Publications by authors named "Afshin Ebrahimi"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Experimental data on the removal of acid orange 10 dye from aqueous solutions using TiO/Na-Y zeolite and BiVO/Na-Y zeolite nanostructures: A comparison study.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 12;35:106869. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The increase of textile factories, along with the continuous development of industrialization has led to excessive discharge of high toxicity wastewater along with a diverse range of contaminants in wastewater. In this regard, to reduce their operating costs and treatment time, in this work, two synthesized nanostructures, TiO/Na-Y zeolite and BiVO/Na-Y zeolite was compared to remove acid orange 10 (AO10) from the aqueous solutions. The obtained optimum operating conditions including initial dye concentration, initial pH, contact time, catalyst dosage and AO10 removal efficiency were 20 mg/L, 3, 7 min, 0.2 g/100 mL, and 99.77% for TiO/Na-Y zeolite and 20 mg/L, 3, 200 min, 0.2 g/100 mL and 46.13% for BiVO/Na-Y zeolite composite, respectively. The structural characteristics of the synthetized materials were also determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2021.106869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905356PMC
April 2021

A novel ternary heterogeneous TiO/BiVO/NaY-Zeolite nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) under visible light.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 8;210:111862. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran. Electronic address:

Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a carcinogenic toxin, produced by cyanobacteria. The release of this toxin into drinking water sources can threaten public health and environmental safety. Therefore, effective MC-LR removal from water resources is necessary. In the present study, the hydrothermal method was used to synthesize a novel ternary BiVO/TiO/NaY-Zeolite (B/T/N-Z) nanocomposite for MC-LR degradation under visible light. FESEM, FTIR, XRD, and DRS were performed for characterizing the nanocomposite structure. Also, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the impact of catalyst dosage, pH, and contact time on the MC-LR removal. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to measure the MC-LR concentration. Based on the results, independent parameters, including contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH, significantly affected the MC-LR removal (P < 0.05). In other words, increasing the contact time, catalyst dosage, and acidic pH had positive effects on MC-LR removal. Among these variables, the catalyst dosage, with the mean square and F-value of 1041.37 and 162.84, respectively, had the greatest effect on the MC-LR removal efficiency. Apart from the interaction between the catalyst dosage and contact time, the interaction effects of other parameters were not significant. Also, the maximum MC-LR removal efficiency was 99.88% under optimal conditions (contact time = 120 min, catalyst dosage = 1 g/L, and pH = 5). According to the results, the B/T/N-Z nanocomposite, as a novel and effective photocatalyst could be used to degrade MC-LR from polluted water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111862DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of prenatal triclosan exposure on gestational age and anthropometric measures at birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Res Med Sci 2020 30;25:61. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as triclosan (TCS) leads to disrupting the endocrine system and consequently effect on the birth outcomes. The findings of studies in this field are controversial.

Materials And Methods: This systematic review and meta analysis was conducted based on the identified published papers in Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed up to November 2019. All steps, including searching, screening, data extracting, and quality assessment, were done by two independent researchers.

Results: Finally 15 published papers selected. The number of participants in whom the association of TCS exposure was assessed with birth weight, birth length, birth head circumference, and gestational age were 9112, 4311, 2854, and 3181 mother infant pairs, respectively. The pooled analysis showed that TCS exposure during pregnancy leads to increasing the birth weight for boys with β= 3.97 and 95% confidence interval (CI) (-3.98, 11.92), and girls with β= 5.37, 95% CI (-6.00, 16.75), but the association was not statistically significant. In addition, according to fixed effects models, the TCS exposure was not significantly associated with birth length (-0.008, 95% CI [-0.049, 0.034]), birth head circumference (-0.01, 95% CI [-0.08, 0.06]), and gestational age (-0.005, 95% CI [-0.017, 0.006]). Likewise, analysis for data segregated by gender of infants revealed similar results.

