Publications by authors named "Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis"

51 Publications

Effects of nerol on paracetamol-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 12;140:111732. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Nerol, a monoterpene is evident to possess diverse biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic, anthelmintic, and anti-arrhythmias. This study aims to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in a rat model. Five groups of rats (n = 7) were orally treated (once daily) with 0.05% tween 80 dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution (vehicle), paracetamol 640 mg/kg (negative control), 50 mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or nerol (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 14 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood samples and livers of the animals were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The histological findings suggest that paracetamol caused lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis, whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pre-treated with silymarin and nerol. The rats pre-treated with nerol significantly and dose-dependently reduced the hepatotoxic markers in animals. Nerol at 100 mg/kg significantly reversed the paracetamol-induced altered situations, including the liver enzymes, plasma proteins, antioxidant enzymes and serum bilirubin, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cholesterol [e.g., total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)] levels in animals. Taken together, nerol exerted significant hepatoprotective activity in rats in a dose-dependent manner. PCM-induced toxicity and nerol induced hepatoprotective effects based on expression of inflammatory and apoptosis factors will be future line of work for establishing the precise mechanism of action of nerol in Wistar albino rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111732DOI Listing
August 2021

Understanding Potential Heavy Metal Contamination, Absorption, Translocation and Accumulation in Rice and Human Health Risks.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 26;10(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Rice is a worldwide staple food and heavy metal contamination is often reported in rice production. Heavy metal can originate from natural sources or be present through anthropogenic contamination. Therefore, this review summarizes the current status of heavy metal contamination in paddy soil and plants, highlighting the mechanism of uptake, bioaccumulation, and health risk assessment. A scoping search employing Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research Gate, Scopus, and Wiley Online was carried out to build up the review using the following keywords: heavy metals, absorption, translocation, accumulation, uptake, biotransformation, rice, and human risk with no restrictions being placed on the year of study. Cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb) have been identified as the most prevalent metals in rice cultivation. Mining and irrigation activities are primary sources, but chemical fertilizer and pesticide usage also contribute to heavy metal contamination of paddy soil worldwide. Further to their adverse effect on the paddy ecosystem by reducing the soil fertility and grain yield, heavy metal contamination represents a risk to human health. An in-depth discussion is further offered on health risk assessments by quantitative measurement to identify potential risk towards heavy metal exposure via rice consumption, which consisted of in vitro digestion models through a vital ingestion portion of rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10061070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227320PMC
May 2021

Three Selected Edible Crops of the Genus as Potential Sources of Phytochemicals: Biochemical, Nutritional, and Medicinal Values.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:625546. Epub 2021 May 13.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

species (Family Cucurbitaceae) are cultivated throughout the world for their edible fruits, leaves, shoots and seeds. Among the species of the genus there are three selected species that are used as vegetable, and for medicinal purposes, L (Bitter melon), Schumach (Bitter cucumber) and L (African pumpkin). The fruits and leaves of these species are rich in primary and secondary metabolites such as proteins, fibers, minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc), -carotene, foliate, ascorbic acid, among others. The extracts from species are used for the treatment of a variety of diseases and ailments in traditional medicine. species extracts are reputed to possess anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anthelmintic bioactivity, abortifacient, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and play chemo-preventive functions. In this review we summarize the biochemical, nutritional, and medicinal values of three species (, and ) as promising and innovative sources of natural bioactive compounds for future pharmaceutical usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.625546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155620PMC
May 2021

Nigella Plants - Traditional Uses, Bioactive Phytoconstituents, Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:625386. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

is a small genus of the family Ranunculaceae, which includes some popular species due to their culinary and medicinal properties, especially in Eastern Europe, Middle East, Western, and Central Asia. Therefore, this review covers the traditional uses and phytochemical composition of and, in particular, . The pharmacological studies reported , and in humans have also been reviewed. One of the main strength of the use of is that the seeds are rich in the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and provide an extra-source of dietary phytochemicals, including the bioactive thymoquinone, and characteristics saponins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Among species, . L. is the most studied plant from the genus. Due to the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties, the seed and seed oil from this plant can be considered as good candidates to formulate functional ingredients on the basis of folklore and scientific knowledge. Nonetheless, the main limations are that more studies, especially, clinical trials are required to standardize the results, e.g. to establish active molecules, dosage, chemical profile, long-term effects and impact of cooking/incorporation into foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.625386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107825PMC
April 2021

