Publications by authors named "Afshin Moniri"

36 Publications

Serum cytokine levels of COVID-19 patients after 7 days of treatment with Favipiravir or Kaletra.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 22;93:107407. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London and the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK; Priority Research Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected 86,4 M patients and resulted in 1,86 M deaths worldwide. Severe COVID-19 patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-8 and interferon (IFN)γ.

Objective: To investigate the effect of antiviral treatment serum cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Blood was obtained from 29 patients (aged 32-79 yr) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 upon admission and 7 days after antiviral (Favipiravir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir) treatment. Patients also received standard supportive treatment in this retrospective observational study. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations of COVID-19. Serum was also obtained and cytokines levels were evaluated. 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied.

Results: Anti-viral therapy significantly reduced CT scan scores and the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFNγ were elevated at baseline in COVID-19 subjects compared to healthy subjects with IL-6 (p = 0.006) and IL-8 (p = 0.011) levels being further elevated after antiviral therapy. IL-1β (p = 0.01) and TNFα (p = 0.069) levels were also enhanced after treatment but baseline levels were similar to those of healthy controls. These changes occurred irrespective of whether patients were admitted to the intensive care unit.

Conclusion: Antiviral treatments did not suppress the inflammatory phase of COVID-19 after 7 days treatment although CT, CRP and LDH suggest a decline in lung inflammation. There was limited evidence for a viral-mediated cytokine storm in these COVID-19 subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826095PMC
April 2021

No clinical benefit of high dose corticosteroid administration in patients with COVID-19: A preliminary report of a randomized clinical trial.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 16;897:173947. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of dexamethasone administration in patients with mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study included 50 patients who were randomly assigned to the dexamethasone group or control group. Dexamethasone was administered at a dose of 20 mg/day from day 1-5 and then at 10 mg/day from day 6-10. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation, death rate, duration of clinical improvement, length of hospital stay, and radiological changes in the computed tomography scan were assessed. The results revealed that 92% and 96% of patients in the dexamethasone and control groups, respectively, required noninvasive ventilation (P = 0.500). Among them, 52% and 44% of patients in the dexamethasone and control groups, respectively, required invasive mechanical ventilation (P = 0.389). At the end of the study, 64% of patients in the dexamethasone group and 60% of patients in the control group died (P = 0.500); the remaining patients were discharged from the hospital during the 28-day follow-up period. The median length of hospital stay was 11 days in the dexamethasone group and 6 days in the control group (P = 0.036) and the median length of hospital stay was 7 days in the dexamethasone group and 3 days in the control group (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the other outcomes. This study showed that corticosteroid administration had no clinical benefit in patients with COVID-19-induced mild to moderate ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885705PMC
April 2021

Potential diagnostic value of pleural fluid cytokines levels for tuberculous pleural effusion.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):660. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) or malignant pleural effusions (MPE) frequently have similar pleural fluid profiles. New biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of TPE are required. We determined whether cytokine profiles in the PE of patients could aid the differential diagnosis of TPE. 30 patients with TPE, 30 patients with MPE, 14 patients with empyema (EMP) and 14 patients with parapneumonic effusion (PPE) were enrolled between Dec 2018 and 2019. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, IL-27, CXCL8, CCL-1 and IP-10 were determined in PE by ELISA along with measurements of adenosine deaminase (ADA). The best predictors of TPE were combined ADA.IL-27 [optimal cut-off value = 42.68 (10 U ng/l), sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.28%], ADA [cut off value 27.5 (IU/l), sensitivity 90%, specificity 96.5%] and IL-27 [cut-off value = 2363 (pg/ml), sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 98.3%, p ≤ 0.0001]. A high level of IL-6 [cut-off value = 3260 (pg/ml), sensitivity 100%, specificity 67.2%], CXCL8 [cut-off value = 144.5 (pg/ml), sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 58.6%], CCL1 [cut-off value = 54 (pg/ml), sensitivity 100%, specificity 70.7%] and IP-10 [cut-off value = 891.9 (pg/ml), sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 48.3%] were also predictive of TPE. High ADA.IL-27, ADA and IL-27 levels differentiate between TPE and non-TPE with improved specificity and diagnostic accuracy and may be useful clinically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79685-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803752PMC
January 2021

