Publications by authors named "Ahmad Ali Noorbala"

88 Publications

Evaluation of Drug and Alcohol Abuse in People Aged 15 Years and Older in Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Oct;49(10):1940-1946

Department of Sociology, University of Welfare, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Drug addiction is known as one of the health, medical and social problems of the present century. Beyond the harmful physical and mental consequences for addicts, drug abuse can cause serious social problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate drug and alcohol abuse in individuals aged 15 yr and over in Iran in 2015.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on individuals aged 15 yr and older who lived in urban and rural areas of Iran. Overall, 36,600 individuals were selected by systematic and cluster random sampling. The postal code was used to access the samples in 31 provinces of Iran. In each province 1200 individuals (50% men, 50% women) were evaluated. The used instrument was the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), and data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: The results showed 4.6% of individuals used Opium and its derivatives, 0.4% used Cannabis, 0.4% used Amphetamine stimulants, 6.1% used Sedative drugs, and 2.6% used Alcoholic beverages on a regular basis. Within the last 12 months, 3.9% of individuals used Opium and its derivatives, 0.4% used Cannabis, 0.3% used Amphetamine stimulants, 5.8% used Sedative drugs, and 1.9% used Alcoholic beverages. With the exception of Sedatives drugs men used more drugs than women and residents of rural areas used more opium and its derivatives than other groups of drugs. Based on the provincial distribution, Kerman and Qom used the highest and lowest prevalence percentage of Opium and its derivatives respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, 2340000 individuals were addicts used Opium and its derivatives in 2015, therefore, medical and health officials should take all necessary measures to deal with these serious social problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i10.4697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719666PMC
October 2020

Development and validation of an inventory to measure stressful events: Findings from a population-based survey.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 16;34:48. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Social Welfare Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, Iran.

Development of tools for measuring stress has been considered by mental health researchers for many years. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a "Stressful Events Inventory"(SEI) using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Using a representative sample (n=6000) from all people who reside in Tehran, the validity of the inventory was confirmed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and its reliability was also confirmed by Cronbach's alpha. Eleven major sets of stressful events were identified as follow: political problems (α=0.731), neighborhood's problems (α=0.739), livelihood problems (α=0.609), fear of the future (α=0.663), educational events (α=0.635), educational changes (α=0.704), individual changes (α=0.463), occupational difficulties (α=0.64), housing problems (α=0.69), problems related to occupational relations (α=0.46), and family problems (α=0.69). The value of correlation between the factors was equal to 0.82 and the value of variance determined by these factors was 0.49 (r^2=0.49). In the confirmatory factor analysis, these factors also had an appropriate fitness (RMSEA=0.02). The developed instrument has suitable psychometric properties, which make it appropriate for future research on psychosocial stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.34.48DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456433PMC
May 2020

Association between Illness Perception and Emotional Status in Iranian Patients after Heart Transplantation.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2020 Jan;15(1):12-17

Psychosomatic Medicine Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Heart transplantation is a major procedure which imposes high emotional stress on patients. Illness perception (IP) is a psychological issue which affects psychological adjustment after transplantation. This study aimed to investigate the association between IP and emotional status in Iranian post-heart transplantation patients. The present cross-sectional study, conducted between 2018 and 2019 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, recruited 121 post-heart transplantation patients. IP was measured using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), and emotional status was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The association between IP and depression/anxiety was assessed. Men comprised 80.2% of the study population. The mean age of the participants was 43.9±12.95 years. Definite caseness for depression and anxiety was reported in 11.6% and 18.2% of the participants, respectively. The median score of IP was 55. The association between anxiety and IP in total IP and the 3 dimensions of IP was statically significant (P=0.015, P=0.018, P=0.002, and P=0.023 for the cognition, emotion, and understanding dimensions and the total IPQ, respectively). Additionally, the association between depression and IP was significant (P=0.001, P=0.029, and P=0.002 for the cognition and emotion dimensions and the total IPQ, correspondingly, except for the understanding dimension). Furthermore, lower levels of anxiety in the patients showed a greater impact on IP than did depression. There was a significant association between IP and depression and anxiety in our study population. Therefore, the diagnosis and management of anxiety and depression in heart transplantation patients may improve IP. The cross-sectional design of the present study precluded an investigation of the causality between IP and emotional status.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360865PMC
January 2020

