Publications by authors named "Ahmad Esmaillzadeh"

379 Publications

A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on the association between alcohol intake and risk of fracture.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 18:1-15. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and risk of fracture have reached conflicting findings. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was to summarize earlier studies on the association of alcohol intake with risk of fracture. A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science was conducted up to November 2020. Prospective cohort studies that had considered alcohol consumption as the exposure variable and fracture as the main outcome or as one of the outcome variables were included in this systematic review. Publications in which odds ratios (ORs), rate or risk ratios (RRs), or hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported, were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 40 prospective cohort studies including 5,084,303 participants and 170,916 subjects with fracture were included in this systematic review; of them 38 studies with a total sample size of 5,053,117 participants and 169,560 cases of fracture were included in the meta-analysis. Using a random-effects meta-analysis, we found a significant positive association between alcohol consumption and risk of total fractures (RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.81) and any fractures (RR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.38). However, no significant association was observed between alcohol intake and risk of hip fractures (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.48), osteoporotic fractures (RR: 2.01; 95% CI: 0.76, 5.34), vertebral fractures (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.40), and wrist fractures (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.16). In conclusion, we found that alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of total fractures and any fractures. However, we did not observe any significant association between alcohol consumption and risk of hip, osteoporotic, vertebral, and wrist fractures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1888691DOI Listing
February 2021

The association between plant-based dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 9;11(1):3391. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran.

Limited data are available, linking the plant-based diets to breast cancer (BC). We examined the association of overall plant-based diet index (PDI), hypothesized healthful (hPDI) and unhealthful versions of a plant-based diet index (uPDI) with BC in Iranian women. This population-based case-control study included 350 cases with newly diagnosed BC and 700 age-matched apparently healthy controls. We collected dietary data using a validated, Willett-format semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using these data, we generated a PDI by dedicating positive scores to plant foods, and reverse scores to animal foods, hPDI by assigning positive scores to healthy plant foods and reverse scores to less healthy plant foods and animal foods, and finally uPDI in which positive scores were assigned to less healthy plant foods and reverse scores to healthy plant foods and animal foods. After controlling for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of PDI had 67% lower odds of BC than those in the lowest quartile (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.22-0.50). Individuals with the greatest adherence to hPDI were 36% less likely to have BC than those with the lowest adherence, in the fully adjusted model (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.94). In terms of uPDI, women in the top quartile had a 2.23 times greater chance of BC than those in the bottom quartile (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.48-3.36). Greater adherence to PDI and hPDI was inversely associated with the risk of BC, whereas uPDI was associated with an increased risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82659-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873223PMC
February 2021

The Association between Dietary Inflammatory Potential and Gastric Cancer: A Case Control Study.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Feb 9:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: No report is available about diet-disease associations in the understudied region of Afghanistan. Although the inflammatory potential of diet has been linked with several cancers, information about gastric cancer is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the inflammatory potential of the diet and odds of gastric cancer in Afghanistan.

Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, we enrolled 90 newly-diagnosed cases of gastric cancer and 180 age (±5) and sex-matched controls. All cases were pathologically confirmed gastric cancer patients, with no history of any type of other pathologically confirmed cancers. Controls were healthy individuals and relatives of patients in the hospital. Dietary assessment was done by a pre-tested food frequency questionnaire. DII was calculated based on energy-adjusted amounts of several foods and nutrients with inflammatory or anti-inflammatory potential, as introduced by earlier studies.

Results: Mean age of study participants was 54 years, of them 73% were males. After adjustment for age and sex, individuals in the highest tertile of the inflammatory potential of the diet were 2.47 times (95% CI: 1.31-4.66) more likely to have gastric cancer compared with those in the lowest tertile. Further adjustment for other potential confounders did not substantially affect the association; such that participants with the greatest inflammatory potential of the diet had approximately 3.59 times (95% CI: 1.16-11.02) increased odds of gastric cancer than those with the lowest adherence. Additional adjustment for BMI strengthened the association (OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 1.14-12.30).