Combination therapy of IFNβ1 with lopinavir-ritonavir, increases oxygenation, survival and discharging of sever COVID-19 infected inpatients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 26;92:107329. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Interferon Beta-1a (IFN-β1-a), an immunomodulatory mediator with antiviral effects, has shown in vivo and in vitro activities especially on coronavirus including SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 defined as the disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. The virus has been illustrated inhibits the production of IFN-β1-a from inflammatory cells. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients who received combination of three doses of 12 million international units of IFN-β1-a and Lopinavir 400 mg and Ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (case group) for 14 days besides standard care and age- and sex- matched COVID-19 patients with receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (control group) at Masih Daneshvari Hospital as a designated hospital for COVID-19 between Feb 19 and Apr 30, 2020. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the impact of IFN-β1-a on outcome and all-cause mortality. 152 cases in IFN-β1-a group and 304 cases as control group were included. IFN-β1-a group stayed at hospital longer and required noninvasive ventilation more than control group (13 vs. 6 days, p = 0.001) and (34% vs. 24%, p = 0.04), respectively. During treatment, 57 (12.5%) patients died. The death rate in case and control groups was 11% and 13% respectively. In multivariate analysis, not receiving IFN-β1-a (HR 5.12, 95% CI: 2.77-9.45), comorbidity (HR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.13-4.60) and noninvasive ventilation (HR 2.77, 95% CI: 1.56-4.93) remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality. In this study, risk of death decreased by using IFN-β1-a in COVID-19 patients. More clinical study will be necessary to measure efficacy of IFN-β1-a in COVID-19 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762801PMC
March 2021

Plasmapheresis reduces cytokine and immune cell levels in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Pulmonology 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Cell and Molecular Biology Group, Airways Disease Section, Faculty of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK; Priority Research Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: In December 2019, pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most frequently observed complication in COVID-19 patients with high mortality rates.

Objective Of Study: To observe the clinical effect of plasmapheresis on excessive inflammatory reaction and immune features in patients with severe COVID-19 at risk of ARDS.

Materials And Methods: In this single-center study, we included 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Masih Daneshvari Hospital, in March 2020 in Tehran, Iran. COVID-19 cases were confirmed by RT-PCR and CT imaging according to WHO guidelines. Plasmapheresis was performed to alleviate cytokine-induced ARDS. The improvement in oxygen delivery (PaO/FiO, total number of T cells, liver enzymes, acute reaction proteins, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were evaluated.

Results: Inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6), and acute phase reaction proteins including ferritin and CRP were high before plasmapheresis. After plasmapheresis, the levels of PaO/FiO, acute phase reactants, inflammatory mediators, liver enzymes and bilirubin were significantly reduced within a week (p < 0.05). In contrast, although the number of T helper cells decreased immediately after plasmapheresis, they rose to above baseline levels after 1 week. Nine out of fifteen patients on non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) survived whilst the six patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) died.

Conclusion: Our data suggests that plasmapheresis improves systemic cytokine and immune responses in patients with severe COVID-19 who do not undergo IMV. Further controlled studies are required to explore the efficacy of plasmapheresis treatment in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pulmoe.2020.10.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834188PMC
December 2020

Clinical Manifestations of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Referral Center in Iran.

Tanaffos 2020 Nov;19(2):122-128

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Following the recent epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, a novel betacoronavirus was isolated from two patients in Iran on February 19, 2020. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (n=127).

Materials And Methods: This prospective study was conducted on all COVID-19-suspected cases, admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (a designated hospital for COVID-19), Tehran, Iran, since February 19, 2020. All patients were tested for COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Data of confirmed cases, including demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes, were collected and compared between three groups of patients, requiring different types of admission (requiring ICU admission, admission to the general ward, and transfer to ICU).

Results: Of 412 suspected cases, with the mean age of 54.1 years (SD=13.4), 127 (31%) were positive for COVID-19. Following the patients' first visit to the clinic, 115 cases were admitted to the general ward, while ten patients required ICU admission. Due to clinical deterioration in the condition of 25 patients (out of 115 patients), ICU admission was essential. Based on the results, the baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Patients requiring ICU admission were more likely to have multiorgan involvement (liver involvement, P<0.001; renal involvement, P<0.001; and cardiac involvement, P=0.02), low O saturation (P<0.001), and lymphopenia (P=0.05). During hospital admission, 21 (16.5%) patients died, while the rest (83.5%) were discharged and followed-up until March 26, 2020. Also, the survival rate of patients, who received immunoglobulin, was higher than other patients (60.87% vs. 39.13%).

