Publications by authors named "Afshar Bargahi"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetically engineered fusion of allergen and viral-like particle induces a more effective allergen-specific immune response than a combination of them.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jan 20;105(1):77-91. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Moallem Street, Bushehr, 7514633196, Iran.

Chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) were developed as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this study, hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) that genetically fused to Chenopodium album polcalcin (Che a 3)-derived peptide was expressed in E. coli BL21, purified, and VLP formation was evaluated using native agarose gel electrophoresis (NAGE) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chimeric HBc VLPs were characterized in terms of their reactivity to IgE, the induction of blocking IgG and allergen-specific IgE, basophil-activating capacity, and Th1-type immune responses. Results from IgE reactivity and basophil activation test showed that chimeric HBc VLPs lack IgE-binding capacity and basophil degranulation activity. Although chimeric HBc VLPs induced the highest level of efficient polcalcin-specific IgG antibody in comparison to those induced by recombinant Che a 3 (rChe a 3) mixed either with HBc VLPs or alum, they triggered the lowest level of polcalcin-specific IgE in mice following immunization. Furthermore, in comparison to the other antigens, chimeric HBc VLPs produced a polcalcin-specific Th1 cell response. Taken together, genetically fusion of allergen derivatives to HBc VLPs, in comparison to a mix of them, may be a more effective way to induce appropriate immune responses in allergen-specific immunotherapy. KEY POINTS: • The insertion of allergen-derived peptide into major insertion region (MIR) of hepatitis B virus core (HBc) antigen resulted in nanoparticles displaying allergen-derived peptide upon its expression in prokaryotic host. • The resultant VLPs (chimeric HBc VLPs) did not exhibit IgE reactivity with allergic patients' sera and were not able to degranulate basophils. • Chimeric HBc VLPs dramatically improved protective IgG antibody response compared with those induced by allergen mixed either with HBc VLPs or alum. • Chimeric HBc VLPs induced Th1 responses that were counterparts of Th2 responses (allergic). • Chimeric HBc VLPs increased IgG2a/ IgG1 ratio and the level of IFN-γ compared to those induced by allergen mixed with either HBc VLPs or alum. Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-11012-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Healing effects of Pergularia tomentosa L., a native medicinal plant in Bushehr province, Iran on burn, in animal model.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan;32(1):21-28

Department of Marine Toxinology, The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Burn injury is one of the most destructive events in the world. The Pergularia tomentosa L. is a medicinal plant that traditionally, applies for treatment of burning, in Bushehr province, Iran. Various bioactive compounds such as steroid glycosides, tannins, various vitamins, saponins, cardenolides and anthraquinones were identified into extract of the plant, which can be effective in burn wound healing. Twenty-one rats weighting every one 200±5 grams were divided equally into three groups. The second-degree burning induced on all groups. One of groups did not receive any treatment (The control group) and was treated locally with saline and eucerin. The Second group received the P. tomentosa L. as a topical ointment, and the third group received locally, a thin layer of silver sulfadiazine ointment 3% after washing the wound with saline. Afterward treatment period, the microscopic slides from histological sections were prepared. At that point, amounts of the fibroblast cells, blood vessels, wound area, necrotic tissues, and diameter of epidermis rate of wound healing were determined. Also the exterior status of wound in different days was considered. Results obtained from current study have revealed that the extract of P. tomentosa L. can significantly, cause qualitative and quantitative acceleration in healing of second degree burn wounds, due to their bioactive and vasoactive properties. In conclusion the P. tomentosa L. can is used as an overborne medicine with lower cost and side effect than the similar chemical medicines. Although, the further studies are needed on these plants, due to their some toxic effects.
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January 2019