A double-blind, randomized pilot study for comparison of Melissa officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. with Fluoxetine for the treatment of depression.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Jul 3;20(1):207. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahed University, 1471, North Kargar, Engelab Square, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Depression has rapidly progressed worldwide, and the need for an efficient treatment with low side effect has risen. Melissa officinalis L and Lavandula angustifolia Mill have been traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of depression. Many textbooks of traditional Persian medicine refer to these herbs for the treatment of depression while there are no adequate clinical trials to support this claim. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of M. officinalis and L. angustifolia compared to fluoxetine for the treatment of mild to moderate depression in an 8-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

Methods: Forty-five adult outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) for major depression, were randomly assigned to 3 groups to daily receive either M. officinalis (2 g) or L. angustifolia (2 g) or fluoxetine (20 mg) and were assessed in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8 by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) including 17 items.

Results: Our study showed that M. officinalis and L. angustifolia effect similar to fluoxetine in mild to moderate depression. (F = 0.131, df = 2,42, p = 0.877).

Conclusion: Due to some restrictions in this study including absence of placebo group, large-scale trials are needed to investigate the anti-depressant effect of these two herbs with more details.

Trial Registration: IRCT2014061718126N1 . Registration date: 2015-06-04-"Retrospectively registered".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03003-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333290PMC
July 2020

Comparison of vortioxetine and sertraline for treatment of major depressive disorder in elderly patients: A double-blind randomized trial.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2020 Aug 18;45(4):804-811. Epub 2020 May 18.

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

What Is Known And Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex disease and one of the leading contributors to disease burden throughout the world. In the current study, we explored the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine versus sertraline on symptoms of depression in elderly patients with MDD.

Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed with MDD (based on DSM-5) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score ≥ 19 were entered into a randomized double-blind study and were randomized to receive either vortioxetine (15 mg daily) or sertraline (75 mg daily) for six weeks. Patients were assessed using the HAM-D scale at baseline and weeks 3 and 6. Changes in HAM-D score, response rates, remission rate and time to response or remission were also compared between the two study groups.

Results And Discussion: Fifty patients completed the trial after six weeks. General linear model repeated measures demonstrated no difference in trend of the two treatment groups (P = .897). There was no significantly different improvement in the HDRS scores from baseline to weeks 3 and 6, as well. Differences in response rate, remission rate, time to response and time to remission periods were not statistically significant. Finally, there was not any significantly difference between the two study groups in the frequency of adverse events.

What Is New And Conclusion: This study showed no significant differences in the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in comparison with sertraline in order for it to be used safely for treatment of major depressive disorder in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13177DOI Listing
August 2020

Investigation of the effectiveness of psychiatric interventions on the mental health of pregnant women in Kashan City - Iran: A clinical trial study.

Asian J Psychiatr 2019 Dec 1;46:79-86. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Family Health, Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Health Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Aim: Pregnancy is one of the most sensitive periods in a person's life; therefore maternal mental illness during pregnancy increases the risk for adverse developmental outcomes in children (Jha et al., 2018). The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of psychiatric interventions in the mental health of pregnant women in Kashan, Iran.

Methods: The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate an integrated model of mental health during pregnancy over the period of 2015-2018 in Kashan. Subjects consisted in 202 pregnant women (101 in the intervention group and 101 in the control group) who were referred to Kashan Health Centers in the 6th to 10th weeks of pregnancy. The General Health Questionnaire-28, Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State, an interview on psychiatric symptoms, and a review of the history of the mental health of the mother and first-degree relatives were utilized for data collection. In the intervention group, psychiatric measures and predictive drug treatments were presented.