Conclusion: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was considerable in our study. Based on the present results, this infection can cause multiorgan damage. Therefore, intensive monitoring of these patients needs to be considered.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680520PMC
November 2020

Evaluating the effects of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) on the management of severe COVID-19 cases: A randomized controlled trial.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 13;90:107205. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center (CRDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The newly discovered coronavirus has turned into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and it rages at an unprecedented rate. Considering the findings of previous studies on the use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) for treating severe HN infection and the satisfying results for reducing viral load and mortality, this study aimed to investigate the potential usefulness of IVIg for the management of severe cases.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 84 patients were included: 52 in the IVIg group and 32 in the control group. The intervention group received IVIg at a dose of 400 mg/kg, IV, daily for three days. Both groups received hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and supportive care. The demographic data, mortality rate, the need for mechanical ventilation, length of stay in hospital and in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and imaging findings were recorded and compared in terms of the mentioned factors.

Results: The mean time from admission to IVIg initiation was 3.84 ± 3.35 days. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mortality rate (P-value = 0.8) and the need for mechanical ventilation (P-value = 0.39). The length of hospital stay was significantly lower for the control group than that of the intervention group (P-value = 0.003). There was a significant positive relationship between the time from hospital admission to IVIg initiation and the length of stay in the hospital and ICU among the survivors (P-value < 0.001 and =0.01, respectively).

Conclusions: Our findings did not support the use of IVIg in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment of severe COVID-19 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665876PMC
January 2021

Thalidomide against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Medicine with a Thousand Faces.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(1):1-2

Student Research Committee, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.113369.14259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462477PMC
January 2020

Promising effects of tocilizumab in COVID-19: A non-controlled, prospective clinical trial.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Nov 4;88:106869. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from mild symptoms to severe complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this syndrome, inflammatory cytokines are released after activation of the inflammatory cascade, with the predominant role of interleukin (IL)-6. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab, as an IL-6 antagonist, in patients with severe or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, 76 patients with severe or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated for eligibility, and ultimately, 42 patients were included. Tocilizumab was administered at a dose of 400 mg as a single dose via intravenous infusion. Primary outcomes included changes in oxygenation support, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and death. Secondary outcomes included radiological changes in the lungs, IL-6 plasma levels, C-reactive protein levels, and adverse drug reactions. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: Of the 42 included patients, 20 (48%) patients presented the severe infection stage and 22 (52%) were in the critical stage. The median age of patients was 56 years, and the median IL-6 level was 28.55 pg/mL. After tocilizumab administration, only 6 patients (14%) required invasive ventilation. Additionally, 35 patients (83.33%) showed clinical improvement. By day 28, a total of 7 patients died (6 patients in the critical stage and 1 patient in the severe stage). Neurological adverse effects were observed in 3 patients.

Conclusions: Based on the current results, tocilizumab may be a promising agent for patients with severe or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, if promptly initiated during the severe stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402206PMC
November 2020

Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD): Clinical and Genetic Features of 32 Iranian Patients.

J Clin Immunol 2020 08 30;40(6):872-882. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare congenital condition characterized by a selective predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria and other types of intra-macrophagic pathogens. The 16 genes associated with MSMD display a considerable level of allelic heterogeneity, accounting for 31 distinct disorders with variable clinical presentations and prognosis. Most of MSMD deficiencies are isolated, referred to as selective susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. However, other deficiencies are syndromic MSMD, defined by the combination of the mycobacterial infection with another, equally common, infectious, specific phenotypes. Herein, we described a series of 32 Iranian MSMD cases identified with seven distinct types of molecular defects, all of which are involved in the interferon gamma (IFNγ) immunity, including interleukin IL-12 receptor-β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency (fifteen cases), IL-12p40 deficiency (ten cases), and IL-23R deficiency (three cases), as well as IFNγ receptor 1 (IFNγR1) deficiency, IFNγ receptor 2 (IFNγR2) deficiency, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deficiency, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) deficiency each in one case. Since the first report of two MSMD patients in our center, we identified 30 other affected patients with similar clinical manifestations. As the number of reported Iranian cases with MSMD diagnosis has increased in recent years and according to the national vaccination protocol, all Iranian newborns receive BCG vaccination at birth, early diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention which are required for a better outcome and also prevention of similar birth defects. Therefore, we investigated the clinical and molecular features of these 32 patients. The current report also defined novel classes of pathological mutations, further expanding our knowledge of the MSMD molecular basis and associated clinical manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00813-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Subcutaneous administration of interferon beta-1a for COVID-19: A non-controlled prospective trial.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Aug 7;85:106688. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Recently, a new coronavirus spreads rapidly throughout the countries and resulted in a worldwide epidemic. Interferons have direct antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. Antiviral effects may include inhibition of viral replication, protein synthesis, virus maturation, or virus release from infected cells. Previous studies have shown that some coronaviruses are susceptible to interferons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of IFN-β-1a administration in COVID-19.

