia resulting from Red Cell Alloimmunization (Anti-D) in un-transfused and transfused fetuses. In addition to comparing the accuracy of MCA-PSV and the estimation of the daily decline of fetal hemoglobin (Hb), to determine the appropriate time of subsequent transfusions.

Study Design: This was a retrospective study of a series of 84 anaemic fetuses due to Red Cell alloimmunization. During each in-utero transfusion session, measurements of (1)MCA-PSV, (2)pre- and (3)post-transfusion Hb levels were recorded. Receiveroperating characteristics (ROC) curves, negative and positive predictive values of MCA-PSV in predicting severe fetal anemia were calculated. Regression analysis assesses the correlation between fetal HB and MCA-PSV, and between observed and expected fetal hemoglobin levels.

Results: Eighty four anemic fetuses were included in the study and had an in-utero transfusion. The positive predictive value (PPV) of MCAPSV decreased sharply from 86.0 % at the first IUT, to 52.0 % and 52.1 % at the second and third IUTs respectively. According to the ROC curves, setting the cut-off at 1.70 MoM would provide the best performance of MCA-PSV with respect to the timing of the second and third IUT. Setting a higher threshold of 1.70 MoM for the 2nd and 3rd transfusions would increase the PPV from 52.0 % to 96.4 % at the second IUT, and from 52.1%-99.8 % at the third IUT.

Conclusion: In this study we suggest that a higher MCA-PSV (MoM 1.7 in compared to 1.5MOM) can accurately predict the recurrence of severe fetal anemia requiring serial IUTs. In transfused fetuses, MCAPSV accuracy to detect severe anemia decline slightly with increase number of IUT. In addition to that, the mean projected daily decrease in fetal hemoglobin has a similar accuracy to MCA-PSV in predicting moderate to severe fetal anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.01.046DOI Listing
March 2021

Hybrid Membranes Based on Clay-Polymer for Removing Methylene Blue from Water.

Acta Chim Slov 2020 Mar;67(1):96-104

Water pollution is a serious environmental problem. Methylene blue is among the dyes that may exist in waste water. Adsorption is an effective process to remove dyes from contaminated water. Hybrid membranes based on clay-polymer; namely kaolin and polystyrene were prepared to absorb the present methylene blue in aqueous solution. These membranes were fired at 1000 °C to degrade polystyrene leaving cavities in the clay matrix with an expanded surface area and porous structure. The membranes were characterized via X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy. The morphological structure was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. In this work, we are focusing on facile means represented in UV-Vis spectroscopy, to monitor the adsorption efficiency of the prepared membranes. From the results, the membrane loaded with 20 % polystyrene by weight showed the optimum performance in adsorbing methylene blue from water.
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March 2020

Genetic Characterization of H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Falcated Ducks and Environmental Water in Japan in November 2020.

Pathogens 2021 Feb 4;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.

We isolated two highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4b from falcated duck () feces and environmental water collected at an overwintering site in Japan. Our isolates were almost genetically identical to each other and showed high genetic similarity with H5N8 HPAIVs recently isolated in South Korea, a distant part of Japan, and European countries. These results suggest the potential role of falcated ducks in the dissemination of HPAIVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915289PMC
February 2021

Isolation and Characterization of Fungal Endophytes Isolated from Medicinal Plant as Plant Growth-Promoting.

Biomolecules 2021 Jan 22;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo 11884, Egypt.

Endophytic fungi are widely present in internal plant tissues and provide different benefits to their host. Medicinal plants have unexplored diversity of functional fungal association; therefore, this study aimed to isolate endophytic fungi associated with leaves of medicinal plants and evaluate their plant growth-promoting properties. Fifteen isolated fungal endophytes belonging to Ascomycota, with three different genera, and , were obtained from healthy leaves of . These fungal endophytes have varied antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic microbes and produce ammonia and indole acetic acid (IAA), in addition to their enzymatic activity. The results showed that EP-5 had a maximum IAA productivity of 192.1 ± 4.04 µg mL in the presence of 5 µg mL tryptophan. The fungal isolates of EP-2 EP-3, and EP-14 exhibited variable efficiency for solubilizing phosphate salts. Five representative fungal endophytes of EP-2, EP-5, EP-11, EP-13, and EP-14 and their consortium were selected and applied as bioinoculant to maize plants. The results showed that EP-5 increased root lengths from 15.8 ± 0.8 to 22.1 ± 0.6. Moreover, the vegetative growth features of inoculated maize plants improved more than the uninoculated ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911138PMC
January 2021