Results: Overall, from among 102 pregnant mothers, 39 women (37.14%) were identified as at-risk and high-risk. The highest number of mothers identified as at-risk and high-risk were in the first trimester of pregnancy and in the 6th to 10th weeks of care (64%). With the start of psychiatric interventions in the intervention group, the subscale of physical complaints and anxiety showed a significant decrease compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Mental health improvement was achieved in 95% of expectant mothers through Level I predictive measures, and only 5% of participants required the specialist level of intervention.

Conclusion: By identifying psychiatric disorders in pregnant mothers during the first level of pregnancy care services and taking suitable measures, an integrated model for mental health services in primary health care for pregnant women can help managers, policymakers, and decision-makers to improve health and reduce the costs in the health system in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.09.036DOI Listing
December 2019

Alteration of Serum Levels of Cytokines in Schizophrenic Patients before and after Treatment with Risperidone.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019 Jun 8;18(3):262-268. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A growing body of evidence suggests the existence of abnormalities in the immune system of schizophrenic patients. The current study examined serum levels of interleukin (IL) -1β, IL-6, IL-2,interferon(IFN) -γ, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α in schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with risperidone and correlated levels of these cytokines with symptomatology. The study group consisted of 24 schizophrenic patients as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria and 24 healthy controls. Serum cytokine levels were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Schizophrenic symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) questionnaire. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly higher in participants before treatment compared with the healthy controls and after treatment (p<0.001). IFN-γ and IL-2 levels were significantly lower in participants after treatment compared with before treatment and the healthy controls (p<0.001). Except for IL-6 (p<0.05), there was no significant difference in the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β between the patients receiving treatment and the healthy subjects. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 between patients before treatment and the healthy subjects. There were no significant correlations between the concentration of cytokines studied and the PANSS. Positive intercorrelations between the production of IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected for sums of all groups(r=0.33, p=0.005). Clinical improvement of treated patients was associated with a reduction in the studied cytokines. It seems that changes in the cytokines level may play a significant role in the psychopathology of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v18i3.1119DOI Listing
June 2019

Vortioxetine effects on quality of life of irritable bowel syndrome patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2020 Feb 5;45(1):97-104. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

What Is Known And Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease causing a substantial productivity loss with no definite treatment. Our study investigates the effects of vortioxetine vs placebo in enhancing the IBS patients' quality of life.

Methods: In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, adults with IBS, according to the ROME IV criteria, were randomized to placebo and vortioxetine for 6 weeks. Participants were visited every two weeks to fill IBS quality of life, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and adverse effect questionnaires.

Results: Eighty patients were randomized, and seventy-two finished the trial. Baseline characteristics of groups were similar. Both placebo and vortioxetine significantly increased the quality of life during course of the study (both P-values < .001), whereas vortioxetine demonstrated a greater increase (P-value < .001). According to the analysis of covariances, this enhancement was irrespective of depression or anxiety score changes (P-value = .002). Adverse effect profile was similar between the groups and can increase IBS patients' quality of life superior to placebo. Vortioxetine effects in our study were observed irrespective of the depression and anxiety levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13032DOI Listing
February 2020

Bam Earthquake Survivors' Mental Health Status 12 Years after the Earthquake: A Population-Based Study.

Arch Iran Med 2019 02 1;22(2):59-64. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Background: Mental health is one of the characteristic benchmarks of public health. This research aimed to evaluate mental health of survivors of the Bam earthquake which occurred in 2003 twelve years after the earthquake in fall of 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional study were people over 16 years of age who were present at the time of the earthquake in the city of Bam. The sample of the study consisted of 1500 people selected from the survivors by multistage sampling. The general health questionnaire-28 was used as a screening tool for mental disorders. The independent sample test, ANOVA test, Welch test, one-sample t test and the multiple logistic regression test were used to analyze the data. The analysis of data in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: Using the GHQ Likert scoring method, the results showed 52% of the people surveyed were suspected of having mental disorders (49.93% of men and 54.27% of women). Somatization and anxiety is more frequent than severe depression in respondents. The obtained statistics revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders amplified with loss of close relatives and age (odds ratio [OR] =1.457 and 1.828 respectively). The results also indicated that widows and divorcees (66.66%), illiterates and drop-outs (57.48%) and the elderly (77.12%) had the highest average in terms of having mental disorders.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed more than half of the Bam earthquake survivors are suspected to be suffering from mental disorders. Since natural disaster-related mental illness effects can last for many years, comprehensive screening programs at regular intervals are required. Mental health services should be available to the elderly and people at risk in order to ensure restoration of mental health after a catastrophe.
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February 2019