Methods: In this prospective non-controlled trial, 20 patients included. They received IFN-β-1a at a dose of 44 µg subcutaneously every other day up to 10 days. All patients received conventional therapy including Hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, virological clearance, and imaging findings recorded during the study.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.55 ± 13.43 years. Fever resolved in all patients during first seven days. Although other symptoms decreased gradually. Virological clearance results showed a significant decrease within 10 days. Imaging studies showed significant recovery after 14-day period in all patients. The mean time of hospitalization was 16.8 ± 3.4 days. There were no deaths or significant adverse drug reactions in the 14-day period.

Conclusions: Our findings support the use of IFN-β-1a in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in the management of COVID-19.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: IRCT20151227025726N12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275997PMC
August 2020

Delay in the Diagnosis of APECED: A Case Report and Review of Literature from Iran.

Immunol Invest 2020 Apr 7;49(3):299-306. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Centre, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the (autoimmune regulator) gene. Patients with APECED present with heterogeneous endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations. In this study, we report an Iranian patient who presented with Addison disease, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, alopecia totalis, keratopathy and asplenia treated as an isolated endocrinopathy for 25 years. In the adulthood, the diagnosis of APECED was made by genetic analysis which demonstrated homozygous nonsense p.R257* (c.769C>T) mutation of AIRE. APECED has been shown to be frequent in some ethnicities including Iranian Jews. Therefore, we reviewed 39 Iranian APECED patients published in the literature. We found that most of the Iranian patients were of Jewish ethnic background and presented hypoparathyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and candidiasis as the main clinical manifestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2019.1671451DOI Listing
April 2020

Evaluation of Silymarin for management of anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury: a randomized clinical trial.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019 ;12(2):138-142

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the potential efficacy of silymarin in the management of anti-tuberculosis medication's induced liver injury.

Background: Hepatic toxicity is the most serious complication in treatment of tuberculosis.

Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial (ACTRN12610000643077), 55 cases with hepatotoxicity caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs were divided into two groups. Informed consents were obtained. The intervention group received silymarin and the control group received placebo. Severity of liver injury, the duration necessary for normalization of liver function and hospital stay were compared between the two groups.

Results: There was not any statistically significant difference in the rate of adverse effects between silymarin and placebo groups.

Conclusion: Although silymarin is considered a safe herbal medication, it was not effective to treat hepatic toxicity of anti-tuberculosis drugs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536020PMC
January 2019

Caspofungin as Salvage Therapy for Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Heart Transplant Recipient.

Tanaffos 2018 Mar;17(3):203-206

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. In general, clinical response to therapy with cotrimoxazole is excellent. However, therapy may be limited by side effects or treatment failure. We present a case of PCP in a 35-year-old male patient with history of heart transplantation and renal failure who was admitted with a 10-day history of fever, nonproductive cough and elevated level of creatinine with a diagnosis of PCP confirmed by chest radiography and in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. He was treated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (SMZ/TMP) and primaquine but treatment was completed with reduced dosage of cotrimoxazole, primaquine and with the addition of caspofungin. This therapy was effective and without any adverse effects in a patient with elevated level of creatinine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428377PMC
March 2018

Study Protocol on Antimicrobial Stewardship in a Tertiary Respiratory Referral Hospital.