Variation of Deoxynivalenol Levels in Corn and Its Products Available in Retail Markets of Punjab, Pakistan, and Estimation of Risk Assessment.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Food Toxicology Lab, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

This study investigated the natural incidence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in corn and corn products from corn-producing districts of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector and immunoaffinity cleanup columns. The detection limit (LOD) and limit of quantification were 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. A total of 1220 samples of corn and corn products were analyzed to detect DON, and 539 (44.2%) samples were observed to be contaminated with DON ( ≥ LOD). Furthermore, 92 (7.5%) samples of corn and corn products had DON levels that were higher than the proposed limits of the EU. The data are significantly different from a normal distribution of DON in samples of corn and corn products from different locations ( < 0.05) for Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values. However, a significant difference in DON levels was found between corn and corn-derived products ( ≤ 0.05). The lowest and highest exposures, and hazard quotient (HQ) values of 0.92 and 9.68 µg/kg bw/day, were documented in corn flour samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143574PMC
April 2021

Antiviral activity of fermented foods and their probiotics bacteria towards respiratory and alimentary tracts viruses.

Food Control 2021 Sep 11;127:108140. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450, Selangor, Malaysia.

The recent COVID-19, a viral outbreak calls for a high demand for non-conventional antiviral agents that can reduce the risk of infections and promote fast recovery. Fermented foods and their probiotics bacteria have recently received increasing interest due to the reported potential of high antiviral activity. Several probiotics strains demonstrated broad range of antiviral activities and different mechanisms of action. This article will review the diversity, health benefits, interaction with immune system and antiviral activity of fermented foods and their probiotics bacteria. In addition, the mechanisms of action will be reviewed to determine the broad range potential antiviral activity against the respiratory and alimentary tracts viruses. The probiotics bacteria and bioactive compounds in fermented foods demonstrated antiviral activities against respiratory and alimentary tracts viruses. The mechanism of action was reported to be due to the stimulation of the immune system function via enhancing natural killers cell toxicity, enhance the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the cytotoxic of T lymphocytes (CD3, CD16, CD56). However, further studies are highly recommended to determine the potential antiviral activity for traditional fermented foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036130PMC
September 2021

Molecular Regulation of Lipogenesis, Adipogenesis and Fat Deposition in Chicken.

Genes (Basel) 2021 03 13;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

In the poultry industry, excessive fat deposition is considered an undesirable factor, affecting feed efficiency, meat production cost, meat quality, and consumer's health. Efforts to reduce fat deposition in economically important animals, such as chicken, can be made through different strategies; including genetic selection, feeding strategies, housing, and environmental strategies, as well as hormone supplementation. Recent investigations at the molecular level have revealed the significant role of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks and their interaction on modulating fat metabolism in chickens. At the transcriptional level, different transcription factors are known to regulate the expression of lipogenic and adipogenic genes through various signaling pathways, affecting chicken fat metabolism. Alternatively, at the post-transcriptional level, the regulatory mechanism of microRNAs (miRNAs) on lipid metabolism and deposition has added a promising dimension to understand the structural and functional regulatory mechanism of lipid metabolism in chicken. Therefore, this review focuses on the progress made in unraveling the molecular function of genes, transcription factors, and more notably significant miRNAs responsible for regulating adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and fat deposition in chicken. Moreover, a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism will give researchers novel insights to use functional molecular markers, such as miRNAs, for selection against excessive fat deposition to improve chicken production efficiency and meat quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002044PMC
March 2021

Patulin Contamination of Citrus Fruits from Punjab and Northern Pakistan and Estimation of Associated Dietary Intake.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 25;18(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

This research aims to assess the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's northern cities. A total of 2970 fruit samples from 12 citrus cultivars were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with a UV detector. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit were 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. About 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were found to be contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 1150 µg/kg in samples from central Punjab cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from northern cities of Pakistan were contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 320 µg/kg. About 22.1% of citrus fruit samples had PAT levels greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). The dietary intake levels of PAT ranged from 0.10 to 1.11 µg/kg bw/day in the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13 to 1.93 µg/kg bw/day in the northern cities of Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956212PMC
February 2021