The Effect of Psycho-Social Problems on Risky Behaviors in People Living With HIV in Tehran, Iran.

J Family Reprod Health 2018 Jun;12(2):89-95

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Flinders University, Flinders, Australia.

Over the past years, the prevalence and the progression rate of HIV infection in Iran especially through high-risk sexual relationships have regrettably been reported at very high levels. This cross-sectional study tries to analyze stigma, mental health, and coping skills on risky behaviors in HIV-positive adults in Tehran- Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 450 HIV-positive adults. Participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the General HealthQuestionnaire-28, the Berger HIV Stigma Scale as well as the Lazarus Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ). To analyze the data, the independent-samples t-test and Pearson Correlation were used. The findings of this study revealed that mental health, stigma, and avoidance-escape coping mechanisms were correlated with risky behaviors (p ˂ 0.05).Furthermore, the amount of stigma among female individuals compared to men was reported at higher levels and mental health status in the given group was lower than among male individuals. It seems that psychological treatment techniques could be effective in improving mental health and reducing risky behaviors.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391305PMC
June 2018

Stigma and Dissatisfaction of Health Care Personnel in HIV Response in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2019 Jan-Dec;18:2325958219829606

5 Washington, USA.

Background And Aims: With regard to the disease pandemics of HIV/AIDS, it is clear that there is need for prevention, treatment, care, and support of HIV positive patients in the health care system. In order to achieve these goals, job satisfaction should be a priority for health care staff. This study examined the problems of health care personnel and the behavior of patients undergoing HIV/AIDS counseling at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: Interviews were conducted individually with 5 health care personnel who participated in this study. Participants had 30 to 45 minutes each per session at the clinic, during which they were able to discuss the problems they faced in their careers. All conversations were officially recorded.

Results: The most common problems mentioned by these health care workers included the lack of safety and standardization of work conditions, the lack of appropriate equipment, limited space, high numbers of patients, low staffing levels and financial and morale problems compounded by the lack of support by hospital authorities.

Conclusion: The authorities need to allocate more funds to provide facilities and appropriate working conditions for health care staff in order to increase job satisfaction and enable staff to provide the best services and care to HIV positive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325958219829606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748510PMC
April 2020

Saffron () versus duloxetine for treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2018 Nov-Dec;8(6):513-523

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Saffron was found efficient and safe in treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, in particular depression. We compared the efficacy of saffron with duloxetine in treatment of patients with fibromyalgia.

Materials And Methods: In this double-blind parallel-group clinical trial, outpatients with fibromyalgia were randomized to receive either saffron 15 mg or duloxetine 30 mg starting with 1 capsule per day in the first week followed by 2 capsules per day from week 2 until the end of week 8. Participants were men and women aged 18-60 years diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria who also had a pain score≥40 based on visual analogue scale. Participants were excluded in case they had rheumatologic diseases, inflammatory/infectious/autoimmune arthritis, comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders except depressive disorders, pain due to traumatic injuries, drug history of duloxetine or saffron use, current use of psychoactive medications, recent use of muscle relaxants, steroids, opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics, or injective analgesics. Primary outcomes included differences in mean score changes from baseline to endpoint between the treatment arms for Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and Brief Pain Inventory.

Results: Socio-demographic characteristics and baseline scores were similarly distributed between the two treatment arms (2n=46). No significant difference was detected for any of the scales neither in terms of score changes from baseline to endpoint between the two treatment arms (Mean score changes: -4.26 to 2.37; p-values: 0.182-0.900) nor in terms of timetreatment interactions (p-values: 0.209-0.964).