Conclusion: We found a significant positive association between inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of gastric cancer. Further studies with prospective nature are required to confirm this association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1883682DOI Listing
February 2021

Careful data extraction in meta-analysis: the case of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and low-birth weight, childhood overweight, and obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-021-00746-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Dietary intake of branched-chain amino acids in relation to depression, anxiety and psychological distress.

Nutr J 2021 01 29;20(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: There is no previous study that examined the association between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) intake and odds of psychological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary BCAAs and odds of psychological disorders including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in a large sample of Iranian adults.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study on 3175 Iranian adults aged 18-55 years, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. BCAAs intake was computed by summing up the amount of valine, leucine, and isoleucine intake from all food items in the questionnaire. Psychological health was examined through the use of Iranian validated version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Psychological distress was assessed using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). For depression and anxiety, scores of 8 or more on either subscale were considered as psychological disorders and scores of 0-7 were defined as "normal". In terms of psychological distress, the score of 4 or more was defined as psychological distress.

Results: Mean age of study participants was 36.2 ± 7.8 years. Overall, 26.4% (n = 837) of study subjects had depression, 11.9% (n = 378) had anxiety and 20.9% (n = 665) were affected by psychological distress. After controlling for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of total BCAAs intake had lower odds of depression (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60-0.96) and anxiety (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47-0.91) compared with those in the lowest tertile. Participants in the top tertile of valine intake had a lower odds of depression (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60-0.96) and anxiety (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47-0.90) compared with those in the bottom tertile. A significant inverse association was also seen between leucine intake and depression (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61-0.98) and anxiety (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47-0.91). In addition, a significant inverse association was observed between isoleucine intake and odds of depression (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59-0.95) and anxiety (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.45-0.86). There was no significant association between isoleucine intake and odds of psychological distress.

Conclusion: Evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary intake of BCAAs and odds of depression and anxiety was found. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00670-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847030PMC
January 2021

The effects of whole grain intake on anthropometric measures in overweight and obese children: a crossover randomised clinical trial.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jan 21:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Whole-grain foods have been reported to affect body weight and satiety. However, we are aware of no study in this regard among children. The present study aimed to determine the effects of whole grain consumption on anthropometric measures in overweight or obese children. In this randomised crossover clinical trial, forty-four overweight or obese girls participated. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to either intervention (n 44) or non-intervention (n 44) groups. Subjects in the intervention group were given a list of whole-grain foods and were asked to obtain half of their grain servings from these foods each day for 6 weeks. Individuals in the non-intervention group were asked not to consume any of these foods. A 4-week washout period was applied. Then, participants were crossed over to the alternate arm. The measurements were done before and after each phase. Mean age, weight and BMI of participants were 11·2 (sd 1·49) years, 51·2 (sd 10·2) kg and 23·5 (sd 2·5) kg/m2, respectively. Despite the slight reduction in weight and BMI, there were no significant differences in changes in these anthropometric measures. We found a significant effect of whole grain intake on waist circumference (-2·7 v. 0·3 cm, P = 0·04). No significant changes in hip circumference were observed. Changes in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were not significantly different. This study indicated a beneficial effect of whole-grain foods on waist circumference in overweight children; however, these foods did not influence weight and BMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711452100026XDOI Listing
January 2021

Patterning of Food Preferences Among Iranian Adults: Results from SEPAHAN Study.

Int J Prev Med 2020 26;11:176. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of food preference among a large sample of Iranian adults.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study within the study on the epidemiology of psychological alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN) projects, a total of 6239 of 8694 subjects completed a 106-item food preference questionnaire. Subjects indicated whether they liked, disliked or had gastrointestinal symptoms for each food item separately. They also reported the frequency of consumption for each food item.

Results: We observed that presence of some foods such as yogurt, fruits and vegetables in the list of the most preferred food items and presence of kalbas, sausages and chips in the list of the most disliked food items, were representative of healthy dietary pattern in this population. Results also revealed that women liked unhealthy foods more than men ( value <0.05 for all significant food items). Moreover, in most of the food items, men reported less gastrointestinal symptoms than women ( value <0.05 for all significant food items). Our findings revealed that smokers disliked most of the healthy food items. We also observed that pregnant women regardless of the trimesters, reported dislike for sweet-tasting food items.

