Publications by authors named "Ahmadreza Movahedi"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Effect of Tai Chi Chuan Training on Stereotypic Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Children With Special Needs, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

This quasi-experimental study investigated effects of Tai Chi Chuan training on stereotypic behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-three participants (mean age = 9.60 ± 1.40 years) were assigned to experimental (N = 12) and control (N = 11) groups. The experimental group received 12 weeks of Tai Chi training and all participants had pre, post, and one-month follow-up assessments. Stereotypic behavior measured using Gilliam Autism Rating Scale 2 Scores, was significantly altered by ~ 25% in the Tai Chi Chuan group. Behavioral change was maintained at follow up since there was no significant difference between that and the posttest. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan training is a useful and appropriate intervention to modulate behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05090-wDOI Listing
June 2021

The effects of easy goals versus difficult goals on acquisition and retention of a sport skill in children with intellectual disability.

J Intellect Disabil 2020 Nov 18:1744629520970076. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

48437University of Isfahan, Iran.

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of easy goals versus difficult goals on acquisition and retention of basketball free throws in children with intellectual disability. Twenty-one children with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to an easy goals or difficult goals group. The participants were required to improve their basketball free throws according to their own scores in the previous exercise session. More difficult goals were set for the difficult goals group than for the easy goals group. The groups exercised the task for nine sessions. Both groups performed pretest, acquisition, and retention tests. Results showed that participants with easy goals improved their performance while the participants with difficult goals failed to improve their performance. These findings indicate that providing children with intellectual disability with easy goals facilitates the process of sport skill learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744629520970076DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison of the effects of perceptual-motor exercises, vitamin D supplementation and the combination of these interventions on decreasing stereotypical behavior in children with autism disorder.

Int J Dev Disabil 2018 Nov 18;66(2):122-132. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

College of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of perceptual-motor exercises and vitamin D supplementation on the reduction of stereotypical behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: In this study, 100 eligible children with age ranging from 6 to 9 years were randomly selected and divided into four groups: Group A-perceptual-motor exercises ( = 25); Group B-25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25 (OH) D) ( = 25); Group C-perceptual-motor exercises and 25 (OH) D ( = 25); and Group D-control ( = 25).

Results: The stereotypes decreased from elementary level, 17% in Group A, 13% in Group B and 28% in Group C among the participants. There was no change in the stereotypical in the control group during the interventions. Also, the stereotypes in Group C showed the highest decrease, compared to the other three groups.

Conclusions: We concluded that combination of perceptual-motor exercises and vitamin D supplementation in children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their stereotypic behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20473869.2018.1502068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132924PMC
November 2018

The effects of different combinations of perceptual-motor exercises, music, and vitamin D supplementation on the nerve growth factor in children with high-functioning autism.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018 May 3;31:139-145. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

College of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan, Iran.

The present study investigated the effects of different combinations of perceptual-motor exercises, music, and Vitamin D consumption on the nerve growth factor (NGF) in children with high-functioning autism. 48 children with autism, aged between six and nine years, were divided into four groups: Group A- perceptual-motor activities along with music (n = 12); Group B-Vitamin D supplementation (n = 12); Group C-perceptual-motor activities along with music and Vitamin D (n = 12); and Group D-control (n = 12). Participants' blood NGF level was measured before and after the intervention. The results showed a significant improvement in the NGF levels in Groups B and C due to the interventions. Also, in Group A, the NGF levels increased compared to Group D, although this increase was not significant. In addition, the intake of Vitamin D along with perceptual-motor exercises resulted in a significant increase in the levels of NGF compared to Groups A, B and D. These findings suggest that perceptual-motor exercises along with music as well as taking Vitamin D may provide two appropriate interventions for improving NGF in children with autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.02.005DOI Listing
May 2018

The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2016 Mar;46(3):978-86

University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2643-yDOI Listing
March 2016

Posterolateral hip muscle strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening for patellofemoral pain: a comparative control trial.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014 May 16;95(5):900-7. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Jacquelin Perry Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the efficacy of posterolateral hip muscle strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening in reducing pain and improving health status in persons with patellofemoral pain (PFP).

Design: Comparative control trial.

Setting: Rehabilitation facility.

Participants: Persons with a diagnosis of PFP (N=36; 18 men, 18 women).

Interventions: Patients were alternately assigned to a posterolateral hip muscle strengthening group (9 men and 9 women) or a quadriceps strengthening group (9 men and 9 women). The posterolateral hip muscle strengthening group performed hip abductor and external rotator strengthening exercises, whereas the quadriceps strengthening group performed quadriceps strengthening exercises (3 times a week for 8wk).

Main Outcome Measures: Pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and health status (Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]) were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up.