Nanotechnology-Based Strategies for Berberine Delivery System in Cancer Treatment: Pulling Strings to Keep Berberine in Power.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 15;7:624494. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cancer is a multifactorial disease characterized by complex molecular landscape and altered cell pathways that results in an abnormal cell growth. Natural compounds are target-specific and pose a limited cytotoxicity; therefore, can aid in the development of new therapeutic interventions for the treatment of this versatile disease. Berberine is a member of the protoberberine alkaloids family, mainly present in the root, stem, and bark of various trees, and has a reputed anticancer activity. Nonetheless, the limited bioavailability and low absorption rate are the two major hindrances following berberine administration as only 0.5% of ingested berberine absorbed in small intestine while this percentage is further decreased to 0.35%, when enter in systemic circulation. Nano-based formulation is believed to be an ideal candidate to increase absorption percentage as at nano scale level, compounds can absorb rapidly in gut. Nanotechnology-based therapeutic approaches have been implemented to overcome such problems, ultimately promoting a higher efficacy in the treatment of a plethora of diseases. This review present and critically discusses the anti-proliferative role of berberine and the nanotechnology-based therapeutic strategies used for the nano-scale delivery of berberine. Finally, the current approaches and promising perspectives of latest delivery of this alkaloid are also critically analyzed and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.624494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843460PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Paddy Plants at the Northern Region of Malaysia Using ICPMS and Its Risk Assessment.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Dec 22;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Heavy metals from natural and anthropogenic sources accumulate in soil and plants and as a consequence represent important environmental contamination problems. Nevertheless, food safety issues and adverse health risks make this one of the most serious environmental issues. The aim of the present study was to assess heavy metal contamination in the paddy plants from the northern area of Malaysia using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and its risk assessment. In total, the heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb) of the samples of paddy plants harvested from Kedah areas were extracted using an acid digestion method, while the heavy metals for soil samples using ammonium acetate. The heavy metal concentrations were then analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The enrichment (EF) and translocation factors (TF) of heavy metals were calculated, and health risk assessment (HRA) was performed. The EF values for heavy metals from the soil to roots, roots to stems, stems to leaves, and stems to grains followed the order Cu > As > Cr > Cd > Pb, whereas Cr and Pb were characterized by greater TF values from stem to grain than the other elements. The average daily dose (ADD) for both children and adults is below the safe value intake for each of the studied elements. The combined hazard index (HI) of five elements was beyond the acceptable value (HI >1). The carcinogenic risk, as exemplified by lifetime cancer risk (LCR), indicated that single exposure to As or Cr, in both adults and children, was greater than 10. The total cancer risk (CRt) resulting from multiple exposure to carcinogenic elements exceeded the acceptable value (CRt >1 ×10) in both adults and children. Overall, exposure to heavy metals through rice consumption poses potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents in the northern area; thus, regular monitoring of pollution in the area is crucial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10010003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822006PMC
December 2020

Microplastics Pollution as an Invisible Potential Threat to Food Safety and Security, Policy Challenges and the Way Forward.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 21;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Technological advances, coupled with increasing demands by consumers, have led to a drastic increase in plastic production. After serving their purposes, these plastics reach our water bodies as their destination and become ingested by aquatic organisms. This ubiquitous phenomenon has exposed humans to microplastics mostly through the consumption of sea food. This has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to make an urgent call for the assessment of environmental pollution due to microplastics and its effect on human health. This review summarizes studies between 1999 and 2020 in relation to microplastics in aquatic ecosystems and human food products, their potential toxic effects as elicited in animal studies, and policies on their use and disposal. There is a paucity of information on the toxicity mechanisms of microplastics in animal studies, and despite their documented presence in food products, no policy has been in place so far, to monitor and regulates microplastics in commercial foods meant for human consumption. Although there are policies and regulations with respect to plastics, these are only in a few countries and in most instances are not fully implemented due to socioeconomic reasons, so they do not address the problem across the entire life cycle of plastics from production to disposal. More animal research to elucidate pathways and early biomarkers of microplastic toxicity that can easily be detected in humans is needed. This is to create awareness and influence policies that will address this neglected threat to food safety and security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767491PMC
December 2020

Seasonal Variation in Aflatoxin Levels in Edible Seeds, Estimation of Its Dietary Intake and Vitamin E Levels in Southern Areas of Punjab, Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 2;17(23). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Food Toxicology Lab, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

