Publications by authors named "Agnieszka Micek"

43 Publications

Association between health risk factors and dietary flavonoid intake in cohort studies.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 7:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, Department of Nutrition and Drug Research, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

The aim of this study was to identify the health risk factors associated with flavonoid intake in cohort studies investigating the association between dietary polyphenols and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed. Prospective studies with the background characteristics given for categories of flavonoid intake were eligible to inclusion. A bivariate meta-analysis summarising the intercepts and slopes of the linear regression and a dose-response meta-analysis of differences in means were used to analyse the relationships. The intake of total flavonoids was inversely associated with BMI, alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and current smoking, and positively associated with vitamin E, folate, fibre, beta-carotene intake, multivitamin supplement use, and high physical activity. The results of this study underline the importance of considering the association between dietary flavonoid consumption and CVD risk in the context of a healthy lifestyle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1908965DOI Listing
April 2021

Hand Areas Which Are Commonly Missed during Hand Disinfection by Nursing Students Who Completed a Basic Educational Course in Hand Hygiene.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 5;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Nursing Management and Epidemiological Nursing, Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-501 Kraków, Poland.

Background: Teaching nursing students how to correctly perform hand hygiene procedures may guarantee a reduction in transmitting pathogens through direct contact and, thus, it may lead to a decrease in the number of hospital infections. The aim of the study, which was conducted in low fidelity simulation conditions, was to assess the performance and the efficiency of a hand-rubbing disinfection technique among nursing students on the last day of their course.

Materials And Methods: The study was conducted in a group of 190 nursing students studying at the Jagiellonian University and it focused on the performed hand-rubbing disinfection procedure. The accuracy of the task performance was assessed by measuring the percentage of the amount of Fluo-Rub (B. Braun) fluorescent alcohol-based gel remaining on students' hands after disinfection. The gel was rubbed into particular hand parts including four surfaces (left palm, right palm, left back and right back) divided into thirteen areas (I-XIII) and each surface was examined separately. The results were then dichotomized based on the cut-off point of 10% and two categories: "clean" and "dirty" were established. Additionally, the range of negligence in the disinfection procedure was assessed by counting the total number of the areas classified as "dirty". The comparison of continuous and categorical variables was conducted by means of Friedman's and Cochrane's tests, respectively.

Results: It was found out that the palm surfaces that were commonly missed during hand disinfection included the whole thumb (I and VI), the fingertip of the little finger (V) and the midpalm (XIII), whereas in the case of back surfaces (on both right and left hand) the most commonly missed areas were the fingertips and the whole thumb I-VI. Only 30 students (13%) had all 52 areas of both hands completely clean, whereas more than one third-66 students (33%)-failed to disinfect properly more than 10 areas out of all assessed ones on the surfaces of both hands.

Conclusions: In the examined group of nursing students, a significant lack of compliance with hand disinfection procedures was observed and it was related mainly to thumbs and back parts of both hands. Therefore, it is essential to conduct systematic training sessions and assessment of hand hygiene procedures for nursing students at the end of every educational stage as it can lead to their developing these skills properly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967523PMC
March 2021

The Therapeutic Potential of Carnosine/Anserine Supplementation against Cognitive Decline: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 4;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Drug and Health Sciences, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy.

Carnosine is a natural occurring endogenous dipeptide that was proposed as an anti-aging agent more than 20 years ago. Carnosine can be found at low millimolar concentrations at brain level and different preclinical studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aggregation activity with neuroprotective effects in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A selective deficit of carnosine has also been linked to cognitive decline in AD. Different clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of carnosine supplementation against cognitive decline in elderly and AD subjects. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines coupled to the PICOS approach, to investigate the therapeutic potential of carnosine against cognitive decline and depressive symptoms in elderly subjects. We found five studies matching the selection criteria. Carnosine/anserine was administered for 12 weeks at a dose of 1 g/day and improved global cognitive function, whereas no effects were detected on depressive symptoms. These data suggest a preliminary evidence of clinical efficacy of carnosine against cognitive decline both in elderly subjects and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, although larger and long-term clinical studies are needed in MCI patients (with or without depression) to confirm the therapeutic potential of carnosine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9030253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998783PMC
March 2021

Total Nut, Tree Nut, and Peanut Consumption and Metabolic Status in Southern Italian Adults.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Feb 14;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Background: Nut consumption has been associated with cardio-metabolic health benefits. However, studies conducted in the Southern Italian population, where adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been reported being relatively high, are rather scarce. The aim of this study was to test the association between consumption of total and specific types of nuts and metabolic status among adults living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

Methods: Demographic and dietary characteristics of 2044 adults living in Southern Italy were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between nut consumption and metabolic status adjusting for potential confounding factors.

