Publications by authors named "Ahmad Sohrabi"

13 Publications

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A systematic review and meta-analysis for association of Helicobacter pylori colonization and celiac disease.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(3):e0241156. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Based on some previous observational studies, there is a theory that suggests a potential relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization and celiac disease (CeD); however, the type of this relationship is still controversial. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore all related primary studies to find any possible association between CeD and human H. pylori colonization.

Data Sources: Studies were systematically searched and collected from four databases and different types of gray literature to cover all available evidence. After screening, the quality and risk of bias assessment of the selected articles were evaluated.

Synthesis Methods: Meta-analysis calculated pooled odds ratio (OR) on the extracted data. Furthermore, heterogeneity, sensitivity, subgroups, and publication bias analyses were assessed.

Results: Twenty-six studies were included in this systematic review, with a total of 6001 cases and 135512 control people. The results of meta-analysis on 26 studies showed a significant and negative association between H. pylori colonization and CeD (pooled OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.45-0.70; P < 0.001), with no publication bias (P = 0.825). The L'Abbé plots also showed a trend of having more H. pylori colonization in the control group. Among subgroups, ORs were notably different only when the data were stratified by continents or risk of bias; however, subgroup analysis could not determine the source of heterogeneity.

Conclusions: According to the meta-analysis, this negative association might imply a mild protective role of H. pylori against celiac disease. Although this negative association is not strong, it is statistically significant and should be further considered. Further investigations in both molecular and clinic fields with proper methodology and more detailed information are needed to discover more evidence and underlying mechanisms to clear the interactive aspects of H. pylori colonization in CeD patients.

Systematic Review Registration Number (prospero): CRD42020167730 https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=167730.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241156PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928511PMC
March 2021

The age-friendly cities characteristics from the viewpoint of elderly.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Nov 30;9(11):5745-5751. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Geriatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Background: Elderly population is rising due to advancement of health care, medical services, and increasing life expectancy. World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated a global project to define "age-friendly city for improving the elderly's quality of life".

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine the age-friendly cities characteristics from the elderly's point of view in Gorgan, Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 on elderly people who referred to the health centers of Gorgan, Iran. 160 eligible elderly people were recruited through multi-stage random sampling. The viewpoint of participants about the characteristics of Gorgan in the four age-friendly city indicators; urban and outdoor buildings, transport and transportation systems, information and communication services, and social support and health services was compared with the standard of WHO. Data were collected using the age-friendly city questionnaire and analyzed in SPSS-18 using Chi-square and one-sample -tests.

Results: From the elderly viewpoint, the mean score of 4 indicators; urban buildings and outdoor (58.50 ± 31.2), Transport and transportation system (43.3 ± 82.00), access to Information communication services (46.75 ± 15.1) and the level of access to social support and health services (81.43 ± 21.10). Considering age-friendly city indicators, the characteristics of Gorgan City were significantly lower than the WHO recommended standard ( < 0.001). The "Information and Communication" and "buildings and outdoor space" indicators had the highest and lowest differences from the standard, respectively.

Conclusion: According to the present results it is recommended that managers and policymakers of urban planning and healthcare providers in their programs consider the elderly viewpoint to improve the urban characteristics as an age-friendly city.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1098_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842487PMC
November 2020

Nursing empowerment by simulation in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy short-time complication control: Protocol study.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 28;9:236. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

The Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is one of the most suitable methods for long-term nutritional support. In this study, the empowerment of intensive care nurses is examined by a simulation technique to control the short-term complications of PEG.

Methods: A two-group clinical trial study will be conducted on eighty intensive care nurses in a teaching hospital in Tehran. The study participants will be randomly assigned to one of the two control and intervention groups based on the inclusion criteria. A pretest will be given to both groups using a researcher-made tool. Then, the empowerment package developed by the researcher will be provided to the intervention group in two stages. Next, a posttest will be administered. After this stage, patients' complications with PEG will be observed using a researcher-made checklist. Nurses' performances in both control and intervention groups will be evaluated in terms of preventing and controlling short-term complications up to 1 week after PEG insertion. All of the data collected in this research will be analyzed with statistic tests such as independent -test, standard deviation, T pair, ANOVA, and mean based on the SPSS 16 software.

Results: At present, the research team is designing an empowerment package for nurses and tools needed to evaluate the nurses' empowerment.

Conclusion: This study will attempt to design and evaluate the empowerment package of graduate nurses with a cognitive empowerment approach and using a simulation technique to care for patients with PEG and to control their short-term complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_155_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652070PMC
September 2020

Association Between Helicobacter pylori Colonization and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 May-Jun 01;55(5):380-392

Department of Health Sciences Education Development, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Various observational studies have examined a potential relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs); however, results are inconclusive. This systematic review evaluates articles reporting an association between human H. pylori colonization and IBD.