A total of 779 samples of edible nuts (melon seeds, watermelon seeds, pumpkin seeds, and cantaloupe seeds) from Southern Punjab (Pakistan), were collected during the summer and the winter seasons. The natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) and vitamin E (tocopherols) levels were investigated using HPLC. The results have shown that 180 (43.4%) of samples from the winter season and 122 (33.4%) samples from the summer season were found positive for AFs. Elevated average levels of total AFs (20.9 ± 3.10 μg/kg, dry weight) were observed in watermelon seeds without shell, and the lowest average amount (15.9 ± 3.60 μg/kg) were documented in melon seeds without shell samples from the winter season. An elevated average amount of total AFs 17.3 ± 1.50 μg/kg was found in pumpkin seeds available without a shell. The results have documented a significant difference in total AFs levels in edible seeds available with shells versus without shells (α = 0.05 & 0.01). The highest dietary intake of 6.30 μg/kg/day was found in female individuals from consuming pumpkin seeds (without shell) in the winter season. A value of 3.00 μg/kg/day was found in pumpkin seed without shell in the summer season in female individuals. The highest total tocopherol levels were 22.2 ± 7.70 ng/100 g in pumpkin seeds samples from the winter season and 14.5 ± 5.50 mg/100 g in melon seed samples from the summer season. The variation of total tocopherol levels in edible seeds among the winter and summer seasons showed a significant difference ( ≤ 0.0054), except watermelon seeds samples with non-significant differences ( ≥ 0.183).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730547PMC
December 2020

Therapeutic promises of ginkgolide A: A literature-based review.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 1;132:110908. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Ginkgolide A is a highly active platelet activating factor antagonist cage molecule which was isolated from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba L. It is known for its inflammatory and immunological potentials. This review aims to sketch a current scenario on its therapeutic activities on the basis of scientific reports in the databases. A total 30 articles included in this review suggests that ginkgolide A has many important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anxiolytic-like, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-atherombosis, neuro- and hepatoprotective effects. There is a lack of its toxicological (e.g. toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenitcity) profile. In conclusion, ginkgolide A may be one of the potential therapeutic lead compounds, especially for the treatment of cardiovascular, hepatological, and neurological diseases and disorders. More studies are necessary on this hopeful therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110908DOI Listing
December 2020

The Toxic Impact of Honey Adulteration: A Review.

Foods 2020 Oct 26;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Honey is characterized as a natural and raw foodstuff that can be consumed not only as a sweetener but also as medicine due to its therapeutic impact on human health. It is prone to adulterants caused by humans that manipulate the quality of honey. Although honey consumption has remarkably increased in the last few years all around the world, the safety of honey is not assessed and monitored regularly. Since the number of consumers of honey adulteration have increased in recent years, their trust and interest in this valuable product has decreased. Honey adulterants are any substances that are added to the pure honey. In this regard, this paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of the different types of adulteration, common sugar adulterants and detection methods, and draws a clear perspective toward the impact of honey adulteration on human health. Adulteration increases the consumer's blood sugar, which can cause diabetes, abdominal weight gain, and obesity, raise the level of blood lipids and can cause high blood pressure. The most common organ affected by honey adulterants is the liver followed by the kidney, heart, and brain, as shown in several in vivo research designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9111538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692231PMC
October 2020

Neuroprotective Effects of 7-Geranyloxycinnamic Acid from Leaves.

Molecules 2020 Aug 15;25(16). Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Natural Medicines and Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are chronic conditions that have drawn robust interest from the scientific community. Phytotherapeutic agents are becoming an important source of chemicals for the treatment and management of NDDs. Various secondary metabolites have been isolated from plant leaves, including phenolic acid derivatives. However, their neuroprotective activity remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study is to elucidate the in vitro neuroprotective activity of 7-geranyloxycinnamic acid isolated from leaves. The neuroprotective activity was evaluated in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells by monitoring cell viability using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Moreover, the potential to impair apoptosis in differentiated cells was investigated employing the Annexin V-FITC assay, acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining, and fluorescence microscopy. Morphological assessment and ultrastructural analysis were performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the effect of 7-geranyloxycinnamic acid on surface morphology and internal features of the differentiated cells. Pre-treatment of neuronal cells with 7-geranyloxycinnamic acid significantly protected the differentiated SH-SY5Y cells against HO-induced apoptosis. Cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic inclusion were similarly protected by the 7-geranyloxycinnamic acid treatment. The present findings demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of 7-geranyloxycinnamic acid against HO-induced neurotoxicity in neuronal cells, which is an established hallmark of neuronal disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463604PMC
August 2020

