Publications by authors named "Ahmad Shajari"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G5G Polymorphism with risk of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 3;19(2):2005-2016. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: The 4G5G polymorphism of Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene is reported to be associated with diabetes nephropathy and retinopathy (DNR) risk. However, the findings are conflicting. Herein, we conducted a case-control and meta-analysis study to explore the association of PAI-1 4G5G polymorphism with risk of DNR.

Methods: We retrieved PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and CNKI databases and screened eligible studies up to August 15, 2020. The strength of associations was assessed by odd ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: A total of 27 case-control studies including 16 studies with 1,825 cases case and 1,731 controls on DN and eleven studies with 1,397 cases and 1,545 controls on DR were selected. Pooled data showed that the PAI-1 4G5G polymorphism was significantly associated with DN (allele model: OR = 0.674, 95% CI 0.524-0.865, p = 0.002; homozygote model: OR = 0.536, 95% CI 0.351-0.817, p = 0.004; heterozygote model: OR = 0.621, 95% CI 0.427-0.903, p = 0.013; dominant model: OR = 0.575, 95% CI 0.399-0.831, p = 0.003; and recessive model: OR = 0.711, 95% CI 0.515-0.981, p = 0.038) and DR (homozygote model: OR = 0.770, 95% CI 0.621-0.955, p = 0.0.017) risk. Stratified analyses by ethnicity indicated that PAI-1 4G5G polymorphism was associated with DN and DR risk in Asians and Caucasians, respectively.

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis revealed that the PAI-1 4G5G polymorphism was associated with increased risk of DN and DR risk. However, well-designed large-scale clinical studies are required to further validate our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00675-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843759PMC
December 2020

Association of +1923C > T, -1112C > T and +2044A > G Polymorphisms in IL-13 Gene with Susceptibility to Pediatric Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020 Jul 8:1-19. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Mother and Newborn Health Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Previous studies have provided conflicting evidence implicating the IL-13 polymorphism and pediatric asthma. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to combine and analyze the available studies to provide more accurate conclusions. A comprehensive retrieval in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI was performed up to February 05, 2020. A total of 39 case-control studies including 15 studies with 4,968 cases and 7,091 controls were on +1923 C > T, ten studies with 3,175 cases and 2,983 controls on -1112 C > T, and 14 studies with 4,476 cases and 5,121 controls on +2044 A > G were selected. Pooled data showed that the IL-13 + 1923 C > T, -1112 C > T and +2044 A > G polymorphisms were significantly associated with risk of pediatric asthma. The IL-13 + 1923 C > T (Asians and Africans), -1112 C > T (Caucasians) and +2044 A > G (Asians) polymorphisms were more frequently associated in these ethnic groups. Our pooled data indicated that IL-13 + 1923 C > T, -1112 C > T and +2044 A > G polymorphisms were correlated with risk of pediatric asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2020.1783406DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE I/D Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Pediatric Sepsis: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020 Jun 14:1-17. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Several studies have investigated the role of PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE I/D polymorphisms in the etiology of pediatric sepsis, but the results are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to assess for any associations. A comprehensive literature search on PubMed, web of science, and CNKI database was conducted up to April 15, 2020. There were twelve case-control studies involving seven studies with 860 cases and 1144 controls on PA-1 4G/5G and five studies with 1602 cases and 1585 controls on ACE I/D. PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE I/D polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of pediatric sepsis in the global population. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed a significant association in the Caucasians children. The meta-analysis suggests that the PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE I/D polymorphisms may be risk factors for development of pediatric sepsis in the global population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2020.1775736DOI Listing
June 2020

Association of MTHFR 677C > T, 1298A > C and MTR 2756A > G Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Childhood Retinoblastoma: A Systematic Review and Met-Analysis.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020 Feb 17:1-14. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Mother and Newborn Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Recently, epidemiological studies investigating the association of MTHFR 677 C > T, 1298 A > C and MTR 2756 A > G polymorphism with retinoblastoma susceptibility reported controversial results. Data were collected from several electronic databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases, with the last search up to December 05, 2019. A total of eleven case-control studies including four studies with 324 cases and 490 controls on MTHFR 677 C > T, four studies with 324 cases and 490 controls on MTHFR 1298 A > C, and three studies with 283 cases and 485 controls on MTR 2756 A > G were selected. There was a significant association between MTHFR 677 C > T and MTR 2756 A > G polymorphisms and an increased risk of retinoblastoma. However, MTHFR 1298 A > C polymorphism was not significantly associated with risk of retinoblastoma. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MTHFR 677 C > T and MTR 2756 A > G polymorphisms might play important roles in the development of retinoblastoma. No association with MTHFR 1298 A > C polymorphism was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2020.1721738DOI Listing
February 2020