Methods: A systematic search of studies was conducted to evaluate a possible relationship between H. pylori colonization and IBD. Seven databases and different types of gray literature were searched. After screening for relevant articles, selection and data extraction were done. After that, the data were analyzed, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated, using meta-analysis. Heterogeneity, sensitivity, and subgroups analyses were conducted. Funnel plots followed by Begg and Egger tests were done to assess the publication bias.

Results: Among 58 studies, including 13,549 patients with IBD and 506,554 controls, the prevalence of H. pylori colonization was 22.74% and 36.30%, respectively. A significant negative association was observed between H. pylori colonization and IBD (pooled OR: 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.53, P≤0.001). The random-effect model showed significant statistical heterogeneity in the included studies (I2=79%). No publication bias was observed. Among subgroups, ORs were notably different when the data were stratified by the age difference between patient and control group, and by study regions and/or continent. Finally, the meta-regression analysis showed significant results, in terms of the age difference and region variables.

Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, all statistical data support the theory that H. pylori has a protective role in IBD. However, more primary studies using proper methodology are needed to confirm this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001415DOI Listing
November 2019

Repeatability of radiomic features in magnetic resonance imaging of glioblastoma: Test-retest and image registration analyses.

Med Phys 2020 Sep 28;47(9):4265-4280. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Departments of Radiology and Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Purpose: To assess the repeatability of radiomic features in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of glioblastoma (GBM) tumors with respect to test-retest, different image registration approaches and inhomogeneity bias field correction.

Methods: We analyzed MR images of 17 GBM patients including T1- and T2-weighted images (performed within the same imaging unit on two consecutive days). For image segmentation, we used a comprehensive segmentation approach including entire tumor, active area of tumor, necrotic regions in T1-weighted images, and edema regions in T2-weighted images (test studies only; registration to retest studies is discussed next). Analysis included N3, N4 as well as no bias correction performed on raw MR images. We evaluated 20 image registration approaches, generated by cross-combination of four transformation and five cost function methods. In total, 714 images (17 patients × 2 images × ((4 transformations × 5 cost functions) + 1 test image) and 2856 segmentations (714 images × 4 segmentations) were prepared for feature extraction. Various radiomic features were extracted, including the use of preprocessing filters, specifically wavelet (WAV) and Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), as well as discretization into fixed bin width and fixed bin count (16, 32, 64, 128, and 256), Exponential, Gradient, Logarithm, Square and Square Root scales. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess the repeatability of MRI radiomic features (high repeatability defined as ICC ≥ 95%).

Results: In our ICC results, we observed high repeatability (ICC ≥ 95%) with respect to image preprocessing, different image registration algorithms, and test-retest analysis, for example: RLNU and GLNU from GLRLM, GLNU and DNU from GLDM, Coarseness and Busyness from NGTDM, GLNU and ZP from GLSZM, and Energy and RMS from first order. Highest fraction (percent) of repeatable features was observed, among registration techniques, for the method Full Affine transformation with 12 degrees of freedom using Mutual Information cost function (mean 32.4%), and among image processing methods, for the method Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) with Sigma (2.5-4.5 mm) (mean 78.9%). The trends were relatively consistent for N4, N3, or no bias correction.

Conclusion: Our results showed varying performances in repeatability of MR radiomic features for GBM tumors due to test-retest and image registration. The findings have implications for appropriate usage in diagnostic and predictive models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14368DOI Listing
September 2020

Incidence, risk factors and clinical characteristics of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a ten-year study in the North of Iran.

Trop Med Int Health 2020 09 30;25(9):1131-1139. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Tuberculosis laboratory of Health Care Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Objective: To determine the incidence of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and examine the risk factors and the clinical features of the disease over a ten-year period.

Methods: Retrospective study of records of patients who were followed and registered in the TB registry programme in the health district of Gorgan, Iran from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2017.

Results: Among 2280 TB records, 609 (26.71%) were EPTB. They were mostly female patients (53.7%) and residents in rural areas (56.5%) with a mean age of 40.55 years [±16]. The average age of female patients (37.55 years [±16.99]) was lower than of male patients (44.07 years [±20.59]). The median of the incidence rate was 7.5 per 100 000 inhabitants for EPTB; biopsy and pathology were the best methods for the detection of EPTB. The most frequent forms of EPTB were lymphatic TB (193/609 = 31.7%) and pleural TB (158/609 = 25.9%). In most cases (245/609 = 40.2%), one to three months elapsed between occurrence of symptoms and final confirmation of EPTB. The outcome of EPTB was weaker than of pulmonary TB (PTB).