Conclusions: More researches are suggested in order to indicate the origins of preferences and recommend some practical alternatives to improve the dietary pattern in society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_138_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804878PMC
November 2020

The effect of ketogenic diet on body composition and anthropometric measures: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 14:1-14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to summarize earlier randomized controlled trials on the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition and anthropometric measures. Four databases were searched from inception to May 2020 using relevant keywords. All clinical trials investigating the effects of KD on body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and percentage body fat (PBF) in adults were included. Overall, 18 trials were included in the review. Pooled effect sizes revealed a significant effect of KD on BW (weighted mean differences [WMD]: -2.87 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.84 to -1.89), BMI (WMD: -1.44 kg/ 95% CI: -2.07, -0.81), FM (WMD: -1.40 kg, 95% CI: -2.50, -0.30), FFM (WMD: -0.81 kg, 95% CI: -1.32, -0.30), LBM (WMD: -0.63 kg, 95% CI: -1.21, -0.06), WC (WMD: -3.23 cm, 95% CI: -4.38, -2.09), VAT (WMD: -28.91 g, 95% CI: -50.57, -7.24) and PBF (WMD: -2.81 kg, 95% CI: -3.82, -1.80), respectively. Taken together, the data suggest that KD has beneficial effects on BW, BMI, FM, FFM, LBM, WC, VAT, and PBF. However, the effectiveness of the long term effect of this dietary pattern is unclear.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1867957DOI Listing
January 2021

Development of a dish-based food frequency questionnaire for Iranian population.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 30;34:129. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Nutrition Research, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are widely used in large studies worldwide. They usually seek to rank people according to their usual food intake rather than a specific period of time. In the present study, we aimed to develop a dish-based, semi-quantitative FFQ to seek habitual diet of general population aged 9 to 65 years in Tehran. To develop the FFQ, four main steps were taken. At the beginning a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods and mixed dishes was prepared. To prevent excessive questionnaire length, some food items were grouped. Then, reference portion sizes were defined for each mixed dish in the list. The portion sizes were defined either based on the most common food portions reported in existing data or based on conventional portioning. In the third step the frequency response for consumption of food items and mixed dishes were determined. In the last step, recipes were developed for mixed dishes based on several data sources, including previous surveys. Finally, the content validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by the expert panel. The final food list of the FFQ comprised 142 food items and mixed dishes in six major food groups, including dairy products, breads, mixed dishes, dried fruits, nuts and seeds, fruits and vegetables, and miscellaneous food items and beverages. Nine frequency response options for all food items varying from "never or less than once per month" to "more than 6 times a day" were considered. A portion size was included for each item, whether food items or mixed dishes. As Iranian food recipes are typically characterized by various ingredients it is very difficult for the respondent to recall the amount and type of the ingredients. Likewise, information about cooking methods beside ingredients of foods are important to estimate their nutritive values, which can be explored only through asking about consumption of mixed dishes. The current FFQ was developed to overcome the mentioned problems. It can be applied in nationwide studies in which foods and/or nutrients are predominant determinant of health and/or diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.34.129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787032PMC
September 2020

Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of women's cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jan 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to review earlier publications on the association between dietary acrylamide intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. We performed a systematic search in the online databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus for relevant publications up to August 2020. Prospective cohort studies that considered dietary acrylamide as the exposure variable and breast, endometrial or ovarian cancer as the main outcome variable or as one of the outcome variables were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of fourteen cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. We found no significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast (relative risk (RR) 0·95; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·01), endometrial (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 0·89, 1·19) and ovarian cancers (RR 1·02; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·24). In addition, we observed no significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers in different subgroup analyses by smoking status, menopausal status, BMI status and different types of breast cancer. In conclusion, no significant association was found between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520005255DOI Listing
January 2021