Conclusions: Saffron and duloxetine demonstrated comparable efficacy in treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235666PMC
November 2018

Psychosocial Stresses and Concerns of People Living in Tehran: A Survey on 6000 Adult Participants.

Iran J Psychiatry 2018 Apr;13(2):94-102

Department of Social Work, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nowadays stress and tensions are among the most important factors affecting health. Identifying the stressors and their determinants provides substantial information for understanding the health of the community. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on citizens over 18 years who were living in all 22 districts of Tehran in 2017. The participants were selected using multistage cluster sampling method. The research tool was a checklist that evaluated various factors. Different statistical tests, such as descriptive tests and logistic regression, were used for data analysis. Of the participants, 82.7% experienced at least 1severe stress during the past year. In the last year, 45.6% of the participants had at least 1severe economic stress, 32.3% had at least 1severe family-related stress, 28.8% had at least 1severe health-related stress, and 25.7% experienced at least 1severe future-related stress. The most common psychosocial stressors experienced in the last year were concerns about personal/family future (53.7%), concerns about the financial and economic future (47.1%), and the high cost of living (41.7%). However, the most severe stresses were due to the participants' concerns about family health (14.4%), personal/family futures (13.2%), and financial and economic future (12.7%). Furthermore, health status, subjective socio-economic status, and age were the most important predictors of severe stress experiences. It is necessary to take actions to reduce the prevalence of common severe stresses. In addition, psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors, and social workers need to provide stress management interventions carefully to their patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037573PMC
April 2018

The Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on the Emotional Schemas and Emotional Regulation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Single Subject Design.

Adv Biomed Res 2018 25;7:72. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Positive and negative emotional states are the most important factors in treatment and prevention process of psychosomatic diseases. This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of emotional schemas' therapy on emotional schemas' modification and difficulties of emotion regulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Materials And Methods: This research was implemented in the framework of single-subject experimental design using step-wise multiple baselines plan. Five patients with IBS were selected as convenience sampling on the base of their willingness to participate and then they received emotional schema therapy (EST). Research tools included ROME III scale, SCID interview, emotional schemas questionnaire, and difficulties of emotional regulation. The analysis of data was done using visual analysis charts, recovery percentage, and reliable change index.

Results: The results showed a decrease of scores in some maladaptive schemas and increase of some adaptive schemas than baseline in patients who received EST ( ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, this treatment decreased scores of some emotion regulation difficulty components ( ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion: It seems that EST is an appropriate option for treatment of these patients because it is effective in improvement of emotional schemas and difficulties of emotional regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_113_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952533PMC
April 2018

Effect of probiotic and prebiotic vs placebo on psychological outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

Clin Nutr 2019 04 24;38(2):522-528. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetic, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Disturbance in the equilibrium of the gut microbiota has been involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Probiotics have the potential to healthfully modulate the gut microbiome. Prebiotics could also be effective by stimulation of growth of some bacterial species in the gut microbiota.

Objective: The aim of this double blind clinical trial, was to compare the effect of supplementation with the probiotic and prebiotic on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score as a primary outcome as well as the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and tryptophan/branch chain amino acids (BCAAs) ratio as secondary outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Design: One hundred and ten depressed patients were randomly assigned to receive the probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum), prebiotic (galactooligosaccharide) or placebo for 8 weeks. Serum tryptophan and BCAAs were measured by HPLC, and kynurenine by ELISA kit. Dietary intake and physical activity of the participants were recorded at baseline.

Results: A total of 81 subjects (aged 36.5 ± 8.03 y; mean (95% CI), 2.27 (1.76-2.93) y of depression duration) completed the trial (28 in the probiotic group, 27 in the prebiotic group, and 26 in the placebo group). From baseline to 8 weeks, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in BDI score (17.39-9.1) compared to the placebo (18.18-15.55) and prebiotic (19.72-14.14) supplementation (p = 0.042). Inter-group comparison indicated no significant differences among the groups in terms of serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and tryptophan/BCAAs ratio. However, the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio decreased significantly in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group after adjusting for serum isoleucine (p = 0.048). In addition, the tryptophan/isoleucine ratio increased significantly in the probiotic group when compared to the placebo group (p = 0.023).