Conclusion: The obtained results depicted that the TCS exposure during pregnancy period was associated with higher birth weight for boys and girls. No significant association was observed for TCS exposure with variation of birth length, head circumference, and gestational age duration. In fact, the results showed the evidence of null associations between maternal TCS exposure and birth outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_918_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554545PMC
June 2020

Dietary intake and health risk assessment of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines: a Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 15;27(36):45568-45580. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines intake from the diet creates human health risks. In this study, nitrate/nitrite intake from diet and its association with nitric oxide (NO) level in humans have been surveyed. Besides nitrate/nitrite, nitrosamines risks were also determined from the diet. This study was conducted as a pilot study; 33 heathy adults participated in and completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for 3 days. Then, concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines were studied by the literature review. Also, the association between the intake of nitrate and nitrite with salivary and urinary NO was evaluated by Bayesian bi-variate analysis. Then, the health risk was assessed for nitrate/nitrite from food groups and drinking water, and nitrosamines from food groups based on hazard index (HI) and cancer risk with the Monte Carlo simulation. The nitrate/nitrite intakes had no association with NO level in the saliva and urine samples. The mean of HI value for the mean of 3 days was 3.57 and 0.32 from food groups and drinking water, respectively. The cancer risk amount of nitrosamines from food groups was (1.74 to 2.22) × 10 based on 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) values. This study showed the Iranian diet had a high risk, but drinking water consumption was safe based on nitrate/nitrite and nitrosamines for humans. There is a need to determine the concentration of nitrosamines in drinking water in Iran and to recommend for decrease risk of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines exposure by food groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10494-9DOI Listing
December 2020

Retention of atenolol from single and binary aqueous solutions by thin film composite nanofiltration membrane: Transport modeling and pore radius estimation.

J Environ Manage 2020 Oct 2;271:111005. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Pharmaceutical Engineering, Soniya College of Pharmacy, Dharwad, 580 002, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

The performance of a polyamide-based thin-film composite nanofiltration (NF) membrane (NF33) was investigated for the retention of atenolol, a pharmaceutical pollutant, from the single and binary aqueous solutions. The effect of pH, applied pressure, feed flux, initial atenolol (ATN) concentration, and different co-existing salts with varying concentrations were studied to test the performance of the membrane. The removal efficiency of ATN increased with increasing solution pH giving the highest retention (70.9 ± 3.1) at pH 9, which was slightly decreased with the increasing initial ATN concentration but increased with increasing applied pressure and feed flux. As per the uncharged solutes rejection concept, the average pore radius of NF membrane for slit-like and cylindrical pore geometries were, respectively 0.169 ± 0.003 and 0.264 ± 0.009 nm. The Spiegler-Kedem model could predict the performance of NF membrane by retaining ATN over the investigated range of feed flux. The calculated reflection coefficient (σ) was close to unity, demonstrating the convective transport. Addition of CaCl as a co-existing salt into the feed showed promoting effect on ATN retention, and its efficiency was lowered by the addition of NaCl and NaSO salts. As per the cost analysis, the total annualized cost of treatment by the NF was found to be 0.53 $/m.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111005DOI Listing
October 2020