High vs. low-fat dairy and milk differently affects the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer death: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 5:1-15. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between milk and dairy consumption and mortality risk. The present systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies was undertaken to examine the association of high vs. low-fat dairy and milk consumption with mortality. We searched PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus databases through February 2020 for prospective cohort studies that reported the association between milk and dairy consumption and mortality risk. High-fat milk consumption was significantly associated with a greater risk of all-cause (Pooled ES: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.09-1.20, I=24.5%,  = 0.22), CVD (Pooled ES: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.16, I=4.5%,  = 0.38) and cancer mortality (Pooled ES: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.28, I=30.1%,  = 0.19). However, total dairy consumption was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (Pooled ES: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, I=59.7%,  = 0.001). Dose-response analysis revealed a significant non-linear association of total dairy consumption with all-cause and CVD mortality. Moreover, high-fat milk consumption was significantly associated with risk of cancer mortality in linear and non-linear dose-response analysis. In conclusion, we found high-fat milk consumption was associated with a higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. However, total dairy consumption was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1867500DOI Listing
January 2021

Adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan and Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jan;27(1):78-86

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background/aims: Despite huge evidence on the link between adherence to dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating pattern and several metabolic abnormalities, the association of this diet with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has not been investigated so far. We aim to examine the association between adherence to the DASH diet and prevalence of IBS symptoms and subtypes in adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 3362 adult people in Isfahan, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 106-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. To investigate participants' adherence to DASH-style diet, we created DASH score based on 8 main foods and nutrients emphasized or minimized in the DASH diet. Participants were classified into 3 categories according to their DASH-style diet scores. A validated modified Persian version of the Rome III questionnaire was applied for assessment of IBS.

Results: Totally, 22.2% of study participants were affected by IBS. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, we found that participants in the highest tertile of DASH score had lower odds of IBS (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83) compared with those in the lowest tertile. The same findings were also reached for IBS with constipation (OR for the highest vs the lowest tertile of DASH-style diet = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85). No significant association was seen between adherence to DASH-style diet and IBS with diarrhea (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.83-2.06).

Conclusions: We found a significant inverse association between adherence to DASH dietary pattern and odds of IBS and IBS with constipation. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm20007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786080PMC
January 2021

Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of sarcopenia and its components.

Nutr J 2020 11 28;19(1):129. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite a large body of evidence on the link between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and several chronic conditions, limited data are available about the association of DII and sarcopenia. This study aimed to examine the relationship between inflammatory potential of the diet (as measured by DII) and sarcopenia and its components among community-dwelling elderly population.

Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was performed in 2011 among 300 elderly people (150 men and 150 women) aged ≥55 years, who were selected using cluster random sampling method. Dietary assessment was done using a pre-tested food frequency questionnaire. Energy-adjusted DII was calculated based on earlier studies. Sarcopenia and its components were determined based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia (EWGSOP) definition.

Results: Mean age of study participants was 66.7 ± 7.7 y. Subjects in the highest tertile of DII score (i.e. those with a more pro-inflammatory diet) were more likely to be older (P = 0.02). The prevalence of sarcopenia (P = 0.016) and low muscle mass (P = 0.041) was significantly higher among subjects in the top tertile compared with those in the bottom tertile of DII. After adjustment for potential confounders, those with the highest DII were 2.18 times (95% CI: 1.01-4.74) more likely to have sarcopenia than those with the lowest DII. With regard to components of sarcopenia, subjects in the top tertile of DII had not significantly greater odds of low muscle mass (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.72-2.63), abnormal handgrip strength (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.49-1.89), and abnormal gait speed (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.84-3.08) than those in the bottom tertile.

Conclusions: In conclusion, a diet with more pro-inflammatory potential was associated with a greater odds of sarcopenia. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00649-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700703PMC
November 2020

Association of Dietary Fiber, Fruit, and Vegetable Consumption with Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Adv Nutr 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