Assessment of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat, Corn and Its Products and Estimation of Dietary Intake.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 3;17(15). Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Plant Production Division, NIAB, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

The main goal of the present research was to explore the seasonal variation of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, corn, and their products, collected during 2018-2019. Samples of 449 of wheat and products and 270 samples of corn and their products were examined using reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a UV detector. The findings of the present work showed that 104 (44.8%) samples of wheat and products from the summer season, and 91 (41.9%) samples from winter season were contaminated with DON (concentration limit of detections (LOD) to 2145 µg/kg and LOD to 2050 µg/kg), from summer and winter seasons, respectively. In corn and products, 87 (61.2%) samples from summer and 57 (44.5%) samples from winter season were polluted with DON with levels ranging from LOD to 2967 µg/kg and LOD to 2490 µg/kg, from the summer and winter season, respectively. The highest dietary intake of DON was determined in wheat flour 8.84 µg/kg body weight/day from the summer season, and 7.21 µg/kg body weight/day from the winter season. The findings of the work argued the need to implement stringent guidelines and create awareness among farmers, stakeholders, and traders of the harmful effect of DON. It is mostly observed that cereal crops are transported and stockpiled in jute bags, which may absorb moisture from the environment and produce favorable conditions for fungal growth. Therefore, these crops must store in polyethylene bags during transportation and storage, and moisture should be controlled. It is highly desirable to use those varieties that are more resistant to fungi attack. Humidity and moisture levels need to be controlled during storage and transportation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432857PMC
August 2020

Association between dietary intake and risk of ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 13;60(4):1707-1736. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Purpose: It is unclear how dietary intake influences the ovarian cancer. The present paper sets out to systematically review and meta-analyze research on dietary intake to identify cases having high- or low-risk ovarian cancer.

Methods: Scopus, PubMed, and Wiley Online Libraries were searched up to the date November 24, 2019. Two reviewers were requested to independently extract study characteristics and to assess the bias and applicability risks with reference to the study inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed to specify the relationship between dietary intake and the risk of ovarian cancer identifying 97 cohort studies.

Results: No significant association was found between dietary intake and risk of ovarian cancer. The results of subgroup analyses indicated that green leafy vegetables (RR = 0.91, 95%, 0.85-0.98), allium vegetables (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.96), fiber (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98), flavonoids (RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.89) and green tea (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.76) intake could significantly reduce ovarian cancer risk. Total fat (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18), saturated fat (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.22), saturated fatty acid (RR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36), cholesterol (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22) and retinol (RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.30) intake could significantly increase ovarian cancer risk. In addition, acrylamide, nitrate, water disinfectants and polychlorinated biphenyls were significantly associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Conclusion: These results could support recommendations to green leafy vegetables, allium vegetables, fiber, flavonoids and green tea intake for ovarian cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02332-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Anti-diarrheal activities of phytol along with its possible mechanism of action through in-vivo and in-silico models.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2020 Jun 25;66(4):243-249. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Phytol (PHY), a chlorophyll-derived diterpenoid, exhibits numerous pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. This study evaluates the anti-diarrheal effect of phytol (PHY) along with its possible mechanism of action through in-vivo and in-silico models. The effect of PHY was investigated on castor oil-induced diarrhea in Swiss mice by using prazosin, propranolol, loperamide, and nifedipine as standards with or without PHY. PHY at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) and all other standards exhibit significant (p < 0.05) anti-diarrheal effect in mice. The effect was prominent in the loperamide and propranolol groups. PHY co-treated with prazosin and propranolol was found to increase in latent periods along with a significant reduction in diarrheal section during the observation period than other individual or combined groups. Furthermore, molecular docking studies also suggested that PHY showed better interactions with the α- and β-adrenergic receptors, especially with α-ADR1a and β-ADR1. In the former case, PHY showed interaction with hydroxyl group of Ser192 at a distance of 2.91Å, while in the latter it showed hydrogen bond interactions with Thr170 and Lys297 with a distance of 2.65 and 2.72Å, respectively. PHY exerted significant anti-diarrheal effect in Swiss mice, possibly through blocking α- and β-adrenergic receptors.
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June 2020

Hypocholesterolaemic and Anti-Atherogenic Effects of Palm-Based Oils (NoveLin I and NoveLin II) in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 6;17(9). Epub 2020 May 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia.