Genotoxicity and phytotoxicity comparison of cigarette butt with cigarette ash.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 14;27(32):40383-40391. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The damage potential of cigarette butt and cigarette ash was determined and compared using genotoxicity and phytotoxicity assessments. The concentrations of five heavy metals, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni, were determined in both cigarette butt and ash leachates to find out if the results of heavy metals are in parallel with toxicity findings. Cigarette ashes and cigarette butts were soaked in distilled water for 7 days. Six leachate butt concentrations, including 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 piece/L, were examined. HUVEC cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were exposed to these dilution series for genotoxicity, and Vicia faba seeds were exposed to the same dilution series for phytotoxicity assessments. Three parameters of genotoxicity, including tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment, were obtained by the comet assay method, and three parameters of phytotoxicity, including germination rate, root length, and water content percentage, were employed. The results showed that cigarette ash at the concentrations of 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 pc/L brings about DNA damage. Meanwhile, cigarette butt causes DNA damage at the concentrations of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 pc/L. The highest concentrations (200 pc/L for cigarette butt and 200 and 100 pc/L for cigarette ash) were considered lethal for HUVEC cells. Besides, the levels of genotoxicity in the cigarette ash were twice as high as those in the cigarette butt. The Vicia faba phytotoxicity test demonstrated a germination rate restriction from 100 to 52 and 100 to 0% for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. It also caused a reduction in the length of roots from 35 to 7.85 and 3 mm for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. The moisture amounts of cigarette remnants had a decline from 93.14 to 44.61 and 36.72% for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. Concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni were 17.45, 2.5, 0.15, 6, and 0.62 ppb in the butt leachate and 7.21, 2.64, 0.29, 13.61, and 1.24 ppb in the ash leachate, respectively, indicating that heavy metals could explain the higher toxicity of cigarette ash. Based on the present study, cigarette ash imposes not only higher levels of genotoxicity and phytotoxicity but also more values of toxic heavy metals on our planet. Thus, cigarette ash plays a major role in environmental pollution, and the importance of cigarette ashes should receive attention even more than cigarette butts. This paper casts new light on the toxic impacts of cigarette ash.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10080-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Efficient degradation of microcystin-LR by BiVO/TiO photocatalytic nanocomposite under visible light.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 2;17(2):1171-1183. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

2Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Microcystin-Leucine Arginine (MC-LR) is one of the most studied cyanotoxins due to its toxicity and abundant that cause health hazards for humans through of the drinking water. In this study, BiVO/TiO nanocomposite was synthesized by hydrothermal method and employed for the removal of MC-LR. The characteristics of the catalysts were determined by FESEM, XRD and FTIR spectra. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to assess the effects of operating variables (pH, contact time, and catalyst dose) on the MC-LR removal. The coefficient of determination (R) was calculated 98.7% for the response. The residual concentration of MC-LR was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the highest removal efficiency of MC-LR was 98% under the optimum conditions (pH = 5, contact time = 90 min, and catalyst dose = 0.5 g/l). MC-LR decomposition efficiency by BiVO/TiO nanocomposite was enhanced by pH reduction and increasing of contact time and catalyst dose. The prepared BiVO/TiO nanocomposite with technological potential can be used directly in environmental preservation, specifically in the decontamination of MC-LR from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00432-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985378PMC
December 2019

Experimental data for aluminum removal from aqueous solution by raw and iron-modified granular activated carbon.

Data Brief 2018 Apr 31;17:731-738. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Environmental Health Engineering, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran.

This dataset deals with the modification of granular activated carbon (GAC) with FeCl under basic conditions (pH ≈ 12) for removal of aluminium (Al) from aqueous solution. The structural properties and operational parameters including Al ion concentration (2.15 and 10.3 mg/L), pH solution (2-10), adsorbent dosage (0.1-5 g/L), and contact time (0-10 h) was investigated for raw and modified GAC. This dataset provides information about Al removal by GAC and modified GAC at conditions including: pH = 8, contact time = 6 h, initial Al concentration = 2.15 mg/L. The characterization data of the adsorbents was analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) test. The data showed that Freundlich isotherm with and Pseudo second order kinetic model were the best models for describing the Al adsorption reactions. The acquired data indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GAC and modified GAC to uptake Al ( = 10.3 mg/L) was 3 and 4.37 mg/g respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.01.063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988382PMC
April 2018

An innovative approach to attached cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using different materials.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jul 10;25(20):20097-20105. Epub 2018 May 10.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 81676-36954, Iran.