Conclusion: Our most important finding was the increasing incidence of EPTB, which shows the importance of attention to this disease. Lymph node and pleural tissue were the most commonly infected tissues. Skeletal TB presents a challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of EPTB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13452DOI Listing
September 2020

Investigating the Role of Brain Lateralization and Gender in Paranormal Beliefs.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2019 Nov-Dec;10(6):589-595. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department Psychology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Brain lateralization is associated with human behavior. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effects of brain lateralization on the scores of paranormal beliefs.

Methods: The study population included 180 students of Sanandaj universities, Sanandaj City, Iran who were selected with convenience sampling method (100 left-brained males, 6 left-brained females, 56 both left- and right-brained males and 22 both left- and right-brained females). The research tools were the paranormal belief scale developed by Blackmore (1994), as well as the brain lateralization questionnaire (1985).

Results: The obtained findings suggested a significant difference between the left-brain and right-brained people in terms of paranormal beliefs. A significant difference was also found between the left-brained males and both left- and right-brained females in terms of paranormal beliefs.

Conclusion: The paranormal beliefs of the left-brained cases were different from both left- and right-brained subjects, which can be seen between the left-brained males and both left- and right-brained females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/BCN.9.10.923.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253801PMC
November 2019

Factors predicting the outcome of intravenous thrombolysis in stroke patients before rt-PA administration.

Caspian J Intern Med 2019 ;10(4):424-430

Department of Neurology, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: To determine whether it is possible to predict intravenous thrombolytic therapy (IVT) outcome after 3 months in acute ischemic stroke patients who are candidate to receive recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), before rt-PA administration based on their risk factors and some available laboratory results.

Methods: We enrolled 118 ischemic stroke patients who were treated with standard dose of Alteplase in our hospital. Baseline characteristics, door-to-needle time (DTN), onset-to-treatment time (OTT), the National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), systolic and diastolic blood pressure on admission, history of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), previous ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation (AF), laboratory results were retrospectively collected. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was recorded after 3 months of admission and patients were divided into good (mRS 2) and poor (mRS>2) outcome groups. Chi-square test and t-test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Predictors for outcome after 3 months were studied by multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Good outcome was seen in 60 (51%) patients and poor outcome was seen in 58 (49%) patients. Significant predictors for outcome at 3 months according to multivariable regression analysis were NIHSS score (odds ratio [OR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.498-0.750; p<0.001), SBP (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.925-0.991; P=0.01), AF (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.013- 0.708; P=0.02), CAD (OR, 17.08; 95% CI, 0.013-0.708; p=0.003).

Conclusion: Higher NIHSS score, higher SBP on admission, AF and history of CAD could be the independent predictors of outcome after IVT in acute ischemic stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.10.4.424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856912PMC
January 2019

Effects of treadmill training on the balance, functional capacity and quality of life in Parkinson's disease: A randomized clinical trial.

J Complement Integr Med 2019 Aug 21;17(1). Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background There is growing evidence that exercise modalities have considerable effects on Parkinson's disease (PD). This trial aimed to provide a more detailed viewpoint of short-term and long-term treadmill training (TT) effects on some motor and non-motor features of PD. Methods In this prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial, 20 mild to moderate PD patients, admitted in Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in Tehran, Iran, were randomly allocated in case (11) and control (9) groups. Treadmill intervention was performed at moderate intensity with 60% of heart rate reserved (HRR) in two 30-min sessions/week for a duration of 10 weeks. Both the groups were evaluated for three times; at the baseline, 2 months later and then 2 months after the second evaluation. We assigned the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), 6-min walk test (6MW), and the SF-8 healthy questionnaire, for assessment of balance, functional capacity, and Quality of life (QoL), respectively. Results Balance and functional capacity were significantly improved in the case group after the intervention (TUG p-value: 0.003, 6MW p-value: 0.003). Moreover, the long-term analysis revealed significant results as well (TUG p-value: 0.001, 6MW p-value: 0.004). Mental condition's scores of SF-8 in cases were not statistically different in short-term follow-up (F/U). However, analysis illustrated p-value: 0.016 for long-term assessment. The intervention induced significant changes in physical condition's scores in both of the F/Us (PC p-value: 0.013). Conclusions This study provides evidence that a TT of mild to moderate intensity has significant and persistent benefits for the balance, functional capacity, and QoL in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0245DOI Listing
August 2019

Age of Acquisition Effect: Evidence From Single-Word Reading and Neural Networks.

Authors:
Ahmad Sohrabi

Basic Clin Neurosci 2019 Mar-Apr;10(2):137-146. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

Introduction: Many studies show that words learned early in life are read more easily than the ones learned later and are less vulnerable to brain damage.

Methods: the first part of the current study, 25 primary school students in the 5th grade read the word groups learned initially during a previous grade. The words used in the experiments were 327 Farsi monosyllable words matched on the other factors involved in Farsi word naming.

