Publications by authors named "Afagh Moattari"

34 Publications

Novel single-chain antibodies against highly conserved epitopes in the hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses: Promising agents for universal therapies.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Jan;24(1):17-23

Recombinant Antibody Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: Development of new antibodies with broad activity would provide anti-influenza prophylaxis and treatment. Human single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) are considered effective agents against viruses. In this study specific human scFvs against highly conserved epitopes in the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A viruses were selected and their neutralizing activity was evaluated.

Materials And Methods: Bioinformatic methods were used to evaluate HA epitopes. The panning process selected specific clones from a scFv library. PCR and DNA fingerprinting differentiated the common patterns. Soluble forms of scFvs were produced and evaluated using Western blot analysis. The neutralizing effects of anti-HA scFvs were assessed by microneutralization assay using MDCK cells. Real-time PCR was done to determine the exact copy number of the virus following neutralization.

Results: Bioinformatic evaluation confirmed the antigenicity and accessibility of the epitopes. Four specific anti-HA scFvs, scFvs I, II, I', and II' were selected. The scFvs neutralized 2009 H1N1 pandemic and 83.34%, 79.17%, 75%, and 62.5% reduction in the virus titers were obtained following treatments with scFv-II', I, I', and II, respectively. Real-time PCR demonstrated 98.6%, 95.7%, 95.26%, and 91.19% reductions in virus numbers following neutralization with scFv-II', I, I', and II, respectively.

Conclusion: Anti-HA scFvs selected against highly conserved HA of influenza A virus with high neutralizing effects, offer novel human antibodies for prophylaxis and treatment of a wide range of influenza viruses including different subtypes of H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza A virus. The antibodies have the potential to be used for universal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2020.43508.10219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894632PMC
January 2021

Investigation Genetic variation of Neuraminidase gene in Influenza virus A H1N1/pdm09, Shiraz, Iran (2015-2016).

J Med Virol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Master of Science, Department of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Shiraz, Iran.

Oseltamivir and antiviral agents are frequently used for the prevention and treatment of influenza infection. However, resistance to oseltamivir has been reported globally due to a mutation in the Influenza virus neuraminidase gene. Such resistance will be detected by genotyping and phenotyping studies of viral isolates. The recent study aimed to determine the genetic mutation of neuraminidase gene in Influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated from children referred to Shiraz tertiary hospitals during one year (2015-2016) with influenza-like symptoms. A total of 300 patients were registered and throat samples were taken. The throat swabs were used for viral RNA extraction. Detection of Influenza A (H1N1) was performed using the one-step real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. From positive isolates for H1N1, 51 random samples were evaluated for neuraminidase gene mutation with the nested PCR-sequencing method. Of 300 cases, 102(34%) isolates were detected as influenza A(H1N1) pdm09. Based on sequencing results, 2 of 44 sequenced isolates exhibited H275Y substitution, which presented oseltamivir resistance. In comparison with reference strain, the phylogenetic analysis of sequenced isolates was classified in genogroup 6B. While this result is the first report of emerging oseltamivir-resistant in the southwest of Iran, it is highly recommended to perform these evaluations on the different geographical regions in any prevalence area to plan treatment strategies for Influenza. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26894DOI Listing
February 2021

The Inflammatory and Fibrotic Patterns of Hepatic Stellate Cells Following Coagulation Factors (VII or X)-Shielded Adenovirus Infection.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Feb 7;78(2):718-726. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The role of coagulation factors on the inflammatory effect of adenovirus (Ad) is an unresolved question that was considered herein. Adenovirus-36(Ad36) and adenovector-5-GFP(Ad5-GFP) were prepared; then, they were loaded with VII or FX factors. The size/charge parameters and transduction efficiency were evaluated using fluorescent microscopy and Zetasizer, respectively. The Ad36-coagulation factor complexes were added on the stellate cells, LX-2. Thereafter, the expression levels of inflammatory and fibrotic genes including PKR, IL-1β, TNF-α, TIMP-1, collagen, and TGF-β were measured by qPCR and ELISA assays. The loading of FVII or FX factors not only increased the size/charge of Ad5-GFP but also enhanced the transduction rate up to 60% and 75%, respectively, compared to the controls (45%). The PKR expression analysis showed an upregulation following treatment with all Ad36 forms (P = 0.0152). The IL-1β and TNF-α cytokines analyses demonstrated that the Ad36-FVII complex elicited the highest inflammatory response (P = 0.05). Similarly, the fibrosis-related expression analysis revealed a more inductive role of FVII when loaded on Ad36, compared to the FX factor. The findings suggested that adenovirus elicited the innate inflammatory and activation state in the hepatic stellate cell. In addition, adenovirus shielded by FVII exhibited more innate inflammation as well as activation of the stellate cells than the FX-loaded virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02297-5DOI Listing
February 2021

The superior role of coagulation factor FX over FVII in adenoviral-mediated innate immune induction of the hepatocyte: an experiment.