Tanaffos 2018 Mar;17(3):183-187

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NIRTLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Antimicrobial stewardship program is a comprehensive, longitudinal program designed to improve and measure the appropriateness of antimicrobial use while increasing patients' safety, decreasing cost of patients' care, and combating emerging antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance, specially emerging multidrug-resistance and extremely drug-resistance gram negative bacteria, is an important concern in the modern world. This is particularly problematic since antimicrobials in production pipelines are not meeting the demand for the emerging resistance micro-organisms; in another word "we are running out of options". Indiscriminate use of antimicrobial may increase the risk for resistance, and drug toxicity. The aim of this study is to implement an evidence-based antimicrobial stewardship program in a tertiary referral hospital. This study will assure consistency of the stewardship program and measure outcomes to further assess the effectiveness of this program.

Materials And Methods: After establishment of antimicrobial stewardship committee and endorsement of policies the program will be conducted in all hospital medical wards. In an observational study, all patients receiving antimicrobials included in the program will be closely monitored for primary and secondary outcomes. Hospital's antimicrobial resistance patterns are monitored periodically to assess improvement. The quality indicators will be assessed to ensure proper execution of the program over time.

Results: As a study protocol, there are no results available to be reported at this time.

Conclusion: We are expecting to observe significant reduction in cost of antibiotic use shortly after program execution. By more appropriate utilization of antibiotics patients' safety will be increased. Furthermore, we are expecting to detect improvement in antimicrobial resistance patterns.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428375PMC
March 2018

Enterovirus-Human Rhinovirus as a Leading Cause of ARDS in a Liver Transplant Recipient.

Tanaffos 2019 Feb;18(2):169-172

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A 35- year- old man with a prior history of liver transplantation 18 months ago was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with fever and worsening dyspnea and was diagnosed with severe pneumonia leading to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). He had a prolonged hospitalization and was treated with empiric broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics, oseltamivir, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and subsequently caspofungin and ganciclovir. Blood, nasopharyngeal, as well as Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were negative for all viral, bacterial, and fungal causes of pulmonary infection except Enterovirus-Human Rhinovirus (EV-HRV) that was positive with high titers on BAL and swab specimens. Consequently, the diagnosis of EV-HRV pneumonia complicated by ARDS was established. The patient gradually improved and was discharged from the hospital after 3 weeks. This report highlights EV-HRV as a cause of ARDS in immunocompromised adults.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230127PMC
February 2019

Etiology of Respiratory Complications among Iranian HIV Infected Patients.

Tanaffos 2019 Feb;18(2):96-103

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Infection with Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) is a growing problem in developing countries. Among HIV infected cases, respiratory complications are common, dissimilar in different setting and their diagnosis is challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary complications among HIV infected patients.

Materials And Methods: The retrospective study was done among 710 HIV infected patients admitted in Masih Daneshvari Hospital, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Tehran, Iran from January 2003 to March 2017. Demographic, clinical, radiologic and laboratory data of 836 episodes of pulmonary complications were reviewed and final diagnosis were extracted.

Results: Mean of CD cell count was 90±131 ×10 cells/L. Definite etiology was found for 653 episodes (78.1%) of pulmonary complications. Infectious respiratory diseases were clearly more common than non-infectious etiologies, 86.1 and 7.6%, respectively. Pulmonary tuberculosis, as the leading cause, involved 542 cases (64.8%) and was the second infectious agent that was found in 111 cases (13.2%). Among non- infectious causes, bronchiectasis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation were on the top of the list, 21 of 64 (32.8%) and 18 0f 64 (28.1%), respectively. Many patients had more than one etiology. had the highest tendency for dual infections (43 episodes).

Conclusion: Pulmonary complications, especially infections are common among HIV cases in Iran, among them tuberculosis is the most common. Respiratory problems may be the first presentation of HIV infection. Clinicians should be aware about the risk of dual infections. Screening for HIV among all tuberculosis cases and vice versa is recommend.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230122PMC
February 2019

An adult autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease patient with pulmonary Aspergillus terreus infection.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 8;18(1):552. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Centre, National Research Institute for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Genetic mutations that reduce intracellular superoxide production by granulocytes causes chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). These patients suffer from frequent and severe bacterial and fungal infections throughout their early life. Diagnosis is usually made in the first 2 years of life but is sometimes only diagnosed when the patient is an adult although they may have suffered from symptoms since childhood.

Case Presentation: A 26-year-old man was referred with weight loss, fever, hepatosplenomegaly and coughing. He had previously been diagnosed with lymphadenopathy in the neck at age 8 and prescribed anti-tuberculosis treatment. A chest radiograph revealed extensive right-sided consolidation along with smaller foci of consolidation in the left lung. On admission to hospital he had respiratory problems with fever. Laboratory investigations including dihydrorhodamine-123 (DHR) tests and mutational analysis indicated CGD. Stimulation of his isolated peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) produced low, subnormal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aspergillus terreus was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and sequenced.