No previous investigation has summarized findings from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary intake of fiber, fruit, and vegetables and risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dietary fiber and its major sources can influence the risk of IBD by modulation of the gut microbiota. This study summarizes findings from published cohort studies on the association between dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetable consumption and risk of IBD. Relevant articles published up to January 2019 were searched via PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. All prospective cohort studies investigating the association between dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake and risk of IBD were included. Combining 7 effect sizes from 6 studies, no significant association was found between dietary intake of fiber and risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.34). However, a significant inverse association was found between dietary fiber intake and risk of Crohn disease (CD) (RR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.74), based on 5 studies with 6 effect sizes. Pooling information from 4 studies, we found a significant protective association between dietary intake of fruit and risk of UC (RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.86) and CD (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.58). We also found a significant inverse association between vegetable consumption and risk of UC (RR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.66) and CD (RR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.59). In conclusion, dietary intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with risk of IBD and its subtypes. Dietary fiber intake was also inversely associated with incidence of IBD and CD, but not with UC. Further studies are warranted to examine the association of other fiber-rich foods with IBD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa145DOI Listing
November 2020

Breakfast skipping and prevalence of heartburn syndrome among Iranian adults.

Eat Weight Disord 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Limited data are available linking breakfast consumption to Heart Burn Syndrome (HBS). This study was done to investigate to find whether breakfast consumption is associated with HBS. This cross-sectional study was done to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and HBS among Iranian adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed among 4763 general adults of Isfahan, Iran. Participants' patterns of breakfast eating were assessed by asking two questions from them. How often do you eat breakfast in a week?" Participants were able to respond as: "never or 1 day/wk", "2-4 days/wk", "5-6 days/wk", "every day". HBS was defined as the presence of HBS at sometimes, often or always using a Persian version of validated self-administered modified ROME III questionnaire.

Results: Totally, 4763 patients with HBS completed this cross-sectional study, where about 32.4% of them intake breakfast less than one time per week. After controlling for potential confounders, participants who consumed breakfast every day had a 43% lower risk for having HBS as compared with those who had breakfast ≤ 1 times/wk (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.41-0.80). A significant inverse relationship was found between breakfast consumption and frequent than scare HBS (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.77) among the whole population, not in patients with HBS. No significant association was observed between breakfast intake and severity of HBS (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.31-1.04).

Conclusion: We found an inverse association between frequency of breakfast consumption and odds of HBS as well as the frequency of HBS among the adult population. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

Level Of Evidence: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-020-01065-5DOI Listing
November 2020

Adherence to the MIND Diet and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-control Study.

Clin Breast Cancer 2020 Sep 24. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: No data are available on the association between adherence to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet and breast cancer.

Materials And Methods: This population-based case-control study was conducted among women aged ≥ 30 years, who were residing in Isfahan, Iran. The study included 350 patients with newly diagnosed stage I to IV breast cancer, for whom in situ or invasive status of breast cancer was confirmed by physical examination, mammography, and pathologic verification. Controls were 700 age-matched apparently healthy individuals who were randomly selected from the general population. Dietary data were collected using a validated 106-item Willett-format, semi-quantitative dish-based food frequency questionnaire.

Results: After adjustment for age and energy intake, women in the top tertile of the MIND diet score had 60% lower odds of breast cancer than women in the bottom tertile (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.55). In the fully adjusted model including body mass index, those with the greatest MIND diet scores had 50% lower chance of breast cancer (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.72) than those with the lowest adherence to the MIND diet. Postmenopausal women with the greatest adherence to the MIND diet were less likely to have breast cancer than those in the bottom tertile (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.30-0.66). In addition, we found a significant inverse association between adherence to the MIND diet and odds of breast cancer among normal-weight women (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.25-0.60).

Conclusion: Adherence to the MIND diet was associated with a reduced chance of breast cancer in this case-control study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2020.09.009DOI Listing
September 2020

Association of dietary approaches to stop hypertension eating style and risk of sarcopenia.

Sci Rep 2020 11 9;10(1):19339. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran.