Role of Wrap-Crural Fixation and Minimal Dissection in Prevention of Transmigration After Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication in Children.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2021 Apr 25;31(4):484-488. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the gold standard antireflux procedure in pediatric age group. Intrathoracic migration of the fundic wrap is a common cause failure, leading to recurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms. To investigate the impact of wrap-crural fixation and minimal esophageal dissection in prevention of wrap transmigration after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in children. Prospective randomized study of 46 pediatric patients with refractory GERD who underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication divided into two equal groups. In Group A, wrap crural fixation was done, whereas in group B no fixation was done. Minimal esophageal dissection with preservation of the phrenoesophageal ligament was done in both groups. Approval of the Ethics Committee of our Faculty was obtained. There was no difference between both groups regarding operative time, intraoperative complications, or length of hospital stay. Two patients in group B without wrap fixation suffered recurrence of GERD symptoms. On contrast study, they both showed intrathoracic wrap migration. One of them was reoperated. Whereas in group A, no recurrence of symptoms and no wrap transmigration were noticed in follow-up. In laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, with minimal esophageal dissection and preservation of the phrenoesophageal ligament, there is no additional benefit from wrap-crural fixation in prevention of wrap transmigration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2020.0952DOI Listing
April 2021

On the usage of average Hausdorff distance for segmentation performance assessment: hidden error when used for ranking.

Eur Radiol Exp 2021 Jan 21;5(1). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

CLAIM - Charité Lab for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Average Hausdorff distance is a widely used performance measure to calculate the distance between two point sets. In medical image segmentation, it is used to compare ground truth images with segmentations allowing their ranking. We identified, however, ranking errors of average Hausdorff distance making it less suitable for applications in segmentation performance assessment. To mitigate this error, we present a modified calculation of this performance measure that we have coined "balanced average Hausdorff distance". To simulate segmentations for ranking, we manually created non-overlapping segmentation errors common in magnetic resonance angiography cerebral vessel segmentation as our use-case. Adding the created errors consecutively and randomly to the ground truth, we created sets of simulated segmentations with increasing number of errors. Each set of simulated segmentations was ranked using both performance measures. We calculated the Kendall rank correlation coefficient between the segmentation ranking and the number of errors in each simulated segmentation. The rankings produced by balanced average Hausdorff distance had a significantly higher median correlation (1.00) than those by average Hausdorff distance (0.89). In 200 total rankings, the former misranked 52 whilst the latter misranked 179 segmentations. Balanced average Hausdorff distance is more suitable for rankings and quality assessment of segmentations than average Hausdorff distance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41747-020-00200-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817746PMC
January 2021

Performance Evaluation of Porous Graphene as Filter Media for the Removal of Pharmaceutical/Emerging Contaminants from Water and Wastewater.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jan 1;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 1.

College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK.

Graphene and its counterparts have been widely used for the removal of contaminants from (waste)water but with limited success for the removal of pharmaceutical contaminants. Driven by this need, this study reports, for the first time, the removal of pharmaceuticals from real contaminated water samples using porous graphene (PG) as a filter-based column. This work systematically evaluates the performance of PG as a filter medium for the removal of widely consumed pharmaceutical/emerging contaminants (ECs) such as atenolol, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, gemfibrozil and ibuprofen. Several factors were investigated in these column studies, including different reactive layer configurations, bed packing heights (5-45 mm), filter sizes (inner diameter 18-40 mm), adsorbent dosages (100-500 mg-PG) and water bodies (distilled water, greywater, and actual effluent wastewater). Sustainable synthesis of PG was carried out followed by its use as a filter medium for the removal of pharmaceuticals at high concentrations (10.5 ± 0.5 mg/L) and trace concentrations (1 mg/L). These findings revealed that the double-layered PG-sand column outperformed a PG single-layered configuration for the removal of most of the ECs. The removal efficiency of ECs from their solutions was improved by increasing PG dosages and filter bed height and size. Although the treatment of mixed pharmaceutical solutions from different water bodies was affected by the negative interference caused by competing water compounds, the treatment of ECs-contaminated greywater was not severely affected. Our findings suggest that PG, as a highly efficient filter medium, could be used for the removal of emerging pharmaceutical contaminants from water and wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11010079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824533PMC
January 2021