Clin Exp Hepatol 2020 Sep 30;6(3):199-206. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aim Of The Study: To better understanding the contribution of coagulation factors to the extent of adenovirus-mediated innate toxicity on the hepatocyte.

Material And Methods: Adenovirus-36 (AD) and adenovector type 5-GFP (Ad5-GFP) were propagated and titered; then, they were loaded with coagulation factors VII or X. The complex of adenovirus with coagulation factor VII and X were for size and charge parameters. After adding AD-VII and AD-X complexes, the expression levels of innate inflammatory genes including protein kinase R (PKR), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and IL-18 were measured by Real-time PCR on a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2.

Results: The loading of coagulation factors VII and X on Ad5-GFP enhanced the transduction rate up to 50% and 60% ( < 0.05), respectively, compared to the adenovector alone (30%) ( < 0.05). The formation of the coagulation factor-virus complex leads to multimodal size distribution with an increase in average hydrodynamic size and absolute zeta potential. The qPCR results showed that PKR expression increased significantly after treatment with all adenoviruses. These findings also showed that AD had a significant ( = 0.0152) inflammatory impact on Hep-G2. However, AD which was loaded with FX (AD-X) exhibited the most inflammatory effect ( = 0.0164). Significantly, the expression of IL-1β ( = 0.0041), IL-8 ( = 0.0107) and IL-18 ( = 0.0193) were also enhanced following FX loading. On the other hand, the AD-VII complex showed the least effect of innate immune induction when compared to the negative control ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The loading of coagulation factors, particularly FX, could enhance the transduction efficiency of Ad5-GFP. Furthermore, adenovirus loaded with FX exhibited more innate toxicity on the hepatocytes, while it was not the case for FVII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2020.99512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592097PMC
September 2020

Association of Human Papilloma Virus and Epstein-Barr Virus with Ovarian Cancer in Shiraz, Southwestern Iran.

Iran J Pathol 2020 16;15(4):292-298. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background & Objective: Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancers amongst women. The association of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with ovarian cancer is inconclusive; therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of HPV and EBV in malignant, borderline, benign and normal ovarian tissues.

Methods: In this case-control study, 205 Paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue specimens including 68 malignant, 27 borderline, 65 benign, and 45 normal tissues were included from December 2014 to January 2018 and subjected to DNA extraction. The β-globin gene was amplified using PCR to confirm the quality of the extracted DNA. The genomes of HPV (genotypes 16 and 18) and EBV were identified, using specific primers by PCR.

Results: The mean age of participants was 43.42 ± 15.4 years. The frequency of HPV was statistically significant between malignant versus benign (=0.02) and control groups (=0.002), but not with borderline tumor group (=0.78). Amongst HPV infected samples, 1 (4.5%) and 14 (63.6%) samples were infected with types 16 and 18, respectively. Also 4 (18.2 %) samples were infected with both genotypes. Eleven samples including 7(10.3%) malignant, 1 (3.7%) borderline, 3 (4.6%) benign and none (0%) of normal control groups were infected with EBV, which was statistically different between malignant and the normal control group (=0.03).

Conclusion: The results of our study showed the possible role of high risk HPVs as well as EBV in pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, and further studies are recommended to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/ijp.2020.119681.2306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477684PMC
July 2020

In silico functional and structural characterization of hepatitis B virus PreS/S-gene in Iranian patients infected with chronic hepatitis B virus genotype D.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 15;6(7):e04332. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Health Research Institute, and Department of Virology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Objective: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is the most prevalent chronic liver disease and has become a serious threat to human health. In this study, we attempted to specify and predict several properties including physicochemical, mutation sites, B-cell epitopes, phosphorylation sites, N-link, O-link glycosylation sites, and protein structures of S protein isolated from Ahvaz.

Materials And Methods: Initially, hepatitis B virus DNA ( DNA) was extracted from five sera samples of untreated chronic hepatitis B patients. The full-length genomes were amplified and then cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector. The full sequences of were registered in the GenBank with accessions numbers (MK355500), (MK355501) and (MK693107-9). PROTSCALE, Expasy's ProtParam, immuneepitope, ABCpred, BcePred, Bepipred, Algpred, VaxiJen, SCRATCH, DiANNA, plus a number of online analytical processing tools were used to analyse and predict the gene of genotype sequences. The present study is the first analytical research on samples obtained from Ahvaz.

Results: We found major hydrophilic region (MHR) mutations at "a" determining region that included and mutations. Moreover, Ahvaz sequences revealed four sites (4, 112, 166, and 309) in the gene for N-glycosylation that could possibly be a potential target for anti- therapy.

