Publications by authors named "Afroditi D Lalou"

9 Publications

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The Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Diagnosis and Shunt Prognostication.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:359-363

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Over the years, there have been several reports and trials of the resistance to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow (Rout) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). This work aimed to revisit the utility of testing CSF circulation in a large population of patients clinically presenting with NPH.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 369 NPH patients-either shunted or with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV)-in Cambridge between 1992 and 2018. We determined the patients' outcomes (improvement versus no improvement at 6 months) by applying a threshold on R values and compared our results with those of existing literature. We also conducted a correlation analysis between all variables and calculated Chi-Statistics (as a measure of separability between improvement and no improvement outcomes) to determine a subset of variables which achieved the highest accuracy in prediction of outcome.

Results: In our dataset, R of 18 mmHg*min/mL achieved the highest Chi-statistics of 9.7 with p-value <0.01 when adjusted for age. In addition to R , intracranial pressure (ICP) values at the baseline and plateau, CSF production rate and ICP amplitude to slope ratio showed significant Chi-Statistics values (more than 5). Using these variables, an overall accuracy of 0.70 ± 0.09 was achieved for prediction of the shunt outcome.

Conclusion: Rout can be used for selecting patients for shunt surgery but not for excluding patients from treatment. Critical, multivariable approaches are required to comprehend CSF dynamics and pressure-volume compensation in NPH. Outcome definition and assessment could also be brought to question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59436-7_69DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of Assessment for Shunting with Infusion Studies Versus Extended Lumbar Drainage in Suspected Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:355-358

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: Tools available for diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and prediction of shunt-response are overnight ICP monitoring, infusion studies, and extended lumbar drainage (ELD). We investigated the shunt-response predictive value by infusion tests versus ELD.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively recruited 83 patients who had undergone both infusion study and ELD assessments and compared infusion study hydrodynamics with improvement at clinic follow-up after ELD and after shunting.

Results: 62 patients had Rout >11 mmHg/mL/min. 28 Showed physiotherapy-documented improvement following ELD, and were selected for shunting, of which 21 were shunted. Of these, 19 showed improvement. Eight patients with Rout >20 mmHg/mL/min showed no response to ELD and were not shunted.There were 21 patients with Rout <11 mmHg/mL/min: five were shunted, showed improvement at follow-up, and had Rout >6 mmHg/mL/min. ICP amplitude did not differ at baseline or plateau between responders and non-responders.

Conclusions: ELD response and CSF dynamics differed remarkably. All patients with Rout <6 mmHg/mL/min showed no improvement with ELD, indicating that ELD and shunting might be contraindicated in these subjects. High Rout patients with no response to ELD could merit further consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59436-7_68DOI Listing
June 2021

Global Cerebral Autoregulation, Resistance to Cerebrospinal Fluid Outflow and Cerebrovascular Burden in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:349-353

Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: We previously examined the relationship between global autoregulation pressure reactivity index (PRx), mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), Resistance to cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) outflow (Rout) and their possible effects on outcome after surgery on 83 shunted patients. In this study, we aimed to quantify the relationship between all parameters that influence Rout, their interaction with the cerebral vasculature, and their role in shunt prognostication.

Methods: From 423 patients having undergone infusion tests for possible NPH, we selected those with monitored ABP and calculated its mean and PRx. After shunting, 6 months patients' outcome was marked using a simple scale (improvement, temporary improvement, and no improvement). We explored the relationship between age, different CSF dynamics variables, and vascular parameters using multivariable models.

Results: Rout had a weaker predictive value than ABP (Fisher Discrimination Ratio of 0.02 versus 0.42). ABP > 98 was an independent predictor of shunt outcome with odd ratio 6.4, 95% CI: 1.8-23.4 and p-value = 0.004. There was a strong and significant relationship between the interaction of age, PRx, ABP, and Rout (R = 0.53 with p = 7.28 × 10). Using our linear model, we achieved an AUC 86.4% (95% CI: 80.5-92.3%) in detecting shunt respondents. The overall sensitivity was 94%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 54%, and negative predictive value of 97%.