Biomedical Applications of Mycosynthesized Selenium Nanoparticles Using Penicillium expansum ATTC 36200.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, 11884, Egypt.

In this study, green and eco-friendly biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) were performed using Penicillium expansum ATTC 36200 for multiple biomedical applications. Mycosynthesized Se-NPs were completely characterized using UV, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. Se-NPs biosynthesized by P. expansum was characterized as a spherical shape with average size 4 to 12.7 nm. Moreover, Se-NPs were evaluated for multiple biomedical applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities and hemocompatibility. Results illustrated that Se-NPs have potential antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis ATCC6051 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC23235), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC8739and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027), fungi (Candida albicans ATCC90028, Aspergillus niger RCMB 02724 and Aspergillus fumigatus RCMB 02568), and antioxidant activity. Additionally, Se-NPs exhibited anticancer activity against PC3 cell line; IC was 99.25 μg/mL. Meanwhile, they showed non-hemolytic activity on human RBCs at concentration up to 250 μg/mL. In conclusion, biosynthetic Se-NPs by P. expansum are promising for many safe-use biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02506-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Ethnic differences in the receptors status of estrogen, progesterone and Her2/Neu among breast cancer women: A single institution experience.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Nov;70(11):1970-1974

Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi.

Objective: To evaluate the Ethnic Differences in Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and Her 2/neu receptors among Women with Breast Cancer at JPMC, the largest public sector tertiary care hospital in Karachi.

Methods: The study was conducted at the oncology ward, JPMC Karachi from 1st July 2017 to 31st December 2018. During this period, more than 500 women with breast cancer of different ethnicities visited the oncology ward, however 450 patients were included in the study, as only they had the complete reports on the receptors status and tumour histology. The data collected included tumour histology, grade, receptors status, age and ethnicity. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 20 using the Chi-Square Test to observe statistical differences in the receptors status of different ethnicities.

Results: Analysis of receptors status as per ethnicity showed that ER was proportionately more positive in Pushtoon patients at the rate of 28 (75.7%) as compared to Urdu Speaking 116 (60.4%), Punjabis 48 (60%), Sindhis 38(38.7%) and Balochis 26 (61.1%). Similarly, PR and Her-2/neu receptor were also higher in Pushtoons at the rate of 24 (64.9%) and 15 (40.5%) respectively. The behaviour of Triple Positivity was also more prominent in Pushtoons at the rate of 9 (24.3%) and the Pushtoons were also proportionately less likely to be Triple Negative at the rate 05 (13.5%) as compared to other ethnicities. All the results were statistically non significant (p values>0.05).

Conclusions: In this study we observed a relatively higher expression of ER, PR and Her 2/neu Receptors in Pushtoons as compared to other ethnicities. Understanding the factors underlying these differences may provide further insight into the breast cancer aetiology in different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.615DOI Listing
November 2020

Dynamic impact of cellulose and readily biodegradable substrate on oxygen transfer efficiency in sequencing batch reactors.

Water Res 2021 Feb 2;190:116724. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B9 Canada; Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B9 Canada. Electronic address:

Aeration is a major contributor to the high energy demand in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Thus, it is important to understand the dynamic impact of wastewater characteristics on oxygen transfer efficiency to develop suitable control strategies for minimizing energy consumption since aeration efficiency is influenced by the biodegradation of pollutants in the influent. The real-time impact of acetate as a readily biodegradable substrate and cellulose as a slowly biodegradable substrate were studied at different operational conditions. Cellulose in the influent wastewater can be removed efficiently using primary treatment technologies, such as the rotating belt filter (RBF). At an ambient DO of 2 mg l and air flow of 1.02 mh (0.6 SCFM), the α-factor was more sensitive to readily biodegradable substrates than to cellulose. On average, α-factor decreased by 48% and 19% due to the addition of acetate and cellulose, respectively. At a DO of 4 mg l and air flow of 1.7 mh (1 SCFM), α-factor remained constant irrespective of cellulose and acetate concentrations. Without active biomass, α-factor decreased by 47% and 43% at a DO of 2 mg l (air flow of 1.02 mh) and high DO of 5 mg l (air flow of 1.7 mh), respectively. An inverse correlation between α-factor and sCOD was defined and incorporated into a dynamic model to estimate the real-time airflow rates associated with the improvement of the oxygen transfer efficiency due to biodegradation. Finally, the RBF operated with a 158-μm mesh selectively removed cellulose, thus reducing air requirements, and energy by 25%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116724DOI Listing
February 2021

Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Complications of Extensively Drug-Resistant Typhoid at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan.

Cureus 2020 Oct 20;12(10):e11055. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Medicine, CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry, Lahore, PAK.

Introduction: Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid is an emerging threat to world health. The objectives of this study were to report our blood culture proven patients having XDR typhoid and compare the rate of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary manifestations and complications of antimicrobial sensitive and resistant strains.

Materials And Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan, from January 2019 till August 2020 on all consecutive blood culture proven patients of . A total of 57 cases of Salmonella were identified, of which 10 were nonresistant, seven multi drug-resistant (MDR), 39 extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and one was extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) positive. Alarmingly, one of the isolate in addition to the first line drugs, was also resistant to azithromycin. Patients were treated with antibiotics according to antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Society of Pakistan (MMIDSP) guidelines and GI and hepatobiliary complications were recorded.

Results: Overall rate of complications was low. Some 10% (1/10) with nonresistant typhoid, 14% (1/7) with MDR, and 15% (6/39) of our patients with XDR typhoid fever had abdominal tenderness (p=0.95). None of the patients had GI bleeding, abdominal abscess, or peritonitis. Some 20% (2/10) patients with nonresistant typhoid, 29% (2/7) with MDR, and 18% (7/39) with XDR typhoid developed acute hepatitis, with greater than three times elevation of liver transaminases. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of hepatitis between these groups (p=0.98). Interestingly, one of our patients with XDR typhoid also developed cholestatic hepatitis.

Conclusion: There is no significant difference in GI and hepatobiliary complications amongst antimicrobial sensitive and resistant strains of typhoid. However, emergence of resistant strains calls for focus on prevention and judicious use of antimicrobials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676445PMC
October 2020

Methicillin-resistant urosepsis: A rare complication of neonatal circumcision.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 20;8:2050313X20966122. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

The role of circumcision and its benefits has received increased attention across several disciplines in recent years; however, there is increasing concern that some uncommon complications such as severe infections are being related to post-circumcision. We describe the clinical course of a 14-day-old boy who had Methicillin-resistant urosepsis after circumcision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X20966122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594234PMC
October 2020

Identification and utilization of copy number information for correcting Hi-C contact map of cancer cell lines.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 Nov 7;21(1):506. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637551, Singapore.

Background: Hi-C and its variant techniques have been developed to capture the spatial organization of chromatin. Normalization of Hi-C contact map is essential for accurate modeling and interpretation of high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (3C) experiments. Hi-C correction tools were originally developed to normalize systematic biases of karyotypically normal cell lines. However, a vast majority of available Hi-C datasets are derived from cancer cell lines that carry multi-level DNA copy number variations (CNVs). CNV regions display over- or under-representation of interaction frequencies compared to CN-neutral regions. Therefore, it is necessary to remove CNV-driven bias from chromatin interaction data of cancer cell lines to generate a euploid-equivalent contact map.