Results: The analysis of covariance (the consistency and frequency as covariates) showed that words learned in earlier grades were read more easily than the ones learned later, showing the known effect of the Age of Acquisition (AoA). In the second part of the study, it was tried to simulate AoA in word naming by a neural network model developed earlier based on connectionist approach. While previous studies used random patterns, in the current study words from primary school books were used. Likewise, words learned early by the model were read better than words learned later. However, there was a failure in replicating previous simulation of AoA in English reading by an algorithm called Quick prop for Farsi. In addition, the model was lesioned by removing some hidden units to see its effect on word reading. As a result, words learned earlier were less vulnerable to damage compared with the ones learned later.

Conclusion: The findings showed that words learned earlier, compared to those learned later, were read better and were less vulnerable to damage. These effects are explained by considering the nature of learning in neural networks trained by error back-propagation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.9.10.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6484193PMC
March 2019

Radiation dose in cardiac SPECT/CT: An estimation of SSDE and effective dose.

Eur J Radiol 2016 Dec 21;85(12):2257-2261. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rajaei Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: The dose levels for Computed Tomography (CT) localization and attenuation correction of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are limited and reported as Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose-Length Product (DLP). This work presents CT dose estimation from Cardiac SPECT/CT based on new American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Size Specific Dose Estimation (SSDE) parameter, effective dose, organ doses and also emission dose from nuclear issue.

Material And Methods: Myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT for 509 patients was included in the study. SSDE, effective dose and organ dose were calculated using AAPM guideline and Impact-Dose software. Data were analyzed using R and SPSS statistical software. Spearman-Pearson correlation test and linear regression models were used for finding correlations and relationships among parameters.

Results: The mean CTDIvol was 1.34 mGy±0.19 and the mean SSDE was 1.7 mGy±0.16. The mean±SD of effective dose from emission, CT and total dose were 11.5±1.4, 0.49±0.11 and 12.67±1.73 (mSv) respectively. The mean±SD of effective dose from emission, CT and total dose were 11.5±1.4, 0.49±0.11 and 12.67±1.73 (mSv) respectively. The spearman test showed that correlation between body size and organ doses is significant except thyroid and red bone marrow. CTDIvol was strongly dependent on patient size, but SSDE was not. Emission dose was strongly dependent on patient weight, but its dependency was lower to effective diameter.

Conclusion: The dose parameters including CTDIvol, DLP, SSDE, effective dose values reported here are very low and below the reference level. This data suggest that appropriate CT acquisition parameters in SPECT/CT localization and attenuation correction are very beneficial for patients and lowering cancer risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2016.10.021DOI Listing
December 2016

An fMRI Study of Risky Decision Making: The Role of Mental Preparation and Conflict.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2015 Oct;6(4):265-70

MRI Unit, Ottawa General Hospital, Ottawa, Canada.

Introduction: The current study aimed to elucidate the role of preparatory cognitive control in decision making and its neural correlates using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). To this effect, by employing a series of new cognitive tasks, we assessed the role of preparatory cognitive control in monetary (risky) decision making.

Methods: The participants had to decide between a risky and a safe gamble based on their chance of winning (high or low). In the 2-phase gambling task (similar to Cambridge gambling task), the chance and the gamble were presented at the same time (i.e. in a single phase), but in a new 3-phase gambling task, the chance is presented before the gamble. The tasks ended with a feedback phase.

Results: In the 3-phase task, holding the chance in memory to guide their decision enabled the participants to have more control on their risk taking behaviors as shown by activation in a network of brain areas involved in the control and conflict, including dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC), indexed by faster reaction times and better performance in the gambling task, and the temporal lobe, which has a role in holding contextual information.

Discussion: Holding information in memory to guide decision presumably enables the participants to have more control on their risk taking behaviors. The conflict and uncertainty resulting from this risky decision was indexed by the activation of dACC, known to be activated in conflict and cognitive control.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668873PMC
October 2015

Positive and negative congruency effects in masked priming: a neuro-computational model based on representation, attention, and conflict.

Brain Res 2009 Sep 14;1289:124-32. Epub 2009 Jul 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

Studies on masked and unmasked priming have long shown reliable positive effects of the congruent prime on target processing. Paradoxically, a negative effect has also been found, showing faster and more accurate responses in the incongruent compared to the congruent trials. Positive effects have been found with a short time between the prime and the target, while negative effects have been found with a long time between the prime and the target. This has been modeled by assuming that the prime initiates a motor self-inhibitory process that causes these effects (Bowman, H., Schlaghecken, F., Eimer, M., 2006. A neural network model of inhibitory processes and cognitive control. Vis. Cogn. 13, 401-480). We have developed an alternative explanation based on attentional neuro-modulation. In this paper we show that attentional neuro-modulation can be used to model a wide range of findings in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.004DOI Listing
September 2009