The association between habitual intake of the "dietary approaches to stop hypertension" (DASH) eating plan and sarcopenia has received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the association between adherence to DASH dietary pattern and sarcopenia and its components including muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle performance among community-dwelling older adults population. This population-based cross-sectional study was performed in 2011 among 300 older people (150 men and 150 women) aged ≥ 55 years, who were selected using cluster random sampling method. Dietary intake of study participants were examined by the use of a Block-format 117-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The DASH score was constructed based on eight main foods and nutrients emphasized or minimized in the DASH diet. All components of sarcopenia was measured using standard protocols and sarcopenia was defined based on both former and new European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) guidelines. Mean age and BMI of study participants were 66.7 ± 7.7 years and 27.3 ± 4.2 kg/m, respectively. Totally, 31 individuals meet the criteria of EWGSOP2-sarcopenia. We found no significant association between adherence to the DASH diet and EWGSOP2-sarcopenia either before (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.45-2.54) or after adjustment for potential confounders (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.39-2.75). The same findings were obtained in the gender-stratified analyses (men: OR 2.29; 95% CI 0.39-13.29 and women: 0.75; 95% CI 0.23-2.45). In conclusion, we found that adherence to the DASH-style diet was not significantly associated with odds of sarcopenia. Future prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76452-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652878PMC
November 2020

Dietary intake of total, animal and plant proteins and the risk of coronary heart disease and hypertension: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Nov 2:1-14. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background & Objectives: Previous findings assessing the association between long-term protein intake and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize previous investigations on the association between total, animal and plant proteins intake and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and hypertension (HTN) in adults.

Methods: Related papers were found by searching through PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar up to April 2020. Prospective cohort studies examined the association between consumption of the dietary protein from different sources and the risk of CHD and HTN in general population, were included. The random-effects model was used to pool the reported relative risks (RR). Dose-response associations were modeled by restricted cubic splines.

Results: Thirteen prospective studies, in total, including 547,303 participants- 11,590 cases with total CHD and 5,620 with HTN- were included. Dietary intake of total protein was not significantly associated with the risk of total CHD (RR: 0.97; 95%CI: 0.90-1.05) and HTN (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.90-1.14). Moreover, consumption of both dietary plant and animal protein was not related to the risk of total CHD and HTN. Dose-response analysis indicated that the risk of CHD and HTN did not change significantly with increasing dietary total protein intake from 10% to 25% of total calorie intake.

Conclusions: Dietary protein intake from different sources had no significant association with risk of CHD and HTN. Further high-quality research is needed to examine the potential mechanistic links between dietary protein intake and health outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1841730DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison of validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire and the Diet History Questionnaire for assessment of energy and nutrients intakes in an Iranian population.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 Sep 24;26(9):1062-1069. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Cancer Research Center, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: Dietary intakes are important for development and prevention of chronic disease. The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) has been suggested as an acceptable feasible method for assessing the association of dietary intake and disease. However, FFQs are sensitive to dietary habits and culture and should be valid in the study population.

Aims: We investigated the validity of the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the Food Frequency Questionnaire in healthy Iranians.

Methods: Participants were healthy relatives of cancer patients in the Cancer Institute of Iran. They participated in face-to-face interviews. We took telephone based 24-hour recalls every 2 months over a 1-year period. Assuming the mean intakes of 24-hour recalls as the gold standard, we estimated Pearson correlation coefficients to measure the reliability of the FFQ and the DHQ. We investigated how the FFQ or DHQ categorized individuals in different intake groups comparing with the 24-hour recalls.

Results: Overall, 102 subjects took part in our study. Deattenuated Spearman correlations were ≥ 0.5 for energy, carbohydrate, protein, carotene, niacin, folate, vitamin B, biotin, vitamin C, iron, zinc and selenium in both DHQ and FFQ. Level of agreement with 24-hour recall in classifying individuals into different categories of intakes ranged from 0.81 for riboflavin and carotene to 0.92 for carbohydrate and zinc in the DHQ and from 0.75 for riboflavin to 0.96 for carbohydrate in the FFQ.

Conclusions: Both DHQ and FFQ were valid in assessing most nutrient intakes and classifying individuals in different categories of intakes in the Iranian population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.19.099DOI Listing
September 2020

The association between dietary glycemic index and load and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective study.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Dec 25;170:108469. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular -Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of GDM in a group of pregnant women in Iran.

Methods: A number of 812 pregnant women were recruited in their first trimester in a prospective study. A validated 117-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes of participants at study baseline. Dietary GI and GL were calculated based on earlier publications. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a fasting plasma glucose concentration and a 50-g, 1-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for GDM.