Identification and Characterization of Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from Hippocampus comes by In Silico and Experimental Studies.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2018 Dec 23;20(6):718-728. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Moallem Street, Bushehr, 7514633196, Iran.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted attentions as a novel antimicrobial agent because of their unique activity against microbes. In the present study, we described a new, previously unreported AMP, moronecidin-like peptide, from Hippocampus comes and compared its antimicrobial activity with moronecidin from hybrid striped bass. Antibacterial assay indicated that gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to moronecidin and moronecidin-like compared with gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, both AMPs were found to exhibit effective antifungal activity. Comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity revealed that moronecidin-like peptide has higher activity against Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus epidermidis relative to moronecidin. Both moronecidin-like and moronecidin peptides retained their antibacterial activity in physiological pH and salt concentration. The time-killing assay showed that the AMPs completely killed A. baumannii and S. epidermidis isolates after 1 and 5 h at five- and tenfold above their corresponding MICs, respectively. Anti-biofilm assay demonstrated that peptides were able to inhibit 50% of biofilm formation at sub-MIC of 1/8 MIC. Furthermore, moronecidin-like significantly inhibited biofilm formation more than moronecidin at 1/16 MIC. Collectively, our results revealed that antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of moronecidin-like are comparable to moronecidin. In addition, the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of moronecidin-like were lower than those of moronecidin, suggesting it as a potential novel therapeutic agent, and a template to design new therapeutic AMPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-018-9843-3DOI Listing
December 2018

Evaluation of Wound Dressing Made From Spider Silk Protein Using in a Rabbit Model.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2018 Jun;17(2):71-77

5 Department of Biology and Anatomical sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

The aim of the present article was to study the healing of wounds using spider silk. Eight New Zealand female rabbits were selected as animal model. First, 3 identical wounds with length of 15 mm and a depth of 4 mm on the back of each rabbit were created. The first group, as standard control, did not receive any special treatment, they were treated only with saline and Vaseline locally. The second group, as positive control, received a thin film of phenytoin 1% ointment locally. The third group, as treated group, received a thin film of spider silk protein. At the end of the study, a biopsy of skin was done. After tissue preparation, all sections were evaluated. Some morphometrical parameters such as counting cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, determination of the area of the wound closure, necrotic tissue, speed of wound healing, and epidermal thickness were done, and for data statistical analysis, SPSS software and Excel software were used. The results of this study showed that spider silk dressing may benefit as a possible effect of nanoparticles in the test preparation in wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734618782827DOI Listing
June 2018

Anti-diabetic effects of on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018 Mar;21(3):342-346

Departments of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Objectives: Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome which is associated with the worldwide major public health problems. There are many natural compounds from the sea-market, as a valuable aquatic source, along with the variety of health and therapeutic benefits. In the present research, with respect to the traditional and ethnic uses of algae for healing of some diseases which have similar metabolic mechanism to the diabetes, its anti-diabetic effects in animal model was proposed.

Materials And Methods: The animals (rat) were divided into the normal control, diabetic control, positive control and, the test groups. The test groups were gavaged with oral doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg of algae hydroalcoholic extracts. After 30 days of intervention the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, insulin, insulin resistance, β-cells function and, the histopathology of pancreatic tissue were evaluated.

Results: In animals that were fed with algae extracts a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and HOMA-IR and an increase in the HOMA-B with no significant impacts on the insulin, cholesterol and HDL were observed. Also, the histopathology evaluations in the groups which were treated with algae extract revealed the regeneration and reconstitution of damaged pancreatic β-cells.

Conclusion: The results give evidence that, the algae extract has a healing effect on diabetes which can be considered as a new research prospect for the natural therapy of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2018.25654.6329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817179PMC
March 2018

Prediction of new chromene-based inhibitors of tubulin using structure-based virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation methods.

Comput Biol Chem 2017 Dec 27;71:89-97. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the serious problems in cancer research that causes failure in chemotherapy. Chromene-based compounds have been proven to be the novel anti-MDR agents for inhibiting proliferation of tumor cells through tubulin polymerization inhibition of by binding at the colchicine binding site. In this study, we screened a chromene-based database of small molecules using physicochemical, ADMET properties and molecular docking to identify potential hit compounds. In order to validate our hit compounds, molecular dynamics simulations and related analysis were carried out and the results suggest that our hit compounds (PubChem CIDs: 16814409, 17594471, 57367244 and 69899719) can prove to be potential inhibitors of tubulin. The in silico results show that the present hits, like colchicine, effectively suppressed the dynamic instability of microtubules and induced microtubule-depolymerization and cell cycle arrest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2017.09.007DOI Listing
December 2017

Sensing of Alzheimer's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis Using Nano-Bio Interfaces.