Results: Significant improvements in VAS and WOMAC scores were observed in both groups from baseline to postintervention and baseline to 6-month follow-up (P<.001). Improvements in VAS and WOMAC scores in the posterolateral hip exercise group were superior to those in the quadriceps exercise group postintervention and at 6-month follow-up (P<.05).

Conclusions: Although both intervention programs resulted in decreased pain and improved function in persons with PFP, outcomes in the posterolateral hip exercise group were superior to the quadriceps exercise group. The superior outcomes obtained in the posterolateral hip exercise group were maintained 6 months postintervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.12.022DOI Listing
May 2014

Specificity of learning a sport skill to the visual condition of acquisition.

J Mot Behav 2014 28;46(1):17-23. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

a Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Sanandaj Branch , Islamic Azad University , Sanandaj , Iran.

The authors' main purpose was to determine whether learning of a real-world sport skill (basketball free throws) is specific to the sources of afferent visual information available during practice. Twenty-eight male high school students (inexperienced in the experimental task) were randomly assigned to a full vision or target only vision group. Participants trained under full vision or target only condition for 15 sessions. Following training, in immediate tests, they were examined under full vision and then under target only conditions. Ten days later, in delayed tests, they performed the task under full vision and then under target only conditions. Results showed both groups performed the task similarly across the experimental period. Interestingly, it was found that immediate and delayed retention performance is specific to the training visual context. The groups' performances dropped significantly when we tested them at a visual condition that differed from what they had experienced while learning the task. Performance of the task seemed to have integrated with the visual information available during the task acquisition. These findings provide evidence for the specificity of practice hypothesis in the field of motor learning and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2013.838935DOI Listing
August 2014

Kata techniques training consistently decreases stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Res Dev Disabil 2012 Jul-Aug;33(4):1183-93. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

College of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan, Iran.

The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n=15) or a no-exercise control group (n=15). Participants of the exercise group received Kata techniques instruction four times per week for 14 weeks (56 sessions). Stereotypy was assessed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 14 (post-intervention), and at one month follow up in both groups. Results showed that Kata techniques training significantly reduced stereotypy in the exercise group. Following participation in Kata techniques training, stereotypy decreased from baseline levels by a M of 42.54% across participants. Interestingly, after 30 days of no practice, stereotypy in the exercise group remained significantly decreased compared to pre-intervention time. The participants of the control group did not show significant changes in the stereotypy. Teaching martial arts techniques to children with ASD for a long period of time consistently decreased their stereotypic behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.01.018DOI Listing
August 2012

Differences in socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes.

Res Dev Disabil 2011 Jan-Feb;32(1):58-62. Epub 2010 Sep 28.

Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan, Iran.

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to 19 years enrolled in academic year 2009-2010. Socialization was measured with the Social Maturity Scale (Weitzman, 1949). The results indicate that the two examined groups differ in regards to socialization and that the visually impaired student-athletes scored significantly higher than the visually impaired student non-athletes on the socialization test, proving the notion that participation in sports results in better improvements in socializations. If officials and parents encourage sports participation in visually impaired individuals, they will have a better opportunity of having more social skills in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2010.08.013DOI Listing
March 2011

Effects of different variations of mental and physical practice on sport skill learning in adolescents with mental retardation.

Res Dev Disabil 2010 Jan-Feb;31(1):81-6. Epub 2009 Oct 28.

Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of five variations of imagery and physical practice on learning of Basketball free throws in adolescents with mental retardation (AWMR). Forty AWMR were randomly assigned to five groups and performed a variation of practice: physical practice, mental practice, physical practice followed by mental practice, mental practice followed by physical practice, and no practice. The groups exercised the task for 24 sessions. Following training, posttest and retention test were taken. All variations of practice resulted in performance improvement, yet the mental practice followed by physical practice resulted in better improvement. The results suggest that mental practice associated with physical practice results in an outstanding performance improvement in AWMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2009.07.022DOI Listing
January 2010

A practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance.

J Mot Behav 2007 Nov;39(6):457-62

Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran.

The authors propose a practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance. The study included 37 healthy male physical education students whom they randomly assigned to a high-arousal (n = 19) or low-arousal group (n = 18). To manipulate participants' level of arousal, the authors used motivational techniques. They used heart rate and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (R. Martens, 1977) to measure the level of arousal that participants achieved. At the determined and given arousal state, the 2 groups performed the task (basketball free throws) for 18 sessions. Both groups performed a retention test at the 2 arousal levels immediately after the last exercise session, in the posttest, and after 10 days. Results showed that both groups learned the task similarly and achieved their peak performance at their experienced arousal level. When tested at an arousal level that differed from the one that they experienced throughout practice sessions, participants' performance had deteriorated significantly. Performance of the task seemed to have integrated with the arousal level of the participants during the task learning. The findings of this study suggest a practice-specificity-based explanation for achieving peak performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.6.457-462DOI Listing
November 2007
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