Association of REarranged during Transfection (RET) c.73 + 9277T > C and c.135G > a Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Hirschsprung Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020 Dec 7;39(6):476-490. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Previous studies have suggested a close association between REarranged during Transfection (RET) c.73 + 9277T > C and c.135G > A polymorphisms and Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) susceptibility. The results are inconsistent and contradictory. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of RET c.73 + 9277T > C and c.135G > A polymorphisms with risk of HSCR. The eligible literatures were searched by PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and CNKI up to August 5 2019. A total of 20 studies including 10 studies with 1136 cases and 2420 controls on c.73 + 9277T > C and 10 studies with 917 cases and 1159 controls on c.135G > A were selected. Pooled ORs revealed that c.73 + 9277T > C and c.135G > A polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk of HSCR. Moreover, stratified analysis revealed that c.73 + 9277T > C and c.135G > A polymorphisms were associated with HSCR risk in Asian, Caucasian and Chinese populations. This meta-analysis result indicated that the RET c.73 + 9277T > C and c.135G > A polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to HSCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2019.1672225DOI Listing
December 2020

Ten years of experience in clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment and outcome of patients with nasopharyngeal pathologies in Yazd, Iran.

Electron Physician 2016 Oct 25;8(10):3081-3087. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

M.D., General Practitioner, Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Although there are some studies regarding the clinical characteristics and outcome of nasopharyngeal tumors, one such study from Iran has not been reported to date. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features, treatment, and consequences of nasopharyngeal lesions.

Methods: In this cross sectional study, we conducted a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with nasopharyngeal pathologies and treated at Shahid Sadoughi Hospital and Shahid Ramazanzadeh Radiotherapy Center in Yazd, Iran, over a period of 10 years (from 2005 to 2014). The variables in the study were the patient's hospital registration number, date, name, age, gender, address, topography, clinical symptoms, morphology, stage, types of treatment, and survival for each subject. Survival data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression method. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM-SPSS, version 22.

Results: In the study, there were 123 patients, 85 males and 38 females, who had nasopharyngeal lesions. The mean age at diagnosis was 41.51 ± 20.33 years. There were 83 patients with malignant neoplasms and 40 patients with non-malignant lesions. The most common malignant tumor was nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and the most common benign lesion was angiofibroma. Survival analysis was performed for the 83 patients who had malignant neoplasms, and survival was found to be 94.5 ± 4.32 months. There were significant differences in survival based on the stage of the disease, histological type, and the type of treatment (p = 0.001, 0.02, and 0.003, respectively).

Conclusion: In our institutional study, malignant tumors were more common than benign lesions. Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented relatively late and at an advanced stage. Regular follow-up is necessary for early detection, recurrence, or metastases of malignant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/3081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133032PMC
October 2016

Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article.

Iran J Child Neurol 2015 ;9(3):1-8

Pediatric Nephrologist, Department of Pediatrics, Ali-ebn- Abitaleb School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran.

Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4577691PMC
September 2015

Modeling the distribution of urolithiasis prevalence under projected climate change in Iran.

Urolithiasis 2015 Aug 15;43(4):339-47. Epub 2015 May 15.

Department of Pediatric, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran,

Although studies support a positive correlation between temperature and stone risk, the precise relationship between these factors has not been elucidated. We modeled the current distribution of urolithiasis prevalence in Iran using 26 bioclimatic, climatic and topographic variables based on two multivariate linear regression models in geographical information system. The impact of climate change on the stone prevalence was predicted under the projections of GFDL-ESM2G, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES climate models by mid-century (2050). Extraterrestrial radiation and isothermality in the first regression model and annual mean temperature, precipitation seasonality and isothermality in the second model were the significant (P<0.01) predictors of urolithiasis prevalence. Both regression models provided good estimates of the stone prevalence (R2>0.9) and determined a mean urolithiasis prevalence of 6% (range of 1.5-10.8%) in Iran. The climate change under the projections of GFDL-ESM2G, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES models can, respectively, lead to an average increase of 5.7, 4.3 and 9% in the urolithiasis prevalence based on the second regression model by 2050. The highest increase of the prevalence will occur in the west, northwest and southwest provinces of the country. Predicting the impact of climate change on climate-related diseases can be useful for effective preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-015-0784-2DOI Listing
August 2015

The efficacy and safety of topiramate for prophylaxis of migraine in children.