Conclusions: We describe, for the first time, the presence of pulmonary A. terreus infection in an adult autosomal CGD patient on long-term corticosteroid treatment. The combination of the molecular characterization of the inherited CGD and the sequencing of fungal DNA has allowed the identification of the disease-causing agent and the optimal treatment to be given as a consequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3451-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225587PMC
November 2018

Risk factors for mortality among tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2018 05 20;50(5):399-402. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

a Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center , National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2017.1404633DOI Listing
May 2018

Distribution scheme of antituberculosis drug resistance among HIV patients in a referral centre over 10 years.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2017 12 21;11:116-119. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center (CTERC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Mycobacteriology Research Center (MRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Antituberculosis drug resistance is increasing among tuberculosis (TB) patients globally, particularly in those who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of anti-TB drug resistance in these patients in an effort to improve successful treatment outcomes with a proper regimen.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult TB/HIV co-infected patients from 2005-2015. The pattern of anti-TB drug resistance was evaluated among HIV-positive patients with and without a history of TB treatment. Categorisation was made as follows: isoniazid (INH)-resistant; rifampicin (RIF)-resistant; or multidrug-resistant (MDR).

Results: A total of 52 patients were enrolled in this study (median age 38 years). Among the 52 patients, 18 (34.6%) were MDR-TB patients and the rest were monoresistant TB (resistant either to INH or RIF). INH resistance was the most common resistance pattern (36.5%) noted among patients and was significantly associated with new TB cases (69% vs. 31%; P=0.01). During TB treatment, 3/48 patients (6.3%) failed treatment and 11/48 (22.9%) died. Patients with MDR-TB were more likely to die during treatment (44.4% vs. 10%; P=0.011).

Conclusions: Any drug resistance in previously treated TB cases among HIV-infected patients remains high. The risk of death is increasing in MDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2017.06.010DOI Listing
December 2017

Acute Epstein - Barr virus hepatitis without mononucleosis syndrome: a case report.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2017 ;10(2):147-149

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center (IDTMRC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Elevated liver enzymes accompanied by Infectious Mononucleosis syndrome are widely seen in primary Epstein-Barr virus infection while acute symptomatic hepatitis without typical presentations of EBV is extremely rare. In the following report, we present a patient with acute isolated hepatitis due to laboratory confirmed Epstein-Barr virus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5495904PMC
January 2017

Tuberculosis in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Tanaffos 2016 ;15(3):124-127

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Active tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major opportunistic infections that may occur in solid organ transplant recipients. Diagnosis and treatment of latent and active TB are challenging in this population due to lack of randomized clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations of TB, diagnosis of latent TB and treatment of both latent and active TB.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5304954PMC
January 2016

Usefulness of pulmonary artery diameter in diagnosing pulmonary hypertension in patients admitted to tuberculosis intensive care unit.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 25;5 Suppl 1:S56. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective/background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be a complication of patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to study the correlation between pulmonary artery (PA) diameter (PAD) as measured by computed tomography (CT) and mean PA pressure (mPAP) as measured by echocardiography. We also aimed to determine the accuracy of PAD in diagnosing PH in patients with pulmonary TB.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated the correlation between PAD measured using CT and mPAP measured using echocardiography in 132 patients with TB and PH, and 68 patients with TB but without PH, admitted to the TB intensive care unit at Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We used logistic regression analysis to determine the relationships between PAD, PA diameter to ascending aorta (AA) ratio, and area of PA to area of AA ratio with mPAP. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, we examined the utility of the PAD in predicting PH (mPAP ⩾25mmHg).

Results: PAD had a significant correlation with mPAP (p<0.005 and r=0.47). Also, PA:AA ratio and area of PA to area of AA ratio had significant correlation with mPAP (r=0.48 and r=0.47, respectively; p<0.001). The threshold of 29mm for PAD was determined using ROC. This index had a sensitivity of 0.55, specificity of 70.2 and area under curve of 0.66.