Results: The energy-adjusted model revealed that higher nut intake was inversely associated with occurrence of hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the association did not remain significant for the latter after adjusting for the main background characteristics, while an inverse association was stably confirmed for hypertension (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46-0.80 and OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.74, respectively) even after adjusting for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Among individual nut types, most of the associations were null except for higher almond intake, which was inversely associated with occurrence of hypertension (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.49-0.99).

Conclusions: Higher nut consumption is associated with overall better metabolic status in individuals living in the Mediterranean area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918537PMC
February 2021

Epigenetic Regulation of Processes Related to High Level of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in Obese Subjects.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Feb 21;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 15a Kopernika Street, 31-501 Krakow, Poland.

We hypothesised that epigenetics may play an important role in mediating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) resistance in obesity. We aimed to evaluate DNA methylation changes and miRNA pattern in obese subjects associated with high serum FGF21 levels. The study included 136 participants with BMI 27-45 kg/m. Fasting FGF21, glucose, insulin, GIP, lipids, adipokines, miokines and cytokines were measured and compared in high serum FGF21 ( = 68) group to low FGF21 ( = 68) group. Human DNA Methylation Microarrays were analysed in leukocytes from each group ( = 16). Expression of miRNAs was evaluated using quantitative PCR-TLDA. The study identified differentially methylated genes in pathways related to glucose transport, insulin secretion and signalling, lipid transport and cellular metabolism, response to nutrient levels, thermogenesis, browning of adipose tissue and bone mineralisation. Additionally, it detected transcription factor genes regulating FGF21 and fibroblast growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathways regulation. Increased expression of hsa-miR-875-5p and decreased expression of hsa-miR-133a-3p, hsa-miR-185-5p and hsa-miR-200c-3p were found in the group with high serum FGF21. These changes were associated with high FGF21, VEGF and low adiponectin serum levels. Our results point to a significant role of the epigenetic regulation of genes involved in metabolic pathways related to FGF21 action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12020307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926457PMC
February 2021

Polyphenol-Rich and Alcoholic Beverages and Metabolic Status in Adults Living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

Foods 2021 Feb 9;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Polyphenol-rich beverage consumption is not univocally accepted as a risk modulator for cardio-metabolic risk factors, despite mechanistic and epidemiological evidence suggesting otherwise. The aim of this study was to assess whether an association between polyphenol-rich beverage consumption and metabolic status could be observed in a Mediterranean cohort with relatively low intake of tea, coffee, red and white wine, beer, and fresh citrus juice. Demographic and dietary characteristics of 2044 adults living in southern Italy were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverage consumption and metabolic status adjusted for potential confounding factors. Specific polyphenol-rich beverages were associated, to a various extent, with metabolic outcomes. Individuals with a higher total polyphenol-rich beverages had higher polyphenols intake and were less likely to have hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44-0.73; OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66; and OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29-0.57, respectively). However, when adjusted for potential confounding factors, only the association with hypertension remained significant (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94). Current scientific evidence suggests that such beverages may play a role on cardio-metabolic risk factors, especially when consumed within the context of a dietary pattern characterized by an intake of a plurality of them. However, these associations might be mediated by an overall healthier lifestyle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916404PMC
February 2021

Dietary Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Comprehensive Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 03 25;65(6):e2001019. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Scope: Dietary flavonoids have shown potential in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of the present study is to conduct a dose-response meta-analysis on the association between dietary intake of total, subclasses and individual flavonoids and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods And Results: Electronic databases are searched. A total of 39 prospective cohort studies are included, comprising 1 501 645 individuals and a total of 33 637 cases of CVD, 23 664 of coronary heart disease (CHD), and 11 860 of stroke. Increasing dietary intake of total flavonoids is linearly associated with a lower risk of CVD. Among the main classes of flavonoids, increasing intake of anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols is inversely associated with risk of CVD, while flavonols and flavones with CHD. Only increasing flavanones showed a linear inverse association with stroke risk. Catechins showed a favorable effect toward all cardiovascular outcomes. Among individual compounds, intake of quercetin and kaempferol is linearly associated with lower risk of CHD and CVD, respectively. However, higher intake of all the aforementioned compounds is associated, with a various extent, with a lower risk of CVD when considering comparison of extreme categories of consumption.

Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence of potential cardiovascular benefits of a flavonoid-rich diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202001019DOI Listing
March 2021

Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal central nervous system: Timing and consistency between pre- and postnatal diagnoses.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Nov 29;29:62-65. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Obstetrics and Perinatology, 23 Kopernika str, 31-501, Krakow, Poland.

Introduction: It has been shown that a proper comparison of prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is possible only in the case of a short interval between tests. However, it is worth noting that the reference test is a postnatal examination. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of time between prenatal MRI (pMRI) and postnatal examinations on the consistency of diagnoses.