This article investigates the innovative attached cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) using different materials as an alternative to high capital techniques of harvesting such as centrifugation, flocculation, and filtration. A simple attached algal cultivation system was proposed that was equipped by 10 submerged supporting materials which can harvest algal cells, efficiently. The effect of operational parameters such as light intensity, the rate of aeration, and auto-harvesting time was investigated. A chip, durable, and abundant cellulosic material (Kaldnes carriers covered by kenafs, KCCKs) was proposed for auto-harvesting C. vulgaris cells. The results revealed that optimum aeration rate, light intensity, and auto-harvesting of microalgal cells were 3.6 vvm, 10,548 W/m, and 12 days, respectively. Six of these KCCKs had the highest biofilm formation percent up to 33%. In this condition, the rate of cell growth increased to 0.6 mg/cm. Therefore, this system can be used for appropriate auto-harvesting of microalgae in the attached growth systems. C. vulgaris biomass composition is valuable for biodiesel, bioethanol, and animal protein production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2177-xDOI Listing
July 2018

Distribution and health risk assessment of natural fluoride of drinking groundwater resources of Isfahan, Iran, using GIS.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Feb 13;190(3):137. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Fluoride (F) contamination in groundwater can be problematic to human health. This study evaluated the concentration of fluoride in groundwater resources of Isfahan Province, the central plateau of Iran, and its related health issues to the inhabitant populations. For this purpose, 573 drinking groundwater samples were analyzed in 2016 by using the spectrophotometric method. Non-carcinogenic health risks due to F exposure through consumption of drinking water were assessed using the US EPA method. In addition, the associated zoning maps of the obtained results were presented using geographic information system (GIS). The results indicated that F content in drinking water ranged from 0.02 to 2.8 mg/L. The F contents were less than 0.50 mg/L in 63% of the drinking groundwater samples, 0.51-1.5 mg/L in 33.15%, and higher than 1.5 mg/L in 3.85% (Iran and World Health Organization guidelines) of the drinking groundwater samples. The F levels in the west and the south groundwater resources of the study areas were lower than 0.5 mg/L, which is within the recommended values for controlling dental caries (0.50-1.0 mg/L). Therefore, these places require more attention and more research is needed to increase F intake for health benefit. The HQ index for children, teens and male and female adults had health hazards (HQ > 1) in 51, 17, 28, and 18 of samples, respectively. Groundwater resources having a risk of more than one were located in the counties of Nayin, Natanz, and Ardestan. So, in these areas, there are potential risks of dental fluorosis. The most vulnerable groups were children. The F levels must be reduced in this region to decrease endemic fluorosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6467-zDOI Listing
February 2018

Association of urinary concentrations of four chlorophenol pesticides with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Feb 29;25(5):4516-4523. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

This study was undertaken to determine the association of four chlorophenol pesticides with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6 to 18 years. The concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in the urine were examined and their association with indices of obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors was determined. Multivariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied. Overall, 242 participants with mean (SD) ages of 11.3 (2.5) years completed the survey. After adjustment for confounders, a significant positive association was found between body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference (WC) with 2,5-DCP (0.07 (95% CI 0.04, 0.1)) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.54, 1.03), respectively. A significant association of 2,4,5-TCP was only found with WC (0.23 (95% CI 0.0, 0.46), but the relationship with 2,4-DCP was not significant. 2,5-DCP had a significant relationship only with obesity (1.09 (95% CI 1.1, 1.19)), while 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP showed no significant correlation with overweight or obesity. 2,4-DCP showed a significant positive relationship with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, 2,5-DCP showed a significant negative relationship only with systolic blood pressure and 2,4,5-TCP had a statistically significant inverse association with total cholesterol and HDL-C (-0.71 (95% CI -0.98, -0.45)). This study suggests potential associations of chlorophenol pesticides with overweight, obesity, lipid profile, and blood pressure in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are necessary to assess the clinical impact of these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0771-yDOI Listing
February 2018

Dataset on the cost estimation for spent filter backwash water (SFBW) treatment.

Data Brief 2017 Dec 24;15:1043-1047. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical , Tehran, Iran.