NoveLin I and NoveLin II are palm-based oils. NoveLin I has an equal distribution of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas NoveLin II has a moderate level of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a lower content of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, their hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherogenic effects have not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of these oils. Forty male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing 35% energy fat with added 0.15% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. Group 1, as the control group (CNO) was fed with a diet containing coconut oil, group 2 and 3 were fed with diets containing either NoveLin I or NoveLin II, and group 4, was fed with diet containing olive oil (OLV) for 100 days. Our results demonstrated that both NoveLin groups have significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to CNO group and are comparable to the OLV group. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL/HDL-C) ratio was significantly lower after the NoveLin II diet but attained significance only in comparison to NoveLin I and CNO groups. Aortic fibrous plaque score was significantly lower in both NoveLin groups compared to CNO group. Our findings suggest that despite the high-fat cholesterol diet, NoveLin II oil resulted in atherogenic effects comparable to olive oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246421PMC
May 2020

Induction of Apoptosis by Gluconasturtiin-Isothiocyanate (GNST-ITC) in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells and Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells.

Molecules 2020 Mar 9;25(5). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

Gluconasturtiin, a glucosinolate present in watercress, is hydrolysed by myrosinase to form gluconasturtiin-isothiocyanate (GNST-ITC), which has potential chemopreventive effects; however, the underlying mechanisms of action have not been explored, mainly in human cell lines. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of GNST-ITC and to further assess its potential to induce apoptosis. GNST-ITC inhibited cell proliferation in both human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells with IC values of 7.83 µM and 5.02 µM, respectively. Morphological changes as a result of GNST-ITC-induced apoptosis showed chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and membrane blebbing. Additionally, Annexin V assay showed proportion of cells in early and late apoptosis upon exposure to GNST-ITC in a time-dependent manner. To delineate the mechanism of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and expression of caspases were studied. GNST-ITC induced a time-dependent G/M phase arrest, with reduction of 82% and 93% in HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The same treatment also led to the subsequent expression of caspase-3/7 and -9 in both cells demonstrating mitochondrial-associated cell death. Collectively, these results reveal that GNST-ITC can inhibit cell proliferation and can induce cell death in HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells via apoptosis, highlighting its potential development as an anticancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179403PMC
March 2020

Heavy Metal in Paddy Soil and its Bioavailability in Rice Using In Vitro Digestion Model for Health Risk Assessment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 11 28;16(23). Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia.

Rice ingestion is one of the major pathways for heavy metal bioaccumulation in human. This study aimed to measure the heavy metal content of paddy soils and its bioavailability in paddy grain in order to assess the health risk. In total, 10 rice samples (50 g each) of paddy plants were harvested from the Selangor and Terengganu areas of Malaysia to assess the bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb) using the in vitro digestion model of Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu. The bioavailability of heavy metal concentrations in rice samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The findings showed the bioavailability of heavy metal concentrations was decreased in the order Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. Chromium was found to be the most abundant bioavailable heavy metal in cooked rice, which was the result of its high content in paddy soil. Hazard Quotient values for the bioavailability of the heavy metal studied were less than one indicating no non-carcinogenic health risks for adults and children. Meanwhile, the total Lifetime Cancer Risk exceeded the acceptable value showing a potential of carcinogenic health risk for both adults and children. The application of in vitro digestion model in assessing bioavailability of heavy metal produces a more realistic estimation of human health risks exposure. However, a regular monitoring of pollution in Selangor and Terengganu areas is crucial since the exposure of heavy metals through rice consumption poses the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk to the local residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926565PMC
November 2019

Prospective role of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in mediating GMG-ITC to reduce cytotoxicity in HO-induced oxidative stress in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Nov 18;119:109445. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of Glucomoringin isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) have been reported in in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its neuroprotective role via mitochondrial-dependent pathway in a noxious environment remains unknown. The main objective of the present study was to unveil the mitochondrial apoptotic genes' profile and prospectively link with neuroprotective activity of GMG-ITC through its ROS scavenging. The results showed that pre-treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with 1.25 μg/mL purified isolated GMG-ITC, significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production level, compared to HO control group, as evidenced by flow cytometry-based evaluation of ROS generation. Presence of GMG-ITC prior to development of oxidative stress condition, downregulated the expression of cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP3, CASP8 and CASP9 genes with concurrent upregulation of Bcl-2 gene in mitochondrial apoptotic signalling pathway. Protein Multiplex revealed significant decreased in cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP8 and CASP9 due to GMG-ITC pre-treatment in oxidative stress condition. The present findings speculated that pre-treatment with GMG-ITC may alleviate oxidative stress condition in neuronal cells by reducing ROS production level and protect the cells against apoptosis via neurodegenerative disease potential pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109445DOI Listing
November 2019

Neuroprotective effects of glucomoringin-isothiocyanate against HO-Induced cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells.