Material And Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out between 2014 and 2017 at the Department of Obstetrics and Perinatology of Krakow University Hospital. In total, 60 patients with fetuses suspected of central nervous system (CNS) defects were included in the study group. PMRI examinations were conducted in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Results: The median gestational age of pMRI was 35 weeks and median of the time interval between carrying out pre- and postnatal test was 34.5 days. In the group of nonconcordant diagnoses, the interval was longer. The analysis did not show a statistically significant relationship between consistency of diagnoses and timing of pMRI. The median time of pregnancy at which pMRI was performed was similar in both groups. A prolongation of the interval between examinations reduced the probability of consistency of diagnoses.

Conclusions: The number of inaccurate results increased with the prolongation of the interval between pre- and postnatal tests.

Key Message: Prolongation of the interval between pre- and postnatal increases number of inaccurate results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.08.009DOI Listing
November 2020

Egg consumption and cardiovascular risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Aug 31. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 97, 95123, Catania, Italy.

Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality globally and is strongly influenced by dietary risk factors. The aim was to assess the association between egg consumption and risk of CVD risk/mortality, including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and heart failure.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched through April 2020 for prospective studies. Two independent reviewers screened and extracted the data through standardized methods. Size effects were calculated as summary relative risks (SRRs) in a dose-response fashion through random-effects meta-analyses.

Results: Thirty-nine studies including nearly 2 million individuals and 85,053 CHD, 25,103 stroke, 7536 heart failure, and 147,124 CVD cases were included. The summary analysis including 17 datasets from 14 studies conducted on CVD (incidence and/or mortality) showed that intake of up to six eggs per week is inversely associated with CVD events, when compared to no consumption [for four eggs per week, SRR = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90; 1.00)]; a decreased risk of CVD incidence was observed for consumption of up to one egg per day [SRR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89; 0.99)]. The summary analysis for CHD incidence/mortality including 24 datasets from 16 studies showed a decreased risk up to two eggs per week [(SRR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.91; 1.00)]. No associations were retrieved with risk of stroke. The summary analysis for heart failure risk including six datasets from four studies showed that intake of one egg per day was associated with increased risk raising for higher intakes compared to no consumption [for 1 egg per day, SRR = 1.15 (95% CI:1.02; 1.30)]. After considering GRADE criteria for strength of the evidence, it was rated low for all outcomes but stroke, for which it was moderate (yet referring to no risk).

Conclusion: There is no conclusive evidence on the role of egg in CVD risk, despite the fact that higher quality studies are warranted to obtain stronger evidence for a possible protection of CVD associated with moderate weekly egg consumption compared to no intake; equally, future studies may strengthen the evidence for increased heart failure risk associated with high regular egg consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02345-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Hepatitis C virus eradication by direct antiviral agents abates oxidative stress in patients with advanced liver fibrosis.

Liver Int 2020 11 4;40(11):2820-2827. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, PROMISE, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Background And Aims: HCV eradication improves non-hepatic outcomes such as cardiovascular diseases, although without clearly defined mechanisms. In this study we aimed to assess whether improvement of carotid atherosclerosis may be linked to a reduction in systemic oxidative stress after viral clearance.

Methods: We studied a retrospective cohort of 105 patients (age 62.4 ± 11.2 years; 62 men) with F3/F4 fibrosis, characterized by carotid ultrasonography at baseline and at sustained virologic response (SVR) follow-up. Levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F (F -isoprostanes) and other oxidative stress markers were measured on frozen sera. Association between change (denoted as Δ) in oxidative stress markers (exposures) and change in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) (outcome) was examined using multiple linear regression.

Results: Subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as the presence of carotid plaque and/or cIMT ≥ 0.9, was present in 72% of the cohort. All patients achieved SVR that led to reduction in cIMT (0.92 ± 0.20 vs 0.83 ± 0.21 mm, P < .001). HCV eradication markedly decreased serum levels of F -isoprostanes (620.5 [143.2; 1904.1] vs 119.51 [63.2; 400.6] pg/mL, P < .0001), lipid hydroperoxides (13.8 [6.3; 20.7] vs 4.9 [2.3; 9.6] nmol/μl, P < .0001) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (558.9 [321.0; 6301.2] vs 294.51 [215.31; 408.95] pg/mL, P < .0001), whereas increased serum GPx activity (10.44 [4.6; 16.3] vs 13.75 [9.42; 20.63] nmol/min/mL, P = .001). By multiple linear regression analysis ΔcIMT was independently associated with ΔF -isoprostanes (β: 1.746 [0.948; 2.543]; P < .0001) after adjustment for age, baseline F -isoprostanes and baseline IMT.