Conclusion: Although PAD and PA:AA ratio are useful in assessing of presence of PH, we conclude that these CT parameters are not sufficient for ruling in or ruling out PH in this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.10.032DOI Listing
December 2016

Investigation of urine lipoarabinomannan in human immunodeficiency virus patients with or without coinfection with Tuberculosis in Iran.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 22;5 Suppl 1:S186-S187. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective/background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths among adults in countries with resource limitations. The emergence of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular assay and its subsequent World Health Organization endorsement in 2010 transformed the TB-diagnostic landscape. Xpert provided diagnostic accuracy that was far superior to that of the sputum-smear microscopy test previously used. The detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine has emerged as a potential point-of-care test for TB. LAM antigen is a lipopolysaccharide present in mycobacterial cell walls which is released from metabolically active or degenerating bacterial cells and appears to be present only in people with active TB. Urine-based testing has advantages over sputum-based testing because urine is easy to collect and store and lacks the infection control risks associated with sputum collection. A previously study reported that urinary-LAM testing is a rapid, low-cost, ante-mortem diagnosis for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated TB. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels of LAM in HIV patients referred to the Mashih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran, Iran.

Methods: Urine from 31 HIV patients without TB, 33 HIV patients with pulmonary TB, and eight HIV patients with extrapulmonary TB was analyzed for LAM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (Mybiosource, San Diego, CA, USA).

Results: The plasma levels of LAM in pulmonary TB/HIV patients was 7.67±2.3ng/ml compared with 4.5±1.6ng/ml in extrapulmonary TB/HIV and 6.7±1.2ng/ml in HIV patients without TB. There was no significant difference in urine LAM levels between the three groups.

Conclusion: Our results highlight the limitations of using urine LAM levels for differentiating HIV-associated TB patients in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.11.005DOI Listing
December 2016

HIV and tuberculosis trends and survival of coinfection in a referral center in Tehran: A 12-year study.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 27;5 Suppl 1:S16-S17. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Mycobacteriology Research Center (MRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective/background: The risk of mortality and morbidity among tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients is significantly higher than that of patients infected with TB alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of TB-HIV patients in a TB-referral center during a 10-year follow-up.

Methods: All TB-HIV patients in our referral center were enrolled in the study from 2003 to 2014, and patients were divided into two groups: HIV-TB patients without a history of TB treatment (new cases of TB) and HIV-TB patients with a history of TB treatment. Both groups were treated based on World Health Organization TB-treatment guidelines, and multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate risk factors of all-cause mortality.

Results: During the study, 22 HIV-TB patients with a history of TB treatment and 263 HIV-TB patients with newly diagnosed TB were included. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar, except that miliary TB (98% vs. 2%) and mortality (97% vs. 3%; p=0.06) were more likely in HIV patients with newly diagnosed TB. During TB treatment and subsequent follow-up, two patients did not respond to treatment and 92 (32.3%) patients died, whereas the cure rate was 60%. Pneumothorax [hazard ratio (HR): 3.17], coinfection (herpes zoster, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus infection, Pneumocystis jiroveci, candidiasis, and other opportunistic infection; HR: 1.75), CD4<100cells/mL (HR: 1.96), thrombocytopenia (HR: 2.29), and lack of treatment with antiretroviral agents (ART; HR: 2.82) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality according to multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Our retrospective review of coinfected TB-HIV patients hospitalized in Tehran showed that the management and monitoring of coinfection, pneumothorax and other adverse effects, as well as early initiation of ART, improved patient survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.10.010DOI Listing
December 2016

Yield of mycobacteriological study in diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis among Human immune deficiency virus-infected patients.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 11;5 Suppl 1:S112-S113. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Pleural tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected patients. In the absence of HIV infection, the yield of mycobacteriological study is low and usually invasive procedures, including pleural fluid analysis and pleural biopsy, are necessary. The present study aimed to determine the yield of mycobacteriological study of sputum and pleural fluid among HIV-infected patients.

Methods: This retrospective case-control study involved HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with new pleural TB admitted to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran, for 5years. The results of sputum and pleural fluid smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and mycobacterium culture were extracted and compared between the two groups.

Results: In the study period, 343 patients were admitted due to pleural TB, of which 42 were HIV-positive patients. We randomly selected 132 HIV-negative patients as controls. In total, 57.1% of HIV-infected patients had positive sputum smear for AFB compared with 38.6% of controls (p=0.04). Positive culture of pleural fluid was more frequent among the HIV-positive patients than among the controls (63.6% vs. 29.5%, p=0.001). There was no significant correlation between CD4 cell count and sputum or pleural fluid results. Mycobacteriological assay was enough for diagnosis in 66.6% of HIV-positive patients compared with 49.2% in controls. After adjusting for other factors and multivariate analysis, HIV remained independently and significantly associated with positive culture of pleural fluid.