J Alzheimers Dis 2017 ;59(4):1187-1202

Department of Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

It is well understood that patients with different diseases may have a variety of specific proteins (e.g., type, amount, and configuration) in their plasmas. When nanoparticles (NPs) are exposed to these plasmas, the resulting coronas may incorporate some of the disease-specific proteins. Using gold (Au) NPs with different surface properties and corona composition, we have developed a technology for the discrimination and detection of two neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Applying a variety of techniques, including UV-visible spectra, colorimetric response analyses and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we found the corona-NP complexes, obtained from different human serums, had distinct protein composition, including some specific proteins that are known as AD and MS biomarkers. The colorimetric responses, analyzed by chemometrics and statistical methods, demonstrate promising capabilities of the technology to unambiguously identify and discriminate AD and MS. The developed colorimetric technology might enable a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection/discrimination of neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160206DOI Listing
April 2018

Anti-inflammatory and Wound Healing Activities of Aloe vera, Honey and Milk Ointment on Second-Degree Burns in Rats.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2016 Sep 23;15(3):241-7. Epub 2016 May 23.

The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Centre, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran

The aim of the present study was morphological and morphometric investigation of burn healing impacts of an honey, milk, and Aloe vera (HMA) ointment on experimentally induced second-degree burns, to approve the medicinal basis of its use in Iranian traditional medicine. A total of 21 male Albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g were divided into 3 groups of 7, including (1) control group, (2) positive control group, and (3) the treatment group that were treated with eucerin, silver sulfadiazine 3% and HMA ointment 5% respectively.After anesthetizing, the second-degree burns (1 cm(2) areas) were made on the back of the animals using a digital controlled hot plaque, and each group was treated topically, based on the time scheduled. Then, skin punch biopsies were obtained on the 1st, 14th, and 28th days of post-burn induction; processed; and stained using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome methods. The results showed that HMA ointment induces cell proliferation, increasing the wound closure rate, blood vessel counts, and collagen fiber density in treated animals. It also reduced the wound secretions, inflammation, and scar formation. According to the obtained morphological, morphometric results, we concluded that the traditional HMA ointment, which is rich in therapeutic biomaterials and minerals, has multiple healing effects on burn wounds in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734616645031DOI Listing
September 2016

Long-Term Exposure of Lead Acetate on Rabbit Renal Tissue.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Feb 6;18(2):e22157. Epub 2016 Feb 6.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran.

Background: Lead has been widely used in different industries for ages. It is one of the heavy metals, highly poisonous even at low doses, and has biochemical, physiological and behavioral side effects on human and animals. It has been shown that lead has toxic effects on different tissues such as neural and genitourinary tissues, cardiovascular systems and blood. Therefore, high attention has been paid to its environmental pollutions.

Objectives: Although many histological and biochemical studies have reported about the effects of lead on the renal tissue, there are a few studies about the ultrastructure and morphometric effects of lead on the kidney. Hence, the aim of this study was the evaluation of morphology and morphometrics of rabbit renal urinary barrier ultrastructure following long-term exposure to lead acetate.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 20 male New Zealand rabbits were divided into control and test groups (10 in each). The test group was injected intraperitoneally with chronic dose (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) of lead acetate and for the control group the same volume of normal saline was used, every other day for 10 weeks. After anesthetizing, the biopsies of renal tissues were taken for light and electron microscopic morphometric and morphologic analyses.

Results: Long-term exposure to lead acetate caused histopathology effects including dilatation, congestion, nuclei heterochromatic effects, increase in diameter of renal tubules and urinary barrier thickness in rabbit renal tissue.