Conclusions: Besides association of lipid peroxidation with severity of liver disease, the reduction in F -isoprostanes may be involved in the improvement of atherosclerosis after HCV eradication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14608DOI Listing
November 2020

Dietary phytoestrogens and biomarkers of their intake in relation to cancer survival and recurrence: a comprehensive systematic review with meta-analysis.

Nutr Rev 2021 01;79(1):42-65

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Context: Recent studies have outlined the potential role of dietary factors in patients who have survived cancer.

Objective: The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence of the relation between dietary intake of phytoestrogens and their blood biomarkers and, overall, cancer-specific mortality and recurrence in patients with cancer.

Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases of studies published up to September 2019 was performed. Databases were searched for prospective and retrospective cohort studies reporting on dietary phytoestrogen intake and/or blood biomarkers and the outcomes investigated.

Data Extraction: Data were extracted from each identified study using a standardized form.

Data Analysis: Twenty-eight articles on breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer, and glioma were included for systematic review. Given the availability of studies, a quantitative meta-analysis was performed solely for breast cancer outcomes. A significant inverse association among higher dietary isoflavone intake, higher serum/plasma enterolactone concentrations, and overall mortality and cancer recurrence was found. Among other cancer types, 2 studies reported that higher serum enterolactone and higher intake of lignans were associated with cancer-specific survival for colorectal cancer and glioma, respectively.

Conclusions: Dietary phytoestrogens may play a role in survival from breast cancer ; evidence regarding other cancers is too limited to draw any conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa043DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhanced GIP Secretion in Obesity Is Associated with Biochemical Alteration and miRNA Contribution to the Development of Liver Steatosis.

Nutrients 2020 Feb 13;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika Str. 15A, 31-501 Krakow, Poland.

Nutrient excess enhances glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion, which may in turn contribute to the development of liver steatosis. We hypothesized that elevated GIP levels in obesity may affect markers of liver injury through microRNAs. The study involved 128 subjects (body mass index (BMI) 25-40). Fasting and postprandial GIP, glucose, insulin, and lipids, as well as fasting alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), cytokeratin-18, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19, and FGF-21 were determined. TaqMan low density array was used for quantitative analysis of blood microRNAs. Fasting GIP was associated with ALT [β = 0.16 (confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.32)], triglycerides [β = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.36], and FGF-21 [β = 0.20 (95%CI: 0.03-0.37)]; and postprandial GIP with GGT [β = 0.17 (95%CI: 0.03-0.32)]. The odds ratio for elevated fatty liver index (>73%) was 2.42 (95%CI: 1.02-5.72) for high GIP versus low GIP patients. The miRNAs profile related to a high GIP plasma level included upregulated miR-136-5p, miR-320a, miR-483-5p, miR-520d-5p, miR-520b, miR-30e-3p, and miR-571. Analysis of the interactions of these microRNAs with gene expression pathways suggests their potential contribution to the regulation of the activity of genes associated with insulin resistance, fatty acids metabolism, and adipocytokines signaling. Exaggerated fasting and postprandial secretion of GIP in obesity are associated with elevated liver damage markers as well as FGF-21 plasma levels. Differentially expressed microRNAs suggest additional, epigenetic factors contributing to the gut-liver cross-talk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12020476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071278PMC
February 2020

Dietary Polyphenol Intake, Blood Pressure, and Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2019 May 31;8(6). Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Background: Dietary polyphenols, including flavonoids, have been the focus of major recent attentions due to their wide content in a variety of foods commonly consumed and the findings from numerous studies showing evidence of an association with positive outcomes on human health.

Methods: A systematic search using electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE was performed to retrieve English language studies published from the earliest indexing year of each database to April 2019, reporting on the association between dietary flavonoids intake and hypertension.

Results: The search strategy resulted in the final selection of 20 studies including 15 cross-sectional investigations and 7 prospective cohorts (1 study reported on 3 prospective cohorts). 5 prospective cohorts, comprising 200,256 individuals and 45,732 cases of hypertension were included in the quantitative analysis. Analysis by extreme quantiles of intake of flavonoid showed a non-significant association with decreased risk of hypertension (RR (risk ratio): 0.96, 95% CI (confidence interval): 0.89, 1.03). Taking into consideration individual flavonoid subclasses, dietary anthocyanins intake was associated with 8% reduction in risk of hypertension, when comparing highest vs. lowest exposure (RR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97).

Conclusions: Further studies are needed to strengthen the retrieved association between anthocyanins consumption and decreased risk of hypertension and clarify whether total flavonoids or rather individual subclasses may exert beneficial effects on blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616647PMC
May 2019

Coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis on prospective cohort studies.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2019 Dec 28;70(8):986-1006. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Internal Medicine and Community Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Krakow , Poland.