Results: We developed the HiCNAtra framework to compute high-resolution CNV profiles from Hi-C or 3C-seq data of cancer cell lines and to correct chromatin contact maps from systematic biases including CNV-associated bias. First, we introduce a novel 'entire-fragment' counting method for better estimation of the read depth (RD) signal from Hi-C reads that recapitulates the whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-derived coverage signal. Second, HiCNAtra employs a multimodal-based hierarchical CNV calling approach, which outperformed OneD and HiNT tools, to accurately identify CNVs of cancer cell lines. Third, incorporating CNV information with other systematic biases, HiCNAtra simultaneously estimates the contribution of each bias and explicitly corrects the interaction matrix using Poisson regression. HiCNAtra normalization abolishes CNV-induced artifacts from the contact map generating a heatmap with homogeneous signal. When benchmarked against OneD, CAIC, and ICE methods using MCF7 cancer cell line, HiCNAtra-corrected heatmap achieves the least 1D signal variation without deforming the inherent chromatin interaction signal. Additionally, HiCNAtra-corrected contact frequencies have minimum correlations with each of the systematic bias sources compared to OneD's explicit method. Visual inspection of CNV profiles and contact maps of cancer cell lines reveals that HiCNAtra is the most robust Hi-C correction tool for ameliorating CNV-induced bias.

Conclusions: HiCNAtra is a Hi-C-based computational tool that provides an analytical and visualization framework for DNA copy number profiling and chromatin contact map correction of karyotypically abnormal cell lines. HiCNAtra is an open-source software implemented in MATLAB and is available at https://github.com/AISKhalil/HiCNAtra .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03832-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648276PMC
November 2020

COVID-19 Pandemic: Epidemiology, Etiology, Conventional and Non-Conventional Therapies.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 4;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which reported in an outbreak in 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus belongs to the beta-coronavirus class, along with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. Interestingly, the virus binds with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 found in host cells, through the spike (S) protein that exists on its surface. This binding causes the entry of the virus into cells of the host organism. The actual mechanism used by the COVID-19 virus to induce disease is still speculative. A total of 44,322,504 cases, a 1,173,189 death toll and 32,486,703 recovery cases have been reported in 217 countries globally as of 28 October 2020. Symptoms from the infection of the virus include chest pain, fever, fatigue, nausea, and others. Acute respiratory stress syndrome, arrhythmia, and shock are some of the chronic manifestations recorded in severe COVID-19. Transmission is majorly by individual-to-individual through coughing, sneezing, etc. The lack of knowledge regarding the mechanism of and immune response to the virus has posed a challenge in the development of a novel drug and vaccine. Currently, treatment of the disease involves the use of anti-viral medications such as lopinavir, remdesivir, and other drugs. These drugs show some efficacy in the management of COVID-19. Studies are still on-going for the development of an ideal and novel drug for treatment. In terms of natural product intervention, Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been employed to alleviate the clinical manifestation and severity of the disease and have shown some efficacy. This review presents an updated detailed overview of COVID-19 and the virus, concerning its structure, epidemiology, symptoms and transmission, immune responses, and current interventions, and highlights the potential of TCM. It is anticipated that this review will further add to the understanding of COVID-19 and the virus, hence opening new research perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662254PMC
November 2020

Correlation between E-Cadherin and Hormone Receptor Status among Breast Cancer Patients.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2020 Oct;30(10):1030-1034

Department of Medical Oncology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the association between E-cadherin expression and hormone receptors status in patients with breast cancer.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Medical Oncology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan, from March to December 2019.

Methodology: Two hundred and forty-eight women, aged 18-65 years with histologically proven diagnosis of breast carcinoma, were included in the study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed for the evaluation of E-Cadherin expression and status of hormonal receptors [Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2-neu]. The positive homogeneous pattern of staining for the cellular membranes is considered normal. The non-homogeneous or the heterogeneous pattern of the cytoplasm and membrane, represented aberrant E-cadherin expression (loss of E-cadherin expression). SPSS version 23 was used to analyse data.

Results: The results of IHC showed that 82.7% of the tumours were E-cadherin positive, 65.7% were ER positive, 62.9% were PR positive and 29.4% were HER 2 positive. A normal pattern of immunostaining of E-cadherin for the membranes is seen in hormone receptor positive and young patients with low grade tumour. Aberrant E-cadherin expression (loss of E-Cadherin)was noticed in HER 2 negative, postmenopausal women with high grade large size tumour(p<0.05).