Results: Mean ± SD of age and BMI of study participants was 29.4 ± 4.84 y and 25.14 ± 4.08 kg/m, respectively at study baseline. Mean ± SD of dietary GI was 58 ± 7 and that of dietary GL was 176 ± 42. Overall, 28.4% (n = 231) of study population developed GDM at weeks 24-28 of pregnancy. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, we found that women in the highest tertile of dietary GL were 43% more likely to develop GDM than those in the lowest tertile (95% CI: 1.01, 2.00; P-trend = 0.03). However, no significant association was seen between dietary GI (RR for the highest tertile compared to the lowest: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.20; P-trend = 0.37), and risk of GDM.

Conclusions: We found that women with the highest dietary GL were at a greater risk of developing GDM during pregnancy. No significant association was seen between dietary GI and risk of GDM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108469DOI Listing
December 2020

A case-control study on dietary calcium intake and risk of glioma.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.

Limited evidence exists regarding the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of glioma. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary calcium intake and risk of glioma in Iranian adults. In this hospital-based case-control study, we enrolled 128 newly-diagnosed cases of glioma and 256 age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with pathologically confirmed glioma (without any other cancers) were selected. Dietary intakes of study participants were collected through a validated 126-item food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary calcium intake was computed from dairy products in the questionnaire. Participants were categorized into quartiles of dietary calcium intake. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary calcium intake and glioma. Higher dietary intake of calcium was associated with younger age, long duration of cell phone use, and frequent canned foods intake. After taking age, sex, and energy intake into account, participants with the greatest dietary calcium intake had 84% lower odds of glioma than those with the lowest intake [odds ratio (OR): 0.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07-0.37]. Further adjustment for other potential confounders including nutrient intakes did not significantly alter the association (OR: 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08-0.64). Even after additional adjustment for BMI, we found a significant inverse association between dietary calcium intake and odds of glioma (OR: 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08-0.65). We found an inverse protective association between high dietary calcium intake and odds of glioma. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000629DOI Listing
September 2020

The Association between Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Glioma in Adults.

Nutr Cancer 2020 Sep 10:1-10. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: We assessed the relation between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and risk of glioma among Iranian adults. Design: A hospital-based case-control study. Setting: This case-control investigation was done in 2011. Usual dietary intakes of participants during the preceding year were examined using a food frequency questionnaire. Data on dietary TAC from foods was gathered from published databases that provided the antioxidant capacity for each food item, measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power. Participants: Cases were individuals with pathologically confirmed glioma that were diagnosed during the last month ( = 128). Controls were individuals, aged between 20 and 75 years, who were hospitalized or were outpatients referred to other wards of the same hospitals ( = 256). Results: Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of dietary TAC had a lower odds of glioma (OR: 0.28, 95%CI: 0.15-0.45). This association was strengthened when potential confounders were taken into account (OR: 0.13; 95%CI: 0.05-0.35). Such inverse association was also seen for men (OR: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.01-0.19), but not for women. Furthermore, significant inverse associations were seen between dietary intakes of vitamin C (OR for vs. : 0.14, 95%CI: 0.05-0.36; -trend < 0.01), vitamin B6 (OR for vs. : 0.35, 95%CI: 0.13-0.97; -trend = 0.02) and β-carotene (OR for vs. : 0.43, 95%CI: 0.19-0.98; -trend = 0.57) and glioma, after controlling for potential covariates. Conclusions: We found that dietary TAC as well as dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin B6, and β-carotene was inversely associated with odds of glioma in adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1817954DOI Listing
September 2020

The association between meal and snack frequency and irritable bowel syndrome.

Public Health Nutr 2020 Sep 4:1-12. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Students' Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: The relationship between daily meal and snack frequency with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was less investigated in the literature. We aimed to evaluate this association with IBS symptoms.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Setting: This investigation was performed in Isfahan, a large province in the centre of Iran. Individuals were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to quantify the numbers of daily main meals (one, two or three), snacks (never, 1-2, 3-5 or >5) and the total of them (<3, 3-5, 6-7 or ≥8). IBS and its subtypes were diagnosed according to Rome Ш criteria.