Evidence regarding the influence of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer (CRC) is limited, and it remains unclear whether coffee consumption is associated with the risk of the disease. To clarify this association, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. The risk of CRC was compared between the categories of coffee consumption, and a dose-response relationship was studied using restricted cubic splines. We did not find evidence for the association between coffee consumption and CRC risk. Among alternative study inclusions, when using pooled projects, coffee consumption was related with a decreased risk of colon cancer in a subgroup analysis of never-smokers and in Asian countries, and with an increased risk of rectal cancer in an analysis of the general population and after restriction to women, never-smokers, and European countries. In conclusion, the association between coffee consumption and CRC risk is controversial and should be clarified in further cohort studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2019.1591352DOI Listing
December 2019

High Fat Mixed Meal Tolerance Test Leads to Suppression of Osteocalcin Decrease in Obese Insulin Resistant Subjects Compared to Healthy Adults.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 1;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 15a, 31-501 Krakow, Poland.

Nutrients influence bone turnover. Carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC) participates in bone formation whereas its undercarboxylated form (Glu-OC) acts as a hormone in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study was to determine the responses of Gla-OC, Glu-OC, and total-OC (calculated as the sum of Gla-OC and Glu-OC) to a high fat mixed meal tolerance test (HFMTT) in non-obese (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m², = 24) and obese subjects (30 < BMI < 40 kg/m², = 70) (both sexes, aged 25⁻65 years). Serum Gla-OC and Glu-OC were measured at baseline as well as at 2 and 6 h during a HFMTT by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Baseline Gla-OC, Glu-OC, and total-OC levels were lower in obese individuals compared to non-obese participants ( = 0.037, = 0.016 and = 0.005, respectively). The decrease in Gla-OC and total-OC, but not in Glu-OC, concentrations during the HFMTT was suppressed in obese, but not in non-obese controls ( < 0.05, < 0.01, = 0.08, respectively). Subjects with the highest homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values had a less pronounced decrease in total-OC compared to patients with values of HOMA-IR index in the 1st quartile ( < 0.05). Net incremental area under Gla-OC inversely correlated with adiponectin (rho = -0.35, = 0.001). Increase in insulin sensitivity and adiponectin level in obese subjects could beneficially influence postprandial bone turnover expressed by osteocalcin concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10111611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267021PMC
November 2018

Simple Scores of Fibrosis and Mortality in Patients with NAFLD: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2018 Aug 15;7(8). Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences (BIOMETEC), University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy.

Noninvasive simple scores have been validated to assess advanced liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis evaluating if NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score may also predict mortality. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched until April 2018. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled RRs of mortality for highest vs. lowest categories of exposure and to perform dose-response meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q test and ² statistic. Overall, eight studies were included in the systematic review; all of the eight studies provided data for NFS, while four provided data for APRI and FIB-4. When comparing the risk estimates for high (>0.676) vs. intermediate + low NFS (≤0.676), we found a nearly fourfold increase in mortality risk, with evidence of heterogeneity (RR = 3.85, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.11; ² = 92%). At dose-response meta-analysis, compared to the midpoint of the lowest category of NFS (-2.5), the risk of mortality was about twofold higher for NFS = -0.5 (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.31, 3.70) and more than fivefold higher for NFS = 1.5 (RR = 5.16, 95% CI: 2.02, 13.16). When comparing the risk estimates for high (>1.5) vs. medium + low APRI (≤1.5), we found a higher risk of mortality, without heterogeneity (RR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.79, 7.28; ² = 0%). Comparison of the risk estimates for high (>2.67) vs. medium + low FIB-4 (≤2.67) didn't reveal a significantly higher risk of mortality, with heterogeneity (RR = 2.27, 95% CI: 0.72, 7.15; ² = 85%). Dose-response analysis for APRI and FIB-4 was not considered conclusive due to the low number of studies. Based on the results of our meta-analysis, the measurement of NFS can be considered an accurate tool for the stratification of the risk of death in patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm7080219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111765PMC
August 2018

Coffee consumption is not associated with ovarian cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Oncotarget 2018 Apr 17;9(29):20807-20815. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Departmental Unit of Experimental Uro-Andrological Clinical Oncology, Department of Uro-Gynecological Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale-IRCCS, Naples, Italy.

Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with numerous cancers, but evidence on ovarian cancer risk is controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on prospective cohort studies in order to review the evidence on coffee consumption and risk of ovarian cancer.

Methods: Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases up to March 2017. Risk estimates were retrieved from the studies, and dose-response analysis was modelled by using restricted cubic splines. Additionally, a stratified analysis by menopausal status was performed.