Conclusion: Overall, 8 weeks of probiotic supplements to subjects with MDD resulted in an improvement in BDI score compared with placebo whereas no significant effect of prebiotic supplementation was seen. Study was registered in IRCT.ir under IRCT2015092924271N1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019

Early maladaptive schemas in depression and somatization disorder.

J Affect Disord 2018 08 3;235:82-89. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Cognitive theories of depression posit that early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are key vulnerability factors for psychological disorders. In this study, we investigated specific EMSs as shared or distinct cognitive vulnerability factors for depression and somatization disorder. The sample consisted of patients with Major depressive disorder (N = 30) and Somatization disorder (N = 30) from a community hospital or a psychiatric clinic. Participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the short form of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-SF). Depressed patients exhibited significantly higher levels of all five schema domains and specific maladaptive schemas, including emotional deprivation, mistrust and abuse, social isolation and alienation, defectiveness and shame, failure, subjugation, emotional inhibition, and insufficient self-control or self-discipline. Moreover, depressed patients exhibited significantly higher levels of social isolation, emotional inhibition, as well as the overvigilance and inhibition domain when depressive symptom severity was controlled. Our results provide preliminary evidence that specific EMSs distinguish patients with depression and somatization. Suggestions for future research include the need to have a non-psychiatric control group, to evaluate the absolute role of EMSs in Somatization Disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.017DOI Listing
August 2018