Conclusion: The study showed that there is significant association between E-cadherin expression and hormone receptor status, HER2-neu, menopausal status, age of patients, grade of tumour and size of tumour. Key Words: E-cadherin, Hormone receptors, Breast carcinoma, ER, PR and HER 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.10.1030DOI Listing
October 2020

Genetic elucidation of interconnected antibiotic pathways mediating maize innate immunity.

Nat Plants 2020 11 26;6(11):1375-1388. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Specialized metabolites constitute key layers of immunity that underlie disease resistance in crops; however, challenges in resolving pathways limit our understanding of the functions and applications of these metabolites. In maize (Zea mays), the inducible accumulation of acidic terpenoids is increasingly considered to be a defence mechanism that contributes to disease resistance. Here, to understand maize antibiotic biosynthesis, we integrated association mapping, pan-genome multi-omic correlations, enzyme structure-function studies and targeted mutagenesis. We define ten genes in three zealexin (Zx) gene clusters that encode four sesquiterpene synthases and six cytochrome P450 proteins that collectively drive the production of diverse antibiotic cocktails. Quadruple mutants in which the ability to produce zealexins (ZXs) is blocked exhibit a broad-spectrum loss of disease resistance. Genetic redundancies ensuring pathway resiliency to single null mutations are combined with enzyme substrate promiscuity, creating a biosynthetic hourglass pathway that uses diverse substrates and in vivo combinatorial chemistry to yield complex antibiotic blends. The elucidated genetic basis of biochemical phenotypes that underlie disease resistance demonstrates a predominant maize defence pathway and informs innovative strategies for transferring chemical immunity between crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-00787-9DOI Listing
November 2020

Telemedicine during COVID-19: a survey of Health Care Professionals' perceptions.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2020 Sep 22;90(4). Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Lancashire Cardiac Centre, Blackpool Teaching Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Blackpool.

The National Health Service (NHS) has rapidly adopted telemedicine solutions as an alternative to face-to-face consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of HCPs (Healthcare Professionals) were unfamiliar with Telemedicine prior to the current pandemic. Remote consultation is expected to continue for the foreseeable future, thus we designed this survey. A survey designed to evaluate the use of telephone consultation by HCPs, assessing its implementation, challenges and drawbacks. A web link survey conducted through SurveyMonkey was sent to HCPs across six UK Trusts the period of May 2020. The survey received 114 responses (84%) being doctors. 95% of respondents had not received training prior to engaging in telemedicine consultations. 64% were unaware of the updated General Medical Council guidance concerning remote consultations. The most common barrier in remote consultation was the inability to access patient records raised by 37% of respondents. However, 73% of respondents felt that patients understood their medical condition and the instructions given to them over the phone, and 70% agreed that videoconference consultations would add to patients care. Telemedicine can be used for selected groups of patients in the post COVID-19 era, and the HCPs carrying that should have the sufficient experience and knowledge expected to operate these clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2020.1528DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of vancomycin initial trough levels in children: A 1-year retrospective study.

SAGE Open Med 2020 25;8:2050312120951058. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Pharmacy, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Background And Objectives: Achieving vancomycin therapeutic levels is essential for antibacterial success and resistance prevention. Multiple studies have shown that most of the children fail to reach therapeutic trough levels (10-20 µg/mL). This study aims to determine the frequency of achieving therapeutic vancomycin initial trough levels in children, evaluate the effect of age on that achievement and the mean initial trough levels, and the frequency of supratherapeutic levels.

Methods: Children aged 1 month to 12 years who received three or more vancomycin doses 15 mg/kg every 6 h while admitted at our hospital from February 2016 to January 2017, and had a level before the fourth dose were included. Cases with high baseline serum creatinine, acute kidney injury, and congenital heart disease were excluded.

Results: Out of 75 included cases, one third, 28/75 (37.3%), achieved goal. The lowest frequency was 6/28 (21.4%) of the 2-5 years group, which were statistically less likely to achieve, and had significantly lower mean initial trough than the 1-23 months group ( = 0.026 and 0.013, respectively). Mean initial trough levels were 10.1, 7.3, and 8.2 µg/mL in the 1-23 months, 2-5 years, and 6-12 years groups, respectively ( = 0.014). No supratherapeutic levels were observed.