Iran J Child Neurol 2013 ;7(4):7-11

Department of Pediatrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Objective: Migraine is the most common acute intermittent primary headache in children and prophylactic therapy is indicated in children with frequent or disabling headaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiramate (TPM) for migraine prophylaxis in children.

Materials & Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, monthly frequency, severity and duration of headache, migraine disability, and side-effects were evaluated in 100 children who were referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran from April 2011 to March 2012, and were treated with 3 mg/kg/day of TPM for three months.

Results: Fifty eight (57.4%) girls and 42 (41.6%) boys with the mean age of 10.46±2.11 years were evaluated. Monthly frequency, severity, and duration of headache decreased with treatment from 15.34±7.28 to 6.07±3.16 attacks, from 6.21±1.74 to 3.15±2.22, and from 2.28±1.55 to 0.94±0.35 hours, respectively, and the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment score reduced with TPM from 32.48±9.33 to 15.54±6.16. Transient side-effects were seen in 21% of the patients, including hyperthermia in 11%, anorexia and weight loss in 6%, and drowsiness in 4%. No serious side-effects were reported.

Conclusion: TPM could be considered as a safe and effective drug in pediatric migraine prophylaxis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3943045PMC
March 2014

Chloral hydrate, chloral hydrate--promethazine and chloral hydrate -hydroxyzine efficacy in electroencephalography sedation.

Indian J Pediatr 2014 Jun 21;81(6):541-6. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Growth Disorders of Children Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate (CH), chloral hydrate and promethazine (CH + P) and chloral hydrate and hydroxyzine (CH + H) in electroencephalography (EEG) sedation.

Methods: In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, ninety 1-7 y-old uncooperative kids who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University, Yazd, Iran from April through August 2012, were randomly assigned to receive 40 mg/kg of chloral hydrate or 40 mg/kg of chloral hydrate and 1 mg/kg of promethazine or 40 mg/kg of chloral hydrate and 2 mg/kg of hydroxyzine. The primary endpoint was efficacy in sufficient sedation (obtaining four Ramsay sedation score) and successful completion of EEG. Secondary endpoint was clinical adverse events.

Results: Thirty nine girls (43.3 %) and 51 boys (56.7 %) with mean age of 3.34 ± 1.47 y were assessed. Sufficient sedation and completion of EEG were achieved in 70 % (N = 21) of chloral hydrate group, in 83.3 % (N = 25) of CH + H group and in 96.7 % (N = 29) of CH + P group (p = 0.02). Mild clinical adverse events including vomiting [16.7 % (N = 5) in CH, 6.7 % (N = 2) in CH + P, 6.7 % (N = 2) in CH + H], agitation in 3.3 % of CH + P (N = 1) group and mild transient hypotension in 3.3 % of CH + H (N = 1) group occurred. Safety of these three sedation regimens was not statistically significant different (p = 0.14).

Conclusions: Combination of chloral hydrate-antihistamines can be used as the most effective and safe sedation regimen in drug induced sleep electroencephalography of kids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-013-1298-yDOI Listing
June 2014

Study to evaluate two dosage regimens of vitamin D through an academic year in middle school girls: a randomized trial.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(12):780-3

Department of Pediatric, Shahid Sadoghi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Vitamin D is an essential hormone for growth and development of bones in children. There is a lot of evidence for deficiency of this vitamin in Middle East females. This study conduct to find a way to combat deficiency in girls during rapid growth phase of puberty in academic year. One hundred and two Middle School girls who had not consumed any vitamins supplement have been participated in this randomized clinical trial. They allocated randomly in two case groups who received 50,000 or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 in October and three months later in January or in control group who received vitamin E. At the end of winter blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D were checked. The mean of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 5.5±1.5 ng/ml, 15.2±6 ng/ml, 23.0±6.8 ng/ml in control, 50,000 and 100,000 IU vitamin D groups respectively (P<0.05). Neither dosage of vitamin D could raise 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 20 ng/ml in all cases. However, none of the students in 100,000 IU of vitamin D3 had severe deficiency in winter. Headache, dizziness, and weakness were the most common complain after vitamin D consumption, but no difference between groups detected (P>0.05). Urine calcium/creatinin ratio was equal in case and control groups (P>0.05). 100,000 IU of vitamin D3 every three months (equal to 800 IU/day) can raise 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 12 ng/ml in all cases but for area with high prevalence of sever deficiency, dosage more than 100,000 IU every three months or shorter interval recommended to achieve optimal level.
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April 2012