Results: A total of 8 studies were eligible for the dose-response meta-analysis. Studies included in the analysis comprised 787,076 participants and 3,541 ovarian cancer cases. The results showed that coffee intake was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.26). Stratified and subgroup analysis showed consisted results.

Conclusions: This comprehensive meta-analysis did not find evidence of an association between the consumption of coffee and risk of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945528PMC
April 2018

Coffee Intake Decreases Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on Prospective Cohort Studies.

Nutrients 2018 Jan 23;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute-IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy.

A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted in order to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between coffee intake and breast cancer risk. A systematic search was performed in electronic databases up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies; risk estimates were retrieved from the studies and linear and non-linear dose-response analysis modelled by restricted cubic splines was conducted. A stratified and subgroup analysis by menopausal and estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, smoking status and body mass index (BMI) were performed in order to detect potential confounders. A total of 21 prospective studies were selected either for dose-response, the highest versus lowest category of consumption or subgroup analysis. The dose-response analysis of 13 prospective studies showed no significant association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk in the non-linear model. However, an inverse relationship has been found when the analysis was restricted to post-menopausal women. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day was associated with a 10% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (relative risk, RR 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.82 to 0.99). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results for all potential confounding factors examined. Findings from this meta-analysis may support the hypothesis that coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10020112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852688PMC
January 2018

Coffee Decreases the Risk of Endometrial Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

Nutrients 2017 Nov 9;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori 'Fondazione G. Pascale'-IRCCS, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer.

Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. The dose-response relationship as well as the risk of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories of coffee consumption were assessed. Subgroup analyses considering the menopausal and receptor statuses, the smoking status, and the BMI (Body Mass Index) were performed in order to identify potential confounders.

Results: We identified a total of 12 studies eligible for meta-analysis. A dose-response meta-analysis showed a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Moreover, a subgroup analysis indicated that coffee consumption is significantly associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal cancer. Increasing coffee consumption by four cups per day was associated with a 20% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (relative risk (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.89) and with a 24% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, and this association is observed also for postmenopausal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9111223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707695PMC
November 2017

Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jun 11;69(4):417-426. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

a Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies , Jagiellonian University Medical College , Krakow , Poland.

To determine the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk a dose-response meta-analysis on prospective cohort studies were performed. Eligible studies were identified searching PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose-response relationship was assessed by random-effects meta-analysis and the shape of the exposure-outcome curve was modelled linearly and using restricted cubic splines. A total of seven studies eligible for meta-analysis were identified that comprised 1,418,779 participants and 9211 melanoma cases. A linear dose-response meta-analysis showed a significant association between total coffee consumption and melanoma risk. An increase in coffee consumption of one cup per day was associated with a 3% reduction in melanoma risk (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99). Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with incidence of melanoma. Nevertheless, further studies exploring also the role of confounding factors are needed to explain the heterogeneity among studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2017.1373752DOI Listing
June 2018

Health risk factors associated with meat, fruit and vegetable consumption in cohort studies: A comprehensive meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2017 29;12(8):e0183787. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States of America.

The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to test the association between red, processed, and total meat, as well as fruit and vegetable consumption, and selected health risk factors, including body weight status, smoking habit, physical activity level, level of education, and alcohol drinking in cohort studies on non-communicable disease. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed to identify relevant articles published up to March 2017. In a two-stage approach, frequency-weighted linear regression coefficients were first calculated for each variable, and then combined across studies through meta-regression. Ninety-eight studies including 20 on red meat, 6 on processed meat, 12 on total meat, 37 on fruit and vegetable combined, 21 on fruit and 24 on vegetable consumption were analyzed. Intake of red meat was positively associated with BMI, percentage of overweight and obese, low physical activity, and current and ever smoking and inversely associated with percentage of non-smokers and high physically active individuals. Similar associations were found for red meat were found, although based on fewer data. Intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with prevalence of non-smokers, high education and high physical activity, and similar results were found when examining fruit and vegetable consumption separately. Stratification by geographical area revealed that some associations were stronger in US rather than European or Asian cohorts. In conclusions, the distribution of health risk factors associated with high meat and fruit/vegetable consumption may differ from those of low-consumers. Some of these differences may mediate, confound, or modify the relation between diet and non-communicable disease risk.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183787PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574618PMC
October 2017

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Liver Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

Nutrients 2017 Aug 28;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 28.

NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health (Affiliated with: Cambridge University Health Partners and the British Dietetic Association), St John's Innovation Centre, Cambridge CB4 0WS, UK.

Background: A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort and case-control studies regarding the association between coffee intake and biliary tract cancer (BTC) and liver cancer risk.

Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose-response relationship was assessed by a restricted cubic spline model and multivariate random-effect meta-regression. A stratified and subgroup analysis by smoking status and hepatitis was performed to identify potential confounding factors.