Neurotoxicology 2019 12 12;75:89-104. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are pathological conditions characterised by progressive damage of neuronal cells leading to eventual loss of structure and function of the cells. Due to implication of multi-systemic complexities of signalling pathways in NDDs, the causes and preventive mechanisms are not clearly delineated. The study was designed to investigate the potential signalling pathways involved in neuroprotective activities of purely isolated glucomoringin isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) against HO-induced cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. GMG-ITC was isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds, and confirmed with NMR and LC-MS based methods. Gene expression analysis of phase II detoxifying markers revealed significant increase in the expression of all the genes involved, due to GMG-ITC pre-treatment. GMG-ITC also caused significant decreased in the expression of NF-kB, BACE1, APP and increased the expressions of IkB and MAPT tau genes in the differentiated cells as confirmed by multiplex genetic system analysis. The effect was reflected on the expressed proteins in the differentiated cells, where GMG-ITC caused increased in expression level of Nrf2, SOD-1, NQO1, p52 and c-Rel of nuclear factor erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) pathways respectively. The findings revealed the potential of GMG-ITC to abrogate oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration through Nrf2 and NF-kB signalling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.09.008DOI Listing
December 2019

Neuroprotective Potential of Secondary Metabolites from (Rutaceae).

Molecules 2019 Aug 27;24(17). Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Plant natural compounds have great potential as alternative medicines for preventing and treating diseases. is one species (family ), which is widely used in traditional medicine, consumed as a salad and a food seasoning. Consumption of different parts of this plant has been reported to exert different biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, resulting in a protective effect against several health disorders including neurodegenerative diseases. Various secondary metabolites such as phenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids, isolated from the plant, were demonstrated to have neuroprotective activities and also exert many other beneficial biological effects. A number of studies have revealed different neuroprotective mechanisms for these secondary metabolites. This review summarizes the most significant and recent studies for neuroprotective activity of major secondary metabolites in neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749319PMC
August 2019

Correction: Che Idris et al. Effect of Consumption Heated Oils with or without Dietary Cholesterol on the Development of Atherosclerosis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1527.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 30;10(12). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The authors wish to make the following change to their paper (Che Idris et al. [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10121839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316553PMC
November 2018

Induction of Apoptosis and Cytotoxicity by Raphasatin in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells.

Molecules 2018 Nov 27;23(12). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Glucoraphasatin (GRH), a glucosinolate present abundantly in the plants of the family, is hydrolyzed by myrosinase to raphasatin, which is considered responsible for its cancer chemopreventive activity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action have not been investigated, particularly in human cell lines. The aims of this study are to determine the cytotoxicity of raphasatin, and to evaluate its potential to cause apoptosis and modulate cell cycle arrest in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxicity was determined following incubation of the cells with glucoraphasatin or raphasatin (0⁻100 µM), for 24, 48, and 72 h. GRH displayed no cytotoxicity as exemplified by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. When myrosinase was added to the incubation system to convert GRH to raphasatin, cytotoxicity was evident. Exposure of the cells to raphasatin stimulated apoptosis, as was exemplified by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, using Annexin V-FITC assay, raphasatin induced apoptosis, as witnessed by changes in cellular distribution of cells, at different stages of apoptosis; in addition, raphasatin caused the arrest of the MCF-7 cells at the G₂ + M phase. In conclusion, raphasatin demonstrated cancer chemopreventive potential against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells, through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321584PMC
November 2018

Phytochemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Melicope lunu-ankenda.