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Zanjan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S127-S130. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Expert of Mental Health in Zanjan Provincial Health Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Zanjan in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional field study was conducted on the residents of both urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of of Zanjan, Abhar and Qeydar. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: This study showed that using the traditional scoring method, 28.5% of the subjects (32.9% of females and 24.2% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (30%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (24.8%). The prevalence of suspected anxiety and the somatization of symptoms was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and the prevalence of these components was higher in women than men. The findings of this study also showed that the prevalence of suspected mental disorders increased significantly with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders was higher among women, the age group of 65 and older, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, and retired individuals compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that more than one quarter of the sample (28.5%) were suspected of mental disorders, and the prevalence of these disorders has increased from 21.3% in 1999 to 28.5% in 2015. Therefore, it is up to the authorities and health managers of the province to take the basic steps to supply, maintain, and preserve the mental health of those in need and promote the mental health of the community.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Yazd, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S123-S126. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Yazd Provincial Health Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Yazd in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional field study was conducted on the residents of both urban and rural areas of the Yazd province. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Yazd, Ardekan and Meybod. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: This study indicates that through traditional scoring method, 26.7% of study population were highly suspicious for psychiatric disorders (32.1% of females and 21.4% of males). The prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders in urban areas (28.7%) was higher than the prevalence in rural areas (21.3%). The prevalence of probable somatization and anxiety was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and also the prevalence of these disorders was higher in women. The findings of this study show that the prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders has a direct relationship with increasing age and the prevalence of such disorders is higher in women, urban residents, individuals aged more than 65, divorced and widowed individuals, illiterate and unemployed people.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that more than one quarter of study population were suspicious for psychiatric disorders and the prevalence of these disorders increased from 11.8% to 26.7% since 1999. So, health authorities in this province have to do their best for provision, maintenance and improvement of mental health.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of West Azarbaijan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S119-S122. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Manager of Mental Health in West Azarbayegan Provincial Health Center, West Azarbayegan University of Medical Sciences, Urumieh, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of West Azarbaijan in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional field study was conducted on the residents of both urban and rural areas of the West Azarbaijan province. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Urumia, Salmas and Mahabad. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 24% of individuals (29.1% of females and 18.7% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence rate of mental disorders was 19.8% for rural and 25.8% for urban areas. Prevalence of somatization and anxiety was higher than social dysfunction and depression and women revealed higher prevalence for these disorders compared with men. It was also shown that the prevalence rate significantly increased with age and was higher in women, people aged 65 and above, urban residents, widowed or divorced, illiterate, housewives, unemployed and retired people.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a quarter of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Comparing the results of the current survey with those of the study conducted in 1999 suggests that the prevalence of mental disorders is on the increase in this province (from 13.5% in 1999 to 24% in 2015). Therefore, it seems vital that the officials take action in order to improve and maintain mental health status of the people who are at risk.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Tehran, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S115-S118. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Expertise of Mental Health in Shahid Beheshti Provincial Health Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Tehran in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional survey was performed on 1,200 individuals aged fifteen years and older, living in urban, and rural areas of the three main districts of Tehran, Shahriar, and Nasimshahr of Tehran Province. Individuals were enrolled in the study by clustered and systematic randomization. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used for screening for common mental disorders. Those scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 were considered to be suffering from at least one mental disorder. All data was analyzed using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: According to our data, 30.2% of the subjects (34.2% of females and 26.4% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (35.1%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (18.2%). Scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 also had a positive correlation with age, especially among those aged 65 years old and above. Somatization and also symptoms of anxiety were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depressive symptoms, and also more prevalent among females compared to males. Being suspected of a mental disorder was also more prevalent among those who had been divorced, widowed, unemployed, and having post-graduate university education.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that about one third of our sample population were suspected of suffering from a mental disorder. The prevalence of common mental disorders has increased from 21.2% in 1999 to 31.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that public health authorities put more effort to ensure necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health of the Iranian population residing in Tehran province.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of South Khorasan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S111-S114. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Expertise of Mental Health in South Khorasan Provincial Health Center, South Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of South Khorasan in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of South Khorasan in Iran. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Birjand, Ghayen and Ferdows cities. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: Based on GHQ traditional scoring method, this study showed that 17.1% of the respondents (20% of women and 14.1% of men) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected individuals for mental disorders was higher in urban areas (18.2%) than rural areas (14.5%). It was also shown that the prevalence of anxiety and somatization symptoms was higher than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and women revealed higher prevalence for these disorders compared with men. The findings of this study also indicated that the prevalence of suspected cases for mental disorders increased with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders was higher in women aged 65 and over, divorced, widowed, uneducated and the retired compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that one sixth of the sample population were suspected of mental disorders; therefore, health authorities and administrators need to take the principled measures to ensure and maintain the mental health of individuals as well as the evaluation and treatment of patients with mental disorders.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Sistan and Bluchestan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S107-S110. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Zabol Health Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Sistan and Baluchestan in 2015.

Method: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Zahedan, Zabol, and Saravan cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 15.1% of individuals (17.2% of females and 13% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 19% in urban and 13.5% in rural areas. It also showed that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and retired individuals compared with the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a sixth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Semnan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S103-S106. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Shahroud Health Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Semnan in 2015.