Results: We identified five studies on BTC risk and 13 on liver cancer risk eligible for meta-analysis. A linear dose-response meta-analysis did not show a significant association between coffee consumption and BTC risk. However, there was evidence of inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk. The association was consistent throughout the various potential confounding factors explored including smoking status, hepatitis, etc. Increasing coffee consumption by one cup per day was associated with a 15% reduction in liver cancer risk (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of liver cancer, but not BTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9090950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622710PMC
August 2017

Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

Nutrients 2017 Aug 17;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.

Objective: To perform a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension.

Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses.

Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose-response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.

Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9080890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579683PMC
August 2017

Dietary polyphenol intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study.

Br J Nutr 2017 Jul 11;118(1):60-68. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

2Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies,Jagiellonian University Medical College,20 Grzegorzecka Street, Krakow 31-531,Poland.

This study aimed to test the association between dietary content of total and individual classes of polyphenols and incident cases of type 2 diabetes in Polish adults participating to the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study. At baseline, diet by 148-item FFQ and health information were collected from 5806 participants free of diabetes. Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained at 2-4-year follow-up visit. OR and 95 % CI of type 2 diabetes comparing the various categories of polyphenol intake to the lowest one (reference category) and as 1 sd increase modelled as continuous variable were calculated by performing age-, energy-, and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models. During the follow-up, 456 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred. When comparing extreme quartiles, intake of total polyphenol was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0·43; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·61); 1 sd increase was associated with a reduced risk of diabetes (OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·79). Among the main classes of polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and stilbenes were independent contributors to this association. Both subclasses of phenolic acids were associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas among subclasses of flavonoids, high intake of flavanols, flavanones, flavones and anthocyanins was significantly associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Total dietary polyphenols and some classes of dietary polyphenols were associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517001805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5565930PMC
July 2017

Association between tea and coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Poland - results from the WOBASZ II study (2013-2014).

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2018 May 9;69(3):358-368. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

a Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies , Institute of Public Health, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Krakow , Poland.

The study aimed to assess a relationship between tea and coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional study of a random sample of total Polish population was done (The WOBASZ II Study), and the present analysis included 5146 participants at age 20 years and above. Tea and coffee consumption was assessed by 24-h recall method. MetS was defined according to IDF/NHLBI/AHA criteria. After adjustment for covariates, coffee consumption was related to blood pressure and HDL cholesterol, and moderate drinkers had 17% lower odds of MetS compared with non-drinkers (OR = 0.83, 95%CI = 0.72-0.97). Tea consumption was related to some components but not to MetS in general. Inverse association between coffee consumption and MetS may reflect the content of the antioxidants that offer cardiovascular protection. However, weak relation of tea with components of MetS points toward the potential importance of composition of polyphenols and the types of tea consumed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2017.1362690DOI Listing
May 2018

Impact of perceived control on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in three urban populations of Central and Eastern Europe: the HAPIEE study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2017 08 17;71(8):771-778. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Inverse associations between perceived control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been reported in studies from Western Europe and the USA. To assess this relationship across different populations, we investigated the association between perceived control and all-cause and CVD mortality in three population-based cohorts of Eastern European countries.

Methods: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study in random population samples in Krakow (Poland), Novosibirsk (Russia) and six Czech towns. Baseline survey included structured questionnaire and objective examination in a clinic. Perceived control was assessed using an 11-item scale developed by the MacArthur Foundation Programme on Successful Midlife. Information on vital status was obtained from death registers. Effect of perceived control on mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: A total of 2377 deaths (1003 from CVD) occurred among 27 249 participants over a median 7-year follow-up. In the Czech and Polish cohorts, perceived control was inversely associated with mortality; the adjusted HRs for the lowest versus highest control quintiles were 1.71 (1.34 to 2.19) in men and 1.63 (1.14 to 2.35) in women for all-cause mortality and 2.31 (1.48 to 3.59) and 5.50 (2.14 to 14.13) for CVD deaths. There was no association between perceived control and mortality in Russia; the adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) in men and 1.29 (0.82 to 2.02) in women.

Conclusions: Low perceived control was associated with increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in Czech and Polish cohorts but not in Russia. It is possible that this inconsistency may partly reflect a different sociocultural understanding of the concept of control in Russia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-208992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537505PMC
August 2017

Dietary polyphenol intake and risk of hypertension in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study.

Eur J Nutr 2018 Jun 4;57(4):1535-1544. Epub 2017 May 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Purpose: Dietary polyphenols have been studied for their potential effects on metabolic disorders, but studies on risk of hypertension are scarce. This study aimed to test the association between total and individual classes of dietary polyphenols and incidence of hypertension in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study.