Relationship between arterial blood pressure and body mass index of school age children of southern region of Iran.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(11):737-41

Department of Pediatrics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Despite an increasing prevalence of obesity and hypertension in young age, there is limited information on the contribution of body mass index (BMI) to blood pressure (BP) in these populations, especially in developing countries. This study examines the association between BMI and BP in four populations of school age children across southern region of Islamic republic of Iran.
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March 2012

Renal power Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of children with acute pyelonephritis.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(10):659-62

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Urinary tract infections are common in children. The available gold standard method for diagnosis, Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan is expensive and exposes patients to considerable amount of radiation. This study was performed to compare and assess the efficacy of Power Doppler Ultrasound versus Tc-99m DMSA scan for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. A quasi experimental study was conducted on 34 children with mean age of 2.8 ± 2.7 years who were hospitalized with their first episode of febrile urinary tract infection. All children were evaluated in the first 3 days of admission by Doppler Ultrasound and Tc-99m DMSA scan. Patients with congenital structural anomalies were excluded. Each kidney was divided into three zones. The comparison between efficacy of Doppler Ultrasound and DMSA scan was carried out based on number of patients and on classified renal units. Based on the number of patients enrolled; the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Doppler Ultrasound were 89%, 53%, 70%, 80% and 74%, respectively but based on the renal units, it was 66%, 81%, 46%, 91% and 79% , respectively. Although Doppler Ultrasound has the potential for identifying acute pyelonephritis in children, but it is still soon to replace DMSA scan.
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February 2012

Acute glomerulonephritis: a 7 years follow up of children in center of Iran.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(6):375-8

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Hazrat Masume Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is a type of renal disease which indicates the inflammation of glomerulus and nephrons. This study was carried on 94 children, <15 years old with the diagnosis of AGN who were admitted to Qom and Yazd's hospitals between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected using hospital records on admission, progression notes and outpatient follow up. Among 94 patients, 55.3% were male and 44.6% were female. Mean age of patients was 8.2±2.7 years old. Acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) was reported in 92.5%, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in 4.2%, hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2.1% and IgA nephropathy in 1.06%. There was no significant differences between GN types and gender (P=0.54). Clinical manifestation included edema in 68.8%, oliguria in 36.3%, gross hematuria in 69.1%, HTN in 61.7% and anuria in 1.06%. Microscopic hematuria was detected in all patients. In the time of follow up none of patients had hypertension, 3.1% had proteinuria and 6.3% had microscopic hematuria. APSGN is the most common causes of AGN in Qom and Yazd's children. Early diagnosis and treatment of APSGN may protect children from long term morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.
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December 2011

Influence of physiological factors on thyroid size determined by ultrasound.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(5):302-4

Department of Radiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

According to its superficial anatomical location, the thyroid gland is easily accessible by sonography. Sonography allows an exact documentation of the size and thyroid volume. The relationship between thyroid volume and anthropometric characteristics is a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid volume and its determinants in healthy adult. A cross-sectional study was performed from June2003 until April 2005 in 314 healthy adults aged over 18 years old in Yazd, Iran. Data were collected on age, sex, and weight and thyroid size by sonography. Mean of thyroid volume in male and female was 9.08 ± 2.49 and 7.93 ± 3.2 milliliter which the differences was significant (P<0.003).Differences between thyroid volume and weight was significant (P=0.001). Mean of female weight and proportion of thyroid volume to their weight was 61.83 ± 12.09kg and 0.130 ± 0.33. Mean of male weight and proportion of thyroid volume to their weight was 71.41 ± 9.05kg and 0.126 ± 0.028 (P<0.003). Results of study is similar to other studies .Mean of thyroid volume in Yazd citizens is not differ from other Iranian but is different from other countries. This difference could be related to food intake habit, geographical region and daily oral iodine consumption.
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October 2011

Clinical manifestations and etiology of renal stones in children less than 14 years age.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010 Jan;21(1):181-4

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Clinical Research Development Center, Iran.