Conclusion: In patients with low Rout and high cerebrovascular burden, as described by high ABP and disturbed global autoregulation, response to shunting is less likely. The low PPV of high resistance, preserved autoregulation and absence of hypertension could merit further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59436-7_67DOI Listing
June 2021

Differences in Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Versus Atrophy, Including Effect of Decompression and Cranioplasty.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:343-347

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: Challenges in diagnosing post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) have created a need for an accurate diagnostic tool. We aim to report CSF dynamics in PTH and atrophy, along with differences before and after cranioplasty.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed traumatic brain injury patients with ventriculomegaly who had infusion studies. We divided patients depending on CSF dynamics into two groups: 'likely PTH' (A) and 'likely atrophy' (B). A group of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus shunt-responsive patients was used for comparison (C).

Results: Group A consisted of 36 patients who were non-decompressed or had a cranioplasty in situ for over 1 month. Group B included 16 patients with low Rout, AMP, and dAMP, 9 of whom were decompressed. Rout and dAMP were significantly higher in Group A than B, but significantly lower than Group C (45 iNPH patients). RAP change during infusion in group A indicated depleted compensatory reserve compared to ample reserve in group B. Repeat studies in five decompressed patients post-cranioplasty showed all parameters increased.

Conclusions: Infusion tests are not useful in decompressed patients, whilst cranioplasty allowed differentiation between possible PTH and atrophy. Rout and AMP were significantly lower in PTH compared to iNPH and did not always reflect the degree of hydrocephalus reported on imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59436-7_66DOI Listing
June 2021

Single Center Experience in Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics Testing.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:311-313

Division of Neurosurgery, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Normal pressure hydrocephalus is more complex than a simple disturbance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. Nevertheless, an assessment of CSF dynamics is key to making decisions about shunt insertion, shunt malfunction, and for further management if a patient fails to improve. We summarize our 25 years of single center experience in CSF dynamics assessment using pressure measurement and analysis. 4473 computerized infusion tests have been performed. We have shown that CSF infusion studies are safe, with incidence of infection at less than 1%. Raised resistance to CSF outflow positively correlates (p < 0.014) with improvement after shunting and is associated with disturbance of cerebral blood flow and its autoregulation (p < 0.02). CSF infusion studies are valuable in assessing possible shunt malfunction in vivo and for avoiding unnecessary revisions. Infusion tests are safe and provide useful information for clinical decision-making for the management of patients suffering from hydrocephalus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59436-7_58DOI Listing
June 2021

Lower Breakpoint of Intracranial Amplitude-Pressure Relationship in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:307-309

Academic Neurosurgery, Cambridge University Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

The relationship between intracranial pulse amplitude (AMP) and mean intracranial pressure (ICP) has been previously described. Generally, AMP increases proportionally to rises in ICP. However, at low ICP a lower breakpoint (LB) of amplitude-pressure relationship can be observed, below which pulse amplitude stays constant when ICP varies. Theoretically, below this breakpoint, the pressure-volume relationship is linear (good compensatory reserve, brain compliance stays constant); above the breakpoint, it is exponential (brain compliance decreases with rising ICP).Infusion tests performed in 169 patients diagnosed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) during the period 2004-2013 were available for analysis. A lower breakpoint was observed in 62 patients diagnosed for iNPH. Improvement after shunt surgery in patients in whom LB was recorded was 77% versus 90% in patients where LB was absent (p < 0.02). There was no correlation between improvement and slope of amplitude-pressure line above LB.The detection of a lower breakpoint is associated with less frequent improvement after shunting in NPH. It may be interpreted that cerebrospinal fluid dynamics of patients working on the flat part of the pressure-volume curve and having a 'luxurious' compensatory reserve, are more frequently caused by brain atrophy, which is obviously not responding to shunting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59436-7_57DOI Listing
June 2021

Errors and Consequences of Inaccurate Estimation of Mean Blood Flow Velocity in Cerebral Arteries.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:23-25

Brain Physics Laboratory, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Many transcranial Doppler ultrasonography devices estimate the mean flow velocity (FVm) by using the traditional formula (FVsystolic + 2 × FVdiastolic)/3 instead of a more accurate formula calculating it as the time integral of the current flow velocities divided by the integration period. We retrospectively analyzed flow velocity and intracranial pressure signals containing plateau waves (transient intracranial hypertension), which were collected from 14 patients with a traumatic brain injury. The differences in FVm and its derivative pulsatility index (PI) calculated with the two different methods were determined. We found that during plateau waves, when the intracranial pressure (ICP) rose, the error in FVm and PI increased significantly from the baseline to the plateau (from 4.6 ± 2.4 to 9.8 ± 4.9 cm/s, P < 0.05). Similarly, the error in PI also increased during plateau waves (from 0.11 ± 0.07 to 0.44 ± 0.24, P < 0.005). These effects were most likely due to changes in the pulse waveform during increased ICP, which alter the relationship between systolic, diastolic, and mean flow velocities. If a change in the mean ICP is expected, then calculation of FVm with the traditional formula is not recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59436-7_5DOI Listing
June 2021

Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in non-acute post-traumatic ventriculomegaly.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2020 Mar 30;17(1):24. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is potentially under-diagnosed and under-treated, generating the need for a more efficient diagnostic tool. We aim to report CSF dynamics of patients with post-traumatic ventriculomegaly.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analysed post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with ventriculomegaly who had undergone a CSF infusion test. We calculated the resistance to CSF outflow (Rout), AMP (pulse amplitude of intracranial pressure, ICP), dAMP (AMPplateau-AMPbaseline) and compensatory reserve index correlation coefficient between ICP and AMP (RAP). To avoid confounding factors, included patients had to be non-decompressed or with cranioplasty > 1 month previously and Rout > 6 mmHg/min/ml. Compliance was assessed using the elasticity coefficient. We also compared infusion-tested TBI patients selected for shunting versus those not selected for shunting (consultant decision based on clinical and radiological assessment and the infusion results). Finally, we used data from a group of shunted idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for comparison.

Results: Group A consisted of 36 patients with post-traumatic ventriculomegaly and Group B of 45 iNPH shunt responders. AMP and dAMP were significantly lower in Group A than B (0.55 ± 0.39 vs 1.02 ± 0.72; p < 0.01 and 1.58 ± 1.21 vs 2.76 ± 1.5; p < 0.01. RAP baseline was not significantly different between the two. Elasticity was higher than the normal limit in all groups (average 0.18 1/ml). Significantly higher Rout was present in those with probable PTH selected for shunting compared with unshunted. Mild/moderate hydrocephalus, ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly/encephalomalacia were inconsistently reported in PTH patients.

Conclusions: Rout and AMP were significantly lower in PTH compared to iNPH and did not always reflect the degree of hydrocephalus or atrophy reported on CT/MRI. Compliance appears reduced in PTH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-020-00184-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106631PMC
March 2020

Influence of mild-moderate hypocapnia on intracranial pressure slow waves activity in TBI.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 02 16;162(2):345-356. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Brain Physics Laboratory, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the patterns of intracranial pressure (ICP) waveforms may reflect pathological processes that ultimately lead to unfavorable outcome. In particular, ICP slow waves (sw) (0.005-0.05 Hz) magnitude and complexity have been shown to have positive association with favorable outcome. Mild-moderate hypocapnia is currently used for short periods to treat critical elevations in ICP. Our goals were to assess changes in the ICP sw activity occurring following sudden onset of mild-moderate hypocapnia and to examine the relationship between changes in ICP sw activity and other physiological variables during the hypocapnic challenge.

Methods: ICP, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and bilateral middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (FV), were prospectively collected in 29 adult severe TBI patients requiring ICP monitoring and mechanical ventilation in whom a minute volume ventilation increase (15-20% increase in respiratory minute volume) was performed as part of a clinical CO-reactivity test. The time series were first treated using FFT filter (pass-band set to 0.005-0.05 Hz). Power spectral density analysis was performed. We calculated the following: mean value, standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation in the time domain; total power and frequency centroid in the frequency domain; cerebrospinal compliance (Ci) and compensatory reserve index (RAP).

Results: Hypocapnia led to a decrease in power and increase in frequency centroid and entropy of slow waves in ICP and FV (not ABP). In a multiple linear regression model, RAP at the baseline was the strongest predictor for the decrease in the power of ICP slow waves (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In severe TBI patients, a sudden mild-moderate hypocapnia induces a decrease in mean ICP and FV, but also in slow waves power of both signals. At the same time, it increases their higher frequency content and their morphological complexity. The difference in power of the ICP slow waves between the baseline and the hypocapnia period depends on the baseline cerebrospinal compensatory reserve as measured by RAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-04118-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982632PMC
February 2020