Methods: A total of 2725 participants free of hypertension at baseline were tested for blood pressure or taking hypertensive medication within the last 2 weeks at 2-4-year follow-up visit. A 148-item food frequency questionnaire and the Phenol-Explorer database were used to estimate dietary polyphenol intake. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of hypertension comparing the various categories of exposure (total and individual classes of polyphenol intake) with the lowest one (reference category) were calculated by performing age- and energy-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models.

Results: During follow-up, 1735 incident cases of hypertension occurred. The highest quartile of total polyphenol intake was associated with 31% decreased risk of hypertension compared with the lowest intake (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.48, 0.98) in women. There was no significant association in men. Among main classes of polyphenols, flavonoids and phenolic acids were independent contributors to this association. The analysis of individual subclasses of polyphenol revealed that, among phenolic acids, hydroxycynnamic acids were independently associated to lower odds of hypertension (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47, 0.93), while among flavonoids, most of the association was driven by flavanols (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36, 0.87).

Conclusion: Certain classes of dietary polyphenols were associated with lower risk of hypertension, but potential differences between men and women should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1438-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959986PMC
June 2018

Dietary Flavonoid and Lignan Intake and Mortality in Prospective Cohort Studies: Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

Am J Epidemiol 2017 06;185(12):1304-1316

Department of Epidemiology, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Recent evidence has suggested that flavonoid and lignan intake may be associated with decreased risk of chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in prospective cohort studies. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify studies published from January 1996 to December 2015 that satisfied inclusion/exclusion criteria. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were extracted and analyzed using a random-effects model. Nonlinear dose-response analysis was modeled by using restricted cubic splines. The inclusion criteria were met by 22 prospective studies exploring various flavonoid and lignan classes. Compared with lower intake, high consumption of total flavonoids was associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality (risk ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence intervals: 0.55, 0.99), while a 100-mg/day increment in intake led to a (linear) decreased risk of 6% and 4% of all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. Among flavonoid classes, significant results were obtained for intakes of flavonols, flavones, flavanones, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins. Only limited evidence was available on flavonoid classes and lignans and all-cause mortality. Findings from this meta-analysis indicated that dietary flavonoids are associated with decreased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kww207DOI Listing
June 2017

Relationship between past myocardial infarction, periodontal disease and Porphyromonas gingivalis serum antibodies: A case-control study.

Cardiol J 2018 2;25(3):386-392. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Institute of Public Health, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background: The relationship between chronic periodontitis (CP) and increased risk for cardiovas-cular disease (CVD) is known but quantitative assessments and mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between past myocardial infarction (MI) and the severity of CP, and the level of serum antibody titer against Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipains.

Methods: The study sample consisted of 97 patients after MI and 113 high risk controls with no history of coronary heart disease (CHD) matched with age, sex and place of residence (urban vs. rural). Data on the history of CHD and presence of risk factors were collected. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders patients with BOP = 20-50% and BOP > 50% had more than four times higher odds of past MI (OR = 4.56; 95% CI 2.03-10.27). Patients with CPI code = 4 had a three times higher odds of past MI (OR = 3.18, 95% CI 1.01-10.06). CAL ≥ 6 was related to higher odds of past MI (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.49). Patients with moderate antibody titer levels had an almost 3 times higher odds of past MI (OR = 2.82, 95% CI 1.02-7.84).

Conclusions: There was an association between CP and past MI, which was independent of classical CVD risk factors and confirmed by an association between past MI and immunological reaction against P. gingivalis gingipains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2017.0015DOI Listing
December 2018

A comprehensive meta-analysis on dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and cancer risk: Level of evidence and limitations.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2017 04 7;61(4). Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Scope: To summarize available evidence on the association between dietary flavonoid as well as lignan intake and cancer risk in observational studies.

Methods And Results: A systematic search on electronic databases of all English language case-control and prospective studies published up to June 2016 was performed. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by random-effects model separately by study design. Heterogeneity and publication bias were tested. Out of the 143 studies included, meta-analyses of prospective studies showed isoflavones significantly associated with decreased risk of lung and stomach cancers and nearly significant breast and colorectal cancers; total flavonoids showed nonsignificant decreased risk of breast cancer. Meta-analyses of case-control studies showed: total and/or individual classes of flavonoids associated with upper aero-digestive tract, colorectal, breast, and lung cancers; isoflavones with ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancers, endometrial and lung cancers.

Conclusions: Most evidence reported in previous meta-analyses was driven by case-control studies. Overall results may be promising but are inconclusive. Further prospective cohorts assessing dietary polyphenol exposure and studies using other methods to evaluate exposure (i.e. markers of consumption, metabolism, excretion) are needed to confirm and determine consumption levels required to achieve health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201600930DOI Listing
April 2017