Urolithiasis is one of the commonest problems in pediatric nephrology. Prevalence of urolithiasis in pediatric patients is increasing. The purpose was to properly diagnose and treat with the special attention to the risk factors. This study is case-series and was performed on 100 pediatric patients for evaluation of clinical manifestation and etiology of renal stone in Qom. Hundred Children, fewer than 14 years old with mean age of 3.32 years, were included (54% male). Etiology of urolithiasis in 5% was unclear. Metabolic disorders found in patients were mainly: Hypocitraturia in 54, hyperoxaluria in 14, hyperuricosuria in 25, cystinuria in 6, hypercalciuria in 28 and phosphaturia in 8 patients. The main clinical presentation was fever, pain, irritability, dysuria and hematuria. Family history of urolithiasis was found in 23% of patients and 54% presented with urinary tract infection (UTI). We conclude that majority of patients were symptomatic and hypocitraturia was the commenest risk factor among others.
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January 2010

Theophylline for prevention of kidney dysfunction in neonates with severe asphyxia.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2009 Oct;3(4):222-6

Division of Neonates' Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Shahid Sadoughi University, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Recent studies have suggested theophylline for prevention of kidney dysfunction in asphyxia. This study was designed to determine whether theophylline could prevent or ameliorate kidney dysfunction in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia.

Materials And Methods: We assigned 36 severely asphyxiated term infants (Apgar score < or =5) into 2 groups to receive intravenously a single dose of either theophylline (5mg/kg; n =17) or placebo (n =19) during their first 60 minutes of life. The 24-hour fluid intake and the urine volumes were recorded during the 1st, 3rd, and 5th days of life. Severe kidney dysfunction was defined as a serum creatinine level elevated up to more than 1.50 mg/dL for at least 2 consecutive days after a fluid challenge, or 0.3-mg/dL/d rising levels of serum creatinine.

Results: On the 1st day, the 24-hour fluid balance was more positive in infants receiving placebo compared to infants receiving theophylline. Over the next few days, the change in fluid balance favored the theophylline group. Significantly higher serum creatinine values were recorded in the placebo group on the 3rd day. Severe kidney dysfunction was present in 2 infants of the theophylline group (11.7. %) and in 8 (42.1%) of the controls. The glomerular filtration rate was markedly increased in the theophylline group. There was no difference in the severity of the asphyxia between the infants of the theophylline and control groups.

Conclusions: Prophylactic theophylline, given early after birth, has beneficial effects on reducing kidney dysfunction in neonates with asphyxia.
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October 2009

Benefit of urinalysis.

Indian J Pediatr 2009 Jun 23;76(6):639-41. Epub 2009 Apr 23.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, School of Medicine, Yazd, Iran.

Objective: In the pilot Iran school screening programme, the minimal cost of screening dipstick urinalysis in 1601 asymptomatic school children was determined.

Methods: The cost of screening dipstick urinalysis was calculated by reviewing the literature for the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria, hematuria, bacteriuria, and glucosuria determined by an initial dipstick urinalysis. The minimal cost utilizing data of 3 general physicians was calculated. Costs were determined by using current charge for supplies ordered to perform tests, charges for tests performed by a commercial laboratory, and the cost of a final evaluation by a pediatric nephrologist.

Results: 4.7% (76/1601) of patients were calculated to have an initial abnormal urinalysis. Upon retesting 1.37% (22/1601) of patients were calculated to have a persistent abnormality. The calculated cost was $167 to initially screen all 1601 patients with a dipstick urinalysis or $0.092 per patient. The calculated cost to evaluates the 22 patients with any persistent abnormality on repeat dipstick urinalysis was $0.02 or $0.001 per patient. This is the calculated cost for a single screening of 1601 asymptomatic pediatric patients.

Conclusion: Multiple screening dipstick urinalysis in asymptomatic pediatric is costly and should be discontinued. We propose that a single screening dipstick urinalysis be obtained at school entry age, between 6 and 7 years, in all asymptomatic children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-009-0068-3DOI Listing
June 2009