Method: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Semnan province in Iran. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Semnan, Garmsar and Shahroud. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: This study showed that using the traditional scoring method, 14.5% of the subjects (15.8% of females and 13.1% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (15.5%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (12.1%). The prevalence of suspected anxiety and the somatization of symptoms was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and the prevalence of these components was higher in women than in men. The findings of this study also showed that the prevalence of suspected mental disorders increased significantly with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders was higher among women, the age group of 65 and older, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, and unemployed people than the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a sixth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Razavi Khorasan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S99-S102. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Manager of Mental Health Office of Razavi Khorasan Provincial Health Center, Razavi Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Razavi Khorasan in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Razavi Khorasan in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Mashhad, Torbate Jam and Sabzavar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 23.7% of individuals (26.9% of females and 20.6% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 23.6% in urban and 23.8% in rural areas. It was also shown that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, housewives and retired individuals compared with the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a fourth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders and the prevalence rate of mental disorders increased from 7.7% in 1999 to 23.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Qom, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S95-S98. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Qom Provincial Health Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Qom in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Qom in Iran. An estimated sample size of 600 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Qom city. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 computer software.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, 16.2% of the subjects were shown to be at risk of mental disorders (19.7% of females and 12.6% of males). Urban areas (17%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (6.5%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. Such disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, retired and unemployed individuals compared with the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that a sixth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented. .
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Qazvin, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S91-S94. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Manager of Mental Health in Qazvin Provincial Health Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Qazvin in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Qazvin in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Qazvin, Alvand, Mohammadieh and Abhar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, 25.8% of the subjects were shown to be at risk of mental disorders (29.5% of females and 22.1% of males). Urban areas (27%) were more at risk of mental disorders compared with rural residents (23.3%). Anxiety and somatization symptoms were more frequent than depression and social dysfunction among respondents. The obtained data revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased with age. These disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and unemployed individuals compared with the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a fourth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of North Khorasan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S87-S90. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Expertise of Mental Health in North Khorasan Provincial Health Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnourd, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of North Khorasan in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of North Khorasan in Iran. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of of Bojnourd, Sfaraien and Shirvan. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: This study showed that using the traditional scoring method, 22.2% of the subjects (28% of females and 16.4% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (23.9%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (18.3%). The prevalence of suspected anxiety and the somatization of symptoms was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and the prevalence of these components was higher in women than men. The findings of this study also showed that the prevalence of suspected mental disorders increased significantly with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders was higher among women, the age group of 65 and older, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, and retired people compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that more than one fifth of the sample were suspected of mental disorders. Therefore, health authorities and administrators need to take the principle measures to ensure and maintain the mental health of individuals as well as the evaluation and treatment of patients with mental disorders.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Mazandaran, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S83-S86. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Manager of Mental Health in Mazandaran Provincial Health Center, Marzandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Mazandaran in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Mazandaran in Iran. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Sari, Babol, and Tonekabon cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 17% of the studied population (21% of females and 13% of males) were considered as likely cases. The prevalence rate of mental disorders was 19.8% for urban and 15.8% for urban areas. Prevalence of somatization and anxiety was higher than social dysfunction and depression and women revealed higher prevalence for these disorders compared to men. It was also shown that the prevalence rate significantly increased with age and was higher in women, people aged 45-64 years, urban residents, widowed or divorced, illiterate, and unemployed people.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a sixth of the people in the province are suspected to have mental disorders. Comparing the results of the current survey with those of the study conducted in 1999 suggests that the prevalence of mental disorders has increased in this province (from 12.3% in 1999 to 17% in 2015). Therefore, it seems vital for the officials to take action in order to improve and maintain mental health status of the people who are at risk.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Markazi, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S79-S82. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Markazi Provincial Health Center, Markazi University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Markazi in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Markazi in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Arak, Delijan, and Saveh cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as a screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 computer software.

Results: This study showed that using the traditional scoring method, 25.1% of the subjects (31% of females and 18.9% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (25.2%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (24.8%). The prevalence of suspected anxiety and the somatization of symptoms was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and the prevalence of these components was higher in women than men. The findings of this study also showed that the prevalence of suspected mental disorders increased significantly with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders among women, the age group of 65 and older, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, and housewives people was higher than other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that more than one fourth of the sample were suspected of mental disorders, and the prevalence of these disorders has increased from 18.6% in 1999 to 25.1% in 2015. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Lorestan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S75-S78. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Lorestan Provincial Health Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Lorestan in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Lorestan in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using the systematic random sampling and the cluster method. Access provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Khorramabad, Aligoodarz, and Kuhdasht cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as a screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: This study showed that using the traditional scoring method, 36.3% of the subjects (40.8% of females and 31.8% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in rural areas (38.1%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in urban areas (35.7%). The prevalence of suspected anxiety and the somatization of symptoms was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and the prevalence of these components was higher in women than men. The findings of this study also showed that the prevalence of suspected mental disorders increased significantly with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders among women, the age group of 65 and older, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, and housewives people was higher than the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that more than one third of the sample were suspected of mental disorders, and the prevalence of these disorders has increased from 19.7% in 1999 to 36.3% in 2015. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017