Conclusion: The diagnostic yield of mycobacteriological studies is higher among HIV-infected patients with pleural TB than among HIV-negative patients. This may decrease the need for pleural biopsy among them. Therefore, a diagnostic approach to pleural TB may be different among HIV-infected patients. In this group of patients, it is prudent to perform sputum and pleural analysis for the detection of AFB before pleural biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.09.043DOI Listing
December 2016

H1N1 Influenza Patient Saved by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: First Report from Iran.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2016 Jul;11(3):153-156

National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Respiratory failure is a serious complication of H1N1 influenza that, if not properly managed, can cause death. When mechanical ventilation is not effective, the only way to save the patient's life is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A prolonged type of cardiopulmonary bypass, ECMO is a high-cost management modality compared to other conventional types and its maintenance requires skilled personnel. Such staff usually comprises the members of open-heart surgical teams. Herein, we describe a patient with H1N1 influenza and severe respiratory failure not improved by mechanical ventilation who was admitted to Masih Daneshvari Medical Center in March 2015. She was placed on ECMO, from which she was successfully weaned 9 days later. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 52 days. Follow-up till 11 months after discharge revealed completely active life with no problem. There should be a close collaboration among infectious disease specialists, cardiac anesthetists, cardiac surgeons, and intensivists for the correct timing of ECMO placement, subsequent weaning, and care of the patient. This team work was the key to our success story. This is the first patient to survive H1N1 with the use of ECMO in Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5148819PMC
July 2016

Impact of diabetes mellitus on tuberculosis drug resistance in new cases of tuberculosis.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2016 03 13;4:1-4. Epub 2015 Dec 13.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on antituberculosis drug resistance in new cases of tuberculosis (TB). A case-control study was conducted on all newly diagnosed pulmonary TB adult patients with DM as cases and without DM as controls who were hospitalised from May 2013 to October 2013 in Iran. A molecular resistance test for rapid detection of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was done. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the impact of DM on any anti-TB drug resistance. In total, 62 TB cases with DM and 64 TB cases without DM were included. TB cases with DM were more likely to be older (59 years vs. 43 years; P=0.001). Two TB-DM patients had multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) (3.2%) compared with no cases of MDR-TB in the control group, and more TB-DM cases had isolates that were resistant to at least one drug (12.9% vs. 10.9%). DM [odds ratio (OR)=4.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1-23.57], age <40 years (OR=5.48, 95% CI 1.19-25.29) and history of TB contact (OR=5.86, 95% CI 1.69-20.36) remained significantly associated with any drug resistance in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, new TB patients with DM are at increased risk of anti-TB drug resistance. More studies are needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2015.11.006DOI Listing
March 2016

Diagnosing active and latent tuberculosis among Iranian HIV-infected patients.

Clin Respir J 2018 Jan 27;12(1):62-67. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To screen for Tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) people in an effort to improve early TB diagnosis and reduce TB transmission.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted on adult HIV people from 2008 to 2011. Three samples of sputum, cell blood count, tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were obtained from all patients. The characteristics of HIV patients with TB and HIV patients without TB were compared to each other.

Results: Of the 154 HIV patients included, 58 (38%) had tuberculosis with a mean CD4 cell count of 68 cells/mm . Active TB was found in 56 (47%) patients with a history of intravenous drug use. Cough (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.2-7.79), positive TST (OR = 8.15, 95% CI 3.28-20.25) and an abnormal chest X-ray (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 1.84-14.2) were the predicting factors for detecting active TB among HIV patients. The sensitivity and specificity of a combination of any symptoms with chest X-ray, smear, TST or all of these were 96.5% and 86.5%, respectively. CD4 cell count <100 (OR = 2.67; 95% CI 1.23-5.78) and smoking (OR = 13.4; 95% CI 3.04-59.4) remained independently associated with TB in a multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of TB within the HIV population. Screening for TB among these patients can be carried out at every clinic or health facility using a combination of symptoms, TST, chest X-ray and smear sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.12479DOI Listing
January 2018