Conclusions: Quantitative and qualitative results of long-term lead acetate exposure showed many histopathology side-effects, especially in the urinary barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.22157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867333PMC
February 2016

The effect of Stevia rebaudiana on serum omentin and visfatin level in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

J Diet Suppl 2015 Mar 1;12(1):11-22. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

1Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Recently the role of adipocytokines in relationship to incidence of diabetes has been demonstrated. One of the medicinal plants that are used in the treatment of diabetes is stevia. This study investigates the effect of stevia on serum omentin and visfatin levels as novel adipocytokines in diabetic induced rats to find potential mechanisms for the anti hyperglycemic effect of stevia. Forty male wistar rats weighing 180-250 g were induced with diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into 5 groups of 8. Rats in group 1 (non-diabetic control) and group 2 (diabetic control) were treated with distilled water, and the rats in the treated groups, group 3 (T250), group 4 (T500), and group 5 (T750) were treated with stevia, gavaged every day at 9 a.m. in doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg, respectively. At the end of the study significant reductions in fasting blood sugar (FBS), the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride (TG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Omentin level were found in groups 3 and 4 in comparison with group 2. Pancreatic histopathology slides demonstrated that stevia extract did not induce any increase in the number of β-cells. The conclusion is that prescription of stevia in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d decreases the omentin level indirectly via activating insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2014.901999DOI Listing
March 2015

Serum retinol levels are positively correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, independent of iron homeostasis: a population-based study.

Nutr Res 2013 Apr 11;33(4):279-85. Epub 2013 Mar 11.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, The Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Micronutrient interactions give rise to complex issues that have an impact on preventive strategies when multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of vitamins A and E and iron deficiencies among women 15 to 49 years of age in the northern Persian Gulf region. We hypothesized that serum retinol levels may show correlations with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, independent of iron status. A total of 1242 nonpregnant women of reproductive age were selected via a multistage stratified random cluster sampling technique. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined for 727 women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of anemia (Hb <12 g/dL), iron deficiency (serum ferritin <15 μg/L), and iron deficiency anemia was 8.7%, 25.4%, and 4.6%, respectively. Vitamin A (<0.7 μmol/L) and vitamin E (<11.6 μmol/L) deficiencies were found in 1.2% and 5.9% of the studied population, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum retinol levels exhibit a significant association with Hb concentrations after controlling for serum ferritin levels, anemia associated with chronic disease, and risk factors for anemia. Therefore, most nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the northern Persian Gulf were found to have adequate serum vitamin A and E levels. However, the status of anemia and iron deficiency anemia could be considered a mild public health problem in this region. On the basis of multivariate analyses, we conclude that low serum retinol levels may contribute to anemia, independent of iron homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2013.02.004DOI Listing
April 2013

Reduced serum osteocalcin concentrations are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome components in postmenopausal women: the crosstalk between bone and energy metabolism.

J Bone Miner Metab 2012 Nov 3;30(6):683-91. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, The Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine Research Centre, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Although it has been shown that osteocalcin functions as a hormone in the regulation of glucose metabolism and fat mass, no population-based study to date has addressed serum osteocalcin levels in relation to energy metabolism concurrent with bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a population-based study, cardiovascular risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteocalcin, CrossLaps, alkaline phosphatase, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the proximal femur were measured in 382 Iranian postmenopausal women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower osteocalcin and CrossLaps levels were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) of having type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjustments were made for age, hs-CRP, cardiovascular risk factors, BMD, and markers of bone metabolism [OR 5.17, CI (2.66-10.04), p < 0.0001 and OR 2.51, CI (1.37-4.61), p = 0.003, respectively]. However, lower alkaline phosphatase levels were associated with a lower OR of having type 2 diabetes mellitus [OR 0.28, CI (0.15-0.52), p < 0.0001] in regression analysis. No significant difference was found between serum osteocalcin levels of those with and without metabolic syndrome. Among the metabolic syndrome components, low osteocalcin levels had significant associations with elevated blood glucose [OR 1.89, CI (1.16-3.07), p = 0.010] and elevated waist circumference [OR 2.53, CI (1.13-5.67), p = 0.024] in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, serum osteocalcin was independently associated with glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity as the components of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women. Since CrossLaps and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the unique contribution of osteocalcin in glucose metabolism could not be concluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-012-0367-zDOI Listing
November 2012

The normoglycemic first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have low circulating omentin-1 and adiponectin levels.