The dataset presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Hybrid coagulation-UF processes for spent filter backwash water treatment: a comparison studies for PAFCl and FeCl as a pre-treatment" (Ebrahimi et al., 2017) [1]. This article reports the cost estimation for treating produced spent filter backwash water (SFBW) during water treatment in Isfahan- Iran by various methods including primary sedimentation, coagulation & flocculation, second clarification, ultra filtration (UF) and recirculation of settled SFBW to water treatment plant (WTP) entrance. Coagulation conducted by PAFCl and FeCl as pre polymerized and traditional coagulants. Cost estimation showed that contrary to expectations, the recirculation of settled SFBW to WTP entrance is more expensive than other method and it costs about $ 37,814,817.6. Versus the cheapest option related to separate primary sedimentation, coagulation & flocculation in WTP. This option cost about $ 4,757,200 and $ 950,213 when FeCl3 and PAFCl used as coagulant, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.10.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5695916PMC
December 2017

Dataset on the spent filter backwash water treatment by sedimentation, coagulation and ultra filtration.

Data Brief 2017 Dec 2;15:916-921. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

During operation of most water treatment plants, spent filter backwash water (SFBW) is generated, which accounts about 2-10% of the total plant production. By increasing world population and water shortage in many countries, SFBW can be used as a permanent water source until the water treatment plant is working. This data article reports the practical method being used for water reuse from SFBW through different method including pre-sedimentation, coagulation and flocculation, second clarification, ultra filtration (UF) and returned settled SFBW to the beginning of water treatment plant (WTP). Also, two coagulants of polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFCl) and ferric chloride (FeCl) were investigated with respect to their performance on treated SFBW quality. Samples were collected from Isfahan's WTP in Iran during spring and summer season. The acquired data indicated that drinkable water can be produced form SFBW by applying hybrid coagulation-UF process (especially when PAFCl used as coagulant).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.10.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683744PMC
December 2017

Hybrid coagulation-UF processes for spent filter backwash water treatment: a comparison studies for PAFCl and FeCl as a pre-treatment.

Environ Monit Assess 2017 Aug 10;189(8):387. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Isfahan Water and Wastewater Company, Isfahan, Iran.

In this study, the reclamation of clean water from spent filter backwash water (SFBW) was investigated through pilot-scale experiments. The pilot plant consisted of pre-sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, clarification, and ultrafiltration (UF). Two coagulants of PAFCl and FeCl were investigated with respect to their performance on treated SFBW quality and UF membrane fouling. At the optimum dose of PAFCl and FeCl turbidity removal of 99.6 and 99.4% was attained, respectively. PAFCl resulted in an optimum UV, TOC, and DOC removal of 80, 83.6, and 72.7%, respectively, and FeCl caused the removal of those parameters by 76.7, 80.9, and 65.9%, respectively. PAFCl removed hydrophilic and transphilic constituent better than FeCl, but FeCl had, to some extent, higher affinities to a hydrophobic fraction. It was concluded that PAFCl showed a better coagulation performance in most cases and caused a lower membrane fouling rate compared to FeCl. Finally, the treated SFBW with both coagulant-UF systems met the drinking water standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6091-3DOI Listing
August 2017

Trends in health burden of untreated water and insanitary environments in Iran, 1990-2010: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2016;30:424. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran, & Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Water, sanitation and hygiene have a very important role in public health. Poor sanitation is the cause of water contamination, which causes many types of diseases. The aim of this paper was to present the attributable death and disability adjusted life year (DALYs) of untreated water and insanitary environments from 1990 to 2010 in Iran. In the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study, using the comparative risk assessment, the proportion of death and DALYs attributable to untreated water source and insanitary environment has been calculated in 1990 to 2010. The certain outcomes were intestinal infectious diseases for both untreated water source and insanitary environments. Estimated attributable deaths and DALYs were reported with 95% uncertainty interval (UI). DALY number for untreated water source and insanitary environments was 5838 (95% UI: 198- 14837) in 1990, which decreased to 326 (95% UI: 9-863) in 2010 and the percent of decrease was 94.42%. In addition, DALY rate was 5667 (95% UI: 192-14402) DALY per 100,000 in 1990, which decreased to 453 (95% UI: 13-1199) DALY per 100,000 in 2010 and the percent of the reduction was 92.01%. The greatest percentage of decrease in the attributed number of deaths was also found in the late neonatal age group (95.45%). A significant decrease has occurred in a number of DALYs and deaths between 1990 and 2010, which was attributed to the development of new water systems and environmental sanitations in Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307626PMC
October 2016