Molecules 2018 Oct 20;23(10). Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Natural products, either pure compounds or standardized plant extracts, have provided opportunities for the discovery of new drugs. Nowadays, most of the world's population still relies on traditional medicines for healthcare purposes. Plants, in particular, are always used as traditional medicine, as they contain a diverse number of phytochemicals that can be used for the treatment of diseases. The multicomponent feature in the plants is considered a positive phytotherapeutic hallmark. Hence, ethnopharmacognosy has been the focus for finding alternative treatments for diseases. , also known as , is widely distributed in tropical regions of Asia. Different parts of have been used for treatment of hypertension, menstrual disorder, diabetes, and fever, and as an emmenagogue and tonic. It has also been consumed as salad and as a condiment for food flavorings. The justification of use of in folk medicines is supported by its reported biological activities, including its cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review summarizes the phytochemical compounds isolated from various parts of , such as root and leaves, and also its biological activities, which could make the species a new therapeutic agent for some diseases, including diabetes, in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222432PMC
October 2018

Effect of Consumption Heated Oils with or without Dietary Cholesterol on the Development of Atherosclerosis.

Nutrients 2018 Oct 17;10(10). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Heating oils and fats for a considerable length of time results in chemical reactions, leading to the aggravation of a free radical processes, which ultimately contributes to atherosclerosis. Our study focused on elucidating the effect of feeding heated oils with or without dietary cholesterol on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. We heated palm olein and corn oil at 180 °C for 18 h and 9 h per day, respectively, for two consecutive days. Next, 20 male rabbits were divided into four groups and fed the following diet for 12 weeks: (i) heated palm olein (HPO); (ii) HPO with cholesterol (HPOC); (iii) heated corn oil (HCO); and (iv) HCO with cholesterol (HCOC). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the HCO group compared to the HCOC group. Atherosclerotic lesion scores for both fatty plaques and fatty streaks were significantly higher in the HCO and HCOC groups as compared to the HPO and HPOC groups. Additionally, fibrous plaque scores were also higher in the HCO and HCOC groups as compared to the HPO and HPOC groups. These results suggest that heated palm oil confers protection against the onset of atherosclerosis compared to heated polyunsaturated oils in a rabbit model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213572PMC
October 2018

Nontoxic Glucomoringin-Isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) Rich Soluble Extract Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Proliferation of Human Prostate Adenocarcinoma Cells (PC-3).

Nutrients 2018 Aug 27;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Laboratory of Biomolecular Medicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The incidence of prostate cancer malignancy along with other cancer types is increasing worldwide, resulting in high mortality rate due to lack of effective medications. has been used for the treatment of communicable and non-communicable ailments across tropical countries, yet, little has been documented regarding its effect on prostate cancer. We evaluated the acute toxicity and apoptosis inducing effect of glucomoringin-isothiocyanate rich soluble extracts (GMG-ITC-RSE) from in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Glucomoringin was isolated, identified, and characterized using fundamental analytical chemistry tools where Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, murine fibroblast (3T3), and human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC-3) were used for acute toxicity and bioassays experiments. GMG-ITC-RSE did not instigate adverse toxic reactions to the animals even at high doses (2000 mg/kg body weight) and affected none of the vital organs in the rats. The extract exhibited high levels of safety in 3T3 cells, where more than 90% of the cells appeared viable when treated with the extract in a time-dependent manner even at high dose (250 µg/mL). GMG-ITC-RSE significantly triggered morphological aberrations distinctive to apoptosis observed under microscope. These findings obviously revealed the putative safety of GMG-ITC-RSE in vivo and in vitro, in addition to its anti-proliferative effect on PC-3 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10091174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163982PMC
August 2018

Apoptosis as a Mechanism of the Cancer Chemopreventive Activity of Glucosinolates: a Review

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Jun 25;19(6):1439-1448. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Laboratory of UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Email:

Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates that have established anti-carcinogenic activity. Naturally-occurring glucosinolates and their derivative isothiocyanates (ITCs), generated as a result of their enzymatic degradation catalysed by myrosinase, have been linked to low cancer incidence in epidemiological studies, and in animal models isothiocyanates suppressed chemically-induced tumorigenesis. The prospective effect of isothiocyanates as anti-carcinogenic agent has been much explored as cytotoxic against wide array of cancer cell lines and being explored for the development of new anticancer drugs. However, the mechanisms of isothiocyanates in inducing apoptosis against tumor cell lines are still largely disregarded. A number of mechanisms are believed to be involved in the glucosinolate-induced suppression of carcinogenesis, including the induction of apoptosis, biotransformation of xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, alteration of caspase activity, angiogenesis, histone deacytylation and cell cycle arrest. The molecular mechanisms through which isothiocyanates stimulate apoptosis in cancer cell lines have not so far been clearly defined. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms through which isothiocyanates modify the apoptotic pathway leading to cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.6.1439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103590PMC
June 2018