Cytokine 2012 May 6;58(2):295-9. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, The Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr 7514763448, Iran.

Objective: It has been suggested that adipose-derived cytokines act as insulin sensitizers/insulin-mimetics and some others may induce insulin resistance. In order to elucidate the potential role of novel adipocytokines in the pre-diabetes states, circulating levels of novel adipocytokines were evaluated in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (FDRs).

Method: Serum omentin-1, adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels were measured in 179 subjects (90 glucose tolerant FDRs and 89 age- and sex-matched healthy controls) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods.

Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding serum RBP4 concentrations. However, serum omentin-1 (median [interquartile range], 6.18 [4.06-11.52]ng/ml versus 10.50 [4.30-20.60]ng/ml, p=0.004) and adiponectin (mean±SD, 10.07±4.0 μg/ml versus 20.66±8.12 μg/ml, p<0.0001) levels were significantly lower in FDRs when compared with the controls. In multiple logistic regression analysis, FDRs showed a significant association with lower circulating omentin-1 and adiponectin levels, even after adjustments were made for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure measures, and biochemical parameters including glucose status, lipid profile, insulin levels and HOMA-IR (OR=0.49, CI [0.30-0.79]; p=0.004 and OR=0.74, CI [0.67-0.82]; p<0.0001, respectively). However, FDRs did not show a significant association with serum RBP4 levels in different models of regression analyses.

Conclusions: The FDRs showed significant associations with lower omentin-1 and adiponectin levels. A potential role for these adipokines in the FDRs' increased risk of diabetes needs to be further elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2012.02.005DOI Listing
May 2012

Correlation of circulating omentin-1 with bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis: the crosstalk between bone and adipose tissue.

PLoS One 2011 15;6(9):e24240. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Centre, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Adipose tissue-derived adipokines may play important roles in the osteoimmunology of MS. In order to determine whether omentin-1 and vaspin may be related to bone health in MS patients, we compared circulating levels of these recently identified adipokines, between MS patients and healthy controls.

Methods: A total of 35 ambulatory MS patients with relapsing-remitting courses were compared with 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the proximal femur using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Circulating omentin-1, vaspin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, matrix metalloproteinase 9, C-reactive protein and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were evaluated by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.

Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding bone-related cytokines, adipocytokines, and the BMD measurements of patients with MS and the healthy controls. However, in multiple regression analysis, serum omentin-1 levels were positively correlated with BMD at the femoral neck (β = 0.49, p = 0.016), total hip (β = 0.42, p = 0.035), osteopontin (β = 0.42, p = 0.030) and osteocalcin (β = 0.53, p = 0.004) in MS patients. No correlations were found between vaspin, biochemical, and BMD measures in both groups.

Conclusions: Elevated omentin-1 serum levels are correlated with BMD at the femoral neck and the serum levels of osteocalcin and osteopontin in MS patients. Therefore, there is crosstalk between adipose tissue and bone in MS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024240PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174149PMC
April 2012

Effect of shark cartilage derived protein on the NK cells activity.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2011 Sep 29;33(3):403-9. Epub 2010 Jul 29.

Research Center for Marin Medicine Biotechnology, Persian Gulf Biomedical Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Context: Shark cartilage has been used for its beneficial effects on various diseases. There are evidences, that shark cartilage stimulates cellular and humoral immune responses, which makes it an anti-tumor and immunomodulator candidate.

Objective: The immunostimulatory effect of shark cartilage derived proteins on the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied.