Detecting Gait Phases from RGB-D Images Based on Hidden Markov Model.

J Med Signals Sens 2016 Jul-Sep;6(3):158-65

Department of Electrical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran.

Gait contains important information about the status of the human body and physiological signs. In many medical applications, it is important to monitor and accurately analyze the gait of the patient. Since walking shows the reproducibility signs in several phases, separating these phases can be used for the gait analysis. In this study, a method based on image processing for extracting phases of human gait from RGB-Depth images is presented. The sequence of depth images from the front view has been processed to extract the lower body depth profile and distance features. Feature vector extracted from image is the same as observation vector of hidden Markov model, and the phases of gait are considered as hidden states of the model. After training the model using the images which are randomly selected as training samples, the phase estimation of gait becomes possible using the model. The results confirm the rate of 60-40% of two major phases of the gait and also the mid-stance phase is recognized with 85% precision.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4973459PMC
August 2016

Association between Aluminum and Silicon Concentrations in Isfahan Drinking Water and Their Health Risk Assessments.

Int J Prev Med 2015 12;6:111. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: High concentrations of elements such as aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) in drinking water can affect human health. It is suggested that high daily intake of Al is associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Si, as an antidote of Al, may decrease Al bioavailability. The study was conducted to estimate Al and Si concentration and correlation in water and evaluate their health risk.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples were collected from 20 points of water distribution system and the water treatment plant of Isfahan in spring and summer. Samples were analyzed using DR-5000. The health risk was evaluated via calculating chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard index (HI).

Results: Significant negative correlation was documented between Al and Si (R = -0.482, P = 0.037 in spring, and R = -0.452, P = 0.049 in summer). These values were approximately similar in all types of Al and Si. The amounts of CDI for Al in spring and summer were 6.67E-04 and 0.002 mg/kg/day, respectively. The Al HI values were below 1 in both seasons.

Conclusions: The significant correlation between Al and Si concentrations suggests that Si can eliminate Al in water, and probably it might do the same in the body. The health risk of Al intake from tap water was negligible, it was assessed in an acceptable range with an HI value of less than the standard levels. The health risk of Si remained unknown due to lack of information regarding its toxicity and adverse health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.169644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671161PMC
December 2015

Sonoelectrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid using Ti/PbO 2 anode assessed by response surface methodology.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2015 14;13:77. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Environment Research Center and Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Isfahan, 81676-36954 Iran ; Student Research Center, School of Health, IUMS, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are emerging pollutant and classified as fully fluorinated hydrocarbons containing a carboxylic group. PFCAs show intensively resistance against chemical and biological degradation due to their strong C-F bond. The Sonoelectrochemical mineralization of the synthetic aqueous solution of the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Ti/PbO2 anode was investigated using the response surface methodology based on a central composite design with three variables: current density, pH, and supporting electrolyte concentration.

Methods: The defluorination ratio of PFOA was determined as an indicator of PFOA mineralization. Fluoride ion concentration was measured with an ion chromatograph unit. The Ti/PbO2 electrode was prepared using the electrochemical deposition method. The ultrasonic frequency was 20 kHz.

Results: The optimum conditions for PFOA mineralization in synthetic solution were electrolyte concentration, pH, and current density of 94 mM, 2, and 83.64 mA/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the most effective factor for PFOA mineralization was current density. Furthermore, the PFOA defluorination efficiency significantly enhanced with increasing current density. Under optimum conditions, the maximum mineralization of PFOA was 95.48 % after 90 min of sonoelectrolysis.