Conclusion: Vancomycin dose of 60 mg/kg/day is insufficient to attain target levels for most of the children. Children aged 2-5 years are the least likely to achieve and have the lowest mean levels. More intensified doses are warranted to be studied prospectively to identify the most effective empiric dose for children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050312120951058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453445PMC
August 2020

Interactive Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Elevated CO on Growth and Functional Food Value of .

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Sep 9;6(3). Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and elevated CO (eCO) have been effectively integrated to the agricultural procedures as an ecofriendly approach to support the production and quality of plants. However, less attention has been given to the synchronous application of AMF and eCO and how that could affect the global plant metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of AMF and eCO, individually or in combination, on growth, photosynthesis, metabolism and the functional food value of . Results revealed that both AMF and eCO treatments improved the photosynthesis and biomass production, however much more positive impact was obtained by their synchronous application. Moreover, the levels of the majority of the detected sugars, organic acids, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, volatile compounds, phenolic acids and flavonoids were further improved as a result of the synergistic action of AMF and eCO, as compared to the individual treatments. Overall, this study clearly shows that co-application of AMF and eCO induces a synergistic biofertilization impact and enhances the functional food value of by affecting its global metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6030168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7559143PMC
September 2020

The efficacy of colchicine in the management of coronavirus disease 2019: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Sep;99(36):e21911

Internal Medicine Department, Hamad Medical Corporation.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2) infection is a recently emerged viral infection causing predominantly mild upper respiratory symptoms. However, in some instances, it might result in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that poses a significant mortality risk. ARDS is postulated to be mediated by a surge of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to a dysregulated hyper inflammatory response. Colchicine being an anti-inflammatory agent, might mitigate this dysregulated response. Thus, in the absence of therapeutic options available to manage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is imperative to ascertain the effect of colchicine on improving outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

Method: We will perform a systematic review including a search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane library, and google scholar since inception. We will include randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of colchicine on the efficacy and safety outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Subsequently, we will perform a meta-analysis utilizing the random-effects to ascertain the effect of colchicine on reducing COVID-19 related mortality (primary endpoint) and other efficacy and safety outcomes.

Results: Our review results are anticipated in early 2021 (based on the completion of several ongoing randomized controlled trial). Our review results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis, is exploring the effect of colchicine on the efficacy and safety outcomes of COVID-19 patients. If colchicine proved to be effective, it would be a significant milestone in the management of COVID-19, a disease with limited available therapeutic options.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020191086.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478773PMC
September 2020

Frequency Of Hormone Receptors And Her-2/Neu Receptor Positivity In Different Histology In Breast Cancer Patients.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2020 Jul- Sep;32(3):323-326

Department of Medical Oncology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

Background: This study was conducted to see the frequency of hormone receptors and Her-2/Neu positivity in different histology in breast cancer patients.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Medical Oncology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre from June 2018- March 2019. Total 373 patients of age 22-81 years of which 360 female and 13 males, with histopathological proven diagnosis of breast cancer were included in the study using non-probability consecutive sampling technique. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on biopsy sample for the status of PR, ER and HER-2/Neu and the confirmation of Her-2/Neu was done by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization (FISH) technique if HER-2/Neu was equivocal by IHC testing. Information regarding demographics, family history, histology, grade, stage, metastatic site and other histopathological parameters were noted on predesigned proforma by the researcher. SPSS-23 was used to analyse data.

Results: Total of 373 patients were included in the study. The mean patient age was 45.34±12.28 years. ER, PR, Her 2 Neu (IHC) & Her 2 Neu (FISH) were found positive in 206 (55.2%), 182 (48.8%), 121 (32.4%) & 23 (6.2%) patients, respectively. The histology with PR receptor & grade of tumour with ER & PR receptor showed statistical significance (p<0.05).

Conclusions: ER, PR & HER-2/NEU expressions in breast cancer vary among different population and it is very important to find out the frequency among different histopathological types as it is of predictive and prognostic value. So, it is recommended to look for these markers and treat them accordingly.
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December 2020