Material And Methods: The shark cartilage was extracted and its bioactive proteins were purified using ion-exchange chromatography (DE-52) and sequential fractionation on Amicon ultrafiltration membranes. The effect of each protein fraction on the modulation of cytotoxic activity of NK cells, as effectors, against K562, as target cells, was assayed by enzymatic lactate dehydrogenase test.

Results: The most immunostimulatory effect on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells was observed for AR10 fraction, containing proteins with molecular weight of about 14.5 kDa on the reducible discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Discussion: Among the examined shark cartilage derived proteins, the most immunostimulatory effects on the NK cells cytotoxicity was found for AR10 fraction with molecular weight of about 14 kDa. We propose-the direct interactions of shark cartilage derived proteins with NK cells surface receptors may lead to the enhancing in the cytotoxic activity of NK cells.

Conclusion: Thus AR10 fraction, proteins of about 14.5 kDa, has a novel immunostimulatory effect on the NK cells activity in vitro and if confirmed by in vivo trials, it may lead to its future clinical applications as, immunotherapy of cancer, HIV, and augmentation of host immune system related immunodeficiency disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08923973.2010.500294DOI Listing
September 2011

Angiogenic inhibitor protein fractions derived from shark cartilage.

Biosci Rep 2008 Feb;28(1):15-21

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Development of therapies based on the growth inhibition of new blood vessels is among the most intensively studied approaches to the treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases. Shark cartilage has been proven to have inhibitory effects on the endothelial cell angiogenesis, metastasis, cell adhesion and MMP (matrix metalloprotease) activity. In the present study, we have used a chromatography-based procedure for the isolation and partial purification of a shark cartilage protein fraction containing anti-angiogenesis activity. Proteins were extracted in 4 M guanidinium chloride, followed by sequential anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Angiogenesis assays were performed using the rat aortic ring and chick CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) assay models. The results show that the final fraction contains two proteins with molecular masses of 14.7 and 16 kDa. The protein fraction is able to block microvessel sprouting in the collagen-embedded rat aortic ring assay in vitro and inhibition of capillary sprouting in the CAM assay in vivo. It is suggested that these are partially purified anti-angiogenesis proteins, which have further biotechnological or biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20070029DOI Listing
February 2008

Identification of low-molecular-weight protein (SCP1) from shark cartilage with anti-angiogenesis activity and sequence similarity to parvalbumin.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2008 Feb 1;46(3):563-7. Epub 2007 Nov 1.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Cartilage was considered as a possible natural source of anti-angiogenesis compounds due to its known avascular nature. In this study, a low-molecular-weight protein with an anti-angiogenesis activity was isolated from shark cartilage using a mild extraction procedure. The protein was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration and electroelution techniques and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. The purified protein, designated as SCP1, represented a molecular weight of 13.7 kDa, pI of 6.9-7 and its N-terminal sequence revealed sequence similarity to alpha parvalbumin family. The protein inhibited angiogenesis when subjected to microvessel sprouting of collagen-embedded rat aortic ring assay. It is suggested that SCP1 could be considered as a new angiogenesis inhibitor derived from shark cartilage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2007.10.029DOI Listing
February 2008

Low molecular weight fraction of shark cartilage can modulate immune responses and abolish angiogenesis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2005 Jun;5(6):961-70

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box: 14115-111, Tehran, IR Iran.

Shark cartilage has proven to have inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. In this research, we studied the effects of shark cartilage on the immune system. Firstly, we isolated and purified a shark cartilage protein fraction with the most immunostimulatory effects. Our fraction was composed of two proteins with molecular weights of about 14 and 15 kDa. This fraction highly augments delayed-type hypersensitivity response against sRBC in mice, and decreases the cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer cells. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of this fraction to tumor-bearing mice could increase T-cell infiltration into the tumor, and decrease the tumor lesion size. Also, this fraction has strong inhibitory effect on HBMEC proliferation and migration in fibrin matrix. According to these results, we suppose that this fraction is a good candidate for further studies in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2005.01.006DOI Listing
June 2005