Conclusions: Sonoelectrolysis was found to be a more effective technique for mineralization of an environmentally persistent compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-015-0232-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4647288PMC
November 2015

Analysis spectrum of normal and ataxia Purkinje cell output and classification using artificial neural network.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2014 ;26(4):E14

Computational Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran (SA, AA); Department of Emerging Technology, School of Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran (YS); and Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran (AE).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.13100232DOI Listing
December 2015

Crossed ring anchored disk resonator for self-alignment of the anchor.

J Adv Res 2014 Jan 4;5(1):109-15. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Sahand New Town, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Tabriz, Iran.

Misalignment is a problematic challenge in RF MEMS resonators. It causes asymmetry in the ultra symmetric radial contour mode disk resonators and degrades their performance by increasing the insertion loss and decreasing their quality factors (Q). Self-alignment method seems to be a good solution for misalignment problem, but it cannot be directly applied on high performance ring shape anchored resonators. This paper discusses misalignment effects for the ring shape anchored resonators and proposes a method for reconfiguring its anchor to be compatible with self-alignment process. Simulation results validate that the crossed ring anchor structure has the same resonance characteristics with the complete ring shape anchored resonator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2013.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4294740PMC
January 2014

Fluoride exposure and its health risk assessment in drinking water and staple food in the population of Dayyer, Iran, in 2013.

J Educ Health Promot 2015 30;4:72. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environment Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Aims: The aims of this study were to determine fluoride concentration in drinking water and staple foods consumed by residents of Dayyer port (Bushehr province, south of Iran) and to assess its health risk via human intake in 2013.

Materials And Methods: Health risk assessment due to fluoride exposure via consumption of drinking water, date, vegetables and fish was conducted in spring and summer of 2013 using the US-EPA (United States-Environmental Protection Agency) method, which considers hazard quotient (HQ) as a ratio of the estimated dose of a contaminant to the reference dose. A fluoride ion-selective electrode (ISE) measured the fluoride contents of food samples. The sodium-2-(parasulfophenyl largo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphtnalene disulfonate colorimetric method (SPADNS) was used to determine fluoride concentration in water samples.

Results: The total estimated oral intake of fluoride for children in summer and spring were 120.6 and 145.6 µg/kg/day, respectively. These values for adults were 99.2 and 112 µg/kg/day. This survey demonstrated that drinking water was the most important contributor of dietary fluoride intake in the study area.

Conclusion: HQ values for adults and children were >1 which approves that a potential health risk of fluorosis can exist. The recommendations for the study area are supplying drinking water from alternative sources and defluoridation of drinking water by an adsorption technique and membrane filtration, respectively. Furthermore, people are suggested to have a good nutrition (especially rich of vitamin C) to reduce the risk of fluorosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9531.171785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4944599PMC
July 2016

A qualitative survey of five antibiotics in a water treatment plant in central plateau of Iran.

J Environ Public Health 2013 11;2013:351528. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to survey a total of five common human and veterinary antibiotics based on SPE-LC-MS-MS technology in a water treatment plant at central plateau of Iran. Also two sampling techniques, passive and grab samplings, were compared in the detection of selected antibiotics.

Materials And Methods: In January to March 2012, grab and passive samples were taken from the influent and effluent of a water treatment plant. The samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

Results: The results showed that enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were not detected in none of the samples. However, ampicillin was detected in the grab and passive samples taken from the influent (source water) of the plant, and ciprofloxacin was detected in passive samples taken from the influent and effluent (finished water) of the plant.

Conclusion: The results imply that passive sampling is a better approach than grab sampling for the investigation of antibiotics in aquatic environments. The presence of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin in source water and finished water of the water treatment plant may lead to potential emergence of resistant bacteria that should be considered in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/351528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3649666PMC
December 2013