Participants: General adults (n 4669, 2063 men and 2606 women).

Results: The prevalence of IBS was 18·6 % in males and 24·1 % in females. Individuals consuming three main meals had 30 % decreased risk of IBS (OR 0·70, 95 % CI 0·52, 0·94) compared with those with one main meal in the crude model. After adjustments for all potential confounders this relation disappeared (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·43, 1·03). Gender-specified analysis revealed that women consuming three main meals per day had 32 % decreased likelihood of having IBS symptoms compared with one daily main meal takers (OR 0·68, 95 % CI 0·47, 0·99). This relation remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·36, 0·89). A decreased likelihood of IBS in the highest category of main meal consumption compared with the lowest one was found in obese or overweight subjects (OR 0·54, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·91), after adjustment for all confounders.

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that there was no significant relation between main meal or snack frequency and IBS in Iranian adults, but a small inverse association was found among females and overweight/obese individuals in subgroup analysis. Further prospective studies are needed confirming these associations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020002967DOI Listing
September 2020

The state of child nutrition in Ethiopia: an umbrella review of systematic review and meta-analysis reports.

BMC Pediatr 2020 08 26;20(1):404. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Malnutrition remains to be a major public health problem in developing countries, particularly among children under-5 years of age children who are more vulnerable to both macro and micro-nutrient deficiencies. Various systematic review and meta-analysis (SRM) studies were done on nutritional statuses of children in Ethiopia, but no summary of the findings was done on the topic. Thus, this umbrella review was done to summarize the evidence from SRM studies on the magnitude and determinants of malnutrition and poor feeding practices among under-5 children in Ethiopia.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Google Scholar were searched for SRM studies on magnitude and risk factors of malnutrition and child feeding practice indicators in Ethiopia. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. The estimates of the included SRM studies on the prevalence and determinants of stunting, wasting, underweight, and poor child feeding practices were pooled and summarized with random-effects meta-analysis models.

Result: We included nine SRM studies, containing a total of 214,458 under-5 children from 255 observation studies. The summary estimates of prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 42% (95%CI = 37-46%), 33% (95%CI = 27-39%), and 15% (95%CI = 12-19%), respectively. The proportion of children who met the recommendations for timely initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months, and timely initiation of complementary feeding were 65, 60, and 62%, respectively. The proportion of children who met the recommendations for dietary diversity and meal frequency were 20, and 56%, respectively. Only 10% of children fulfilled the minimum criteria of acceptable diet. There was a strong relationship between poor feeding practices and the state of malnutrition, and both conditions were related to various health, socio-economic, and environmental factors.

Conclusion: Child malnutrition and poor feeding practices are highly prevalent and of significant public health concern in Ethiopia. Only a few children are getting proper complementary feeding. Multi-sectoral efforts are needed to improve children's feeding practices and reduce the high burden of malnutrition in the country.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02301-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448348PMC
August 2020

Adherence to the MIND diet in relation to glioma: a case-control study.

Nutr Neurosci 2020 Aug 25:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

: Although some components of MIND diet have been shown to have favorable association with glioma, no information exist about the potential link between adherence to the whole MIND diet and risk of glioma. This study was conducted to examine the association between adherence to MIND diet and risk of glioma in a group of Iranian adults. : In this hospital-based case-control study, 128 newly diagnosed glioma cases and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were included. Dietary intakes of study participants were assessed using a validated 126-item semi-quantitative FFQ. The MIND diet score was computed based on participants' dietary intakes obtained from FFQ. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine the association between the MIND diet score and glioma. : After controlling for age, sex and energy intake, individuals with the greatest adherence to the MIND diet were less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest adherence; such that those in the top tertile were 47% less likely to have glioma than those in the bottom tertile (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30-0.94). Further adjustment for other potential confounders strengthened the association (OR for the highest tertile vs. the lowest: OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.18-0.79). Additional controlling for BMI did not influence the association significantly (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.84). : In conclusion, we found that adherence to the MIND diet might be inversely associated with odds of glioma in this case-control study. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2020.1809876DOI Listing
August 2020