Conclusion: In the present study, mutations were identified at positions T113S and N131T within the MHR region of S protein; these mutations can potentially decrease the effect of hepatitis B vaccination in vaccine recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365991PMC
July 2020

Evaluation of the effect of hydro alcoholic extract of cinnamon on herpes simplex virus-1.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2020 Mar-Apr;17(2):114-119. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Long-term treatments of herpes simplex with drugs such as acyclovir, the side effects to such drugs including limited usage during the lactation period, and concerns for the emergence of drug-resistant strains have given rise to a need for new medications with fewer complications. Nowadays, there is an increasing usage of herbal medicines throughout the world due to their higher effectiveness and safety. The present study aims to assess the effects of hydroalcoholic cinnamon extract on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in culture with vero cells.

Materials And Methods: In this study Hydroalcoholic extract of cinnamon was extracted through percolation. To assess cell survival rates, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was employed, and the tissue culture infective dose 50 assay was used to quantify the virus. Effects of the extract were evaluated in three stages, including before, during, and after viral inoculation into the culture medium. Two-way ANOVA and analysis the test was performed in 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/ml concentrations of cinnamon extract in every stage ( < 0.05).

Results: Over 50% of the cells survived in the 0.25 mg/ml extract concentration. Results of our viral quantification showed a viral load of 10. The cinnamon extract was able to reduce the viral titer in all concentrations under study.

Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of cinnamon was effective in reducing the viral titer of HSV-1. This effect could have been caused by prevention of viral attachment to cells; however, further research is required to determine the exact mechanisms at play.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224267PMC
March 2020

PCR Detection of HHV8 DNA in the Saliva of Removable Denture Wearers Compared to Dentate Cases in Shiraz, South of Iran.

Biomed Res Int 2020 15;2020:9358947. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Microbiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Result: In the denture wearers, HHV8 DNA was detected in 11 cases. Two of the controls amplified HHV8 DNA. Fisher's exact test demonstrates a significant difference between virus infection and using removable dentures ( = 0.015).

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that HHV8 detection could be associated with use of denture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9358947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182977PMC
February 2021

Possibility of BKV-Associated Nephropathy in Hospitalized Burn Patients.

J Burn Care Res 2020 05;41(3):593-597

Microbiology Department, Burn & Wound Healing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Although renal failure in burn patients results from some defined reasons, there are various causes which are still unclear. BK virus is a human polyomavirus, which, in case of reactivation, can cause late-onset renal dysfunction and cystitis among immunodeficient patients such as transplant, pregnant, diabetic, and HIV patients. Regarding the related challenges, Polyomavirus BK (BKV), as a ubiquitous virus, is considered as one of the potential threats in the occurrence of Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PAN). Hypovolemia, occurring due to the weakness of the immune system, may be regarded as the major reason for the possibility of PAN as a risk factor in burn patients. Accordingly, this study was designed to evaluate the reactivation of BKV as a probable risk factor for renal failure or a problem in the future life of burn patients. This case-control study was conducted from October 2014 to September 2016, during which 270 patients were admitted to the burn unit. The patients were divided into two groups of case and control according to the inclusion criteria, and 20 patients were assigned to each group. The serum samples were first assessed for BKV-IgG and then were quantified by specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for BKV load. Positive samples were assessed for changes in noncoding regulatory region (NCRR) compared to Archetype strain by PCR sequencing method. Amplified sequences were analyzed for NCRR arrangement while the reactivation was assessed through these changes in NCRR. In both groups, patients were seropositive for BKV-IgG. Eight patients (40%) in the case group and two patients (10%) in the control group were found to be positive for BKV DNA with a load of ≥1000 and ≥100 copies/ml, respectively. There was a significant association between BKV DNA and kidney injury in the case group. The NCRR of DNA-positive samples had a large rearrangement compared to standard strain, but they showed relatively high similarity. Compared with other patients, burn patients are among the most susceptible ones to PAN, which can be considered as a major risk factor in the treatment of burn patients and optimizing their therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irz209DOI Listing
May 2020

Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Southern Iran.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Jul 29;52:e20180249. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Prevalence of influenza A virus (Flu-A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was assessed in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs).

Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirates and throat swabs were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect RSV and Flu-A and to conventional PCR to detect hMPV.

Results: Of the 156 children assessed, 93 (59.6%) carried at least one virus, with 35.9% positive for RSV, 14.1% for hMPV, and 9.6% for Flu-A. The prevalence of co-infections was 2.6%.

Conclusions: The high detection rate may reflect increased sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to traditional PCR and viral culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0249-2018DOI Listing
July 2019

Risk of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Oct 19;125:6-10. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Bacteriology & Virology Department, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: Two third of children in the world experience otitis media with effusion (OME) at least once in their life. According to the importance of knowing OME reason in pediatrics, beside introduced probable bacterial and viral causal agents, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated either.

Methods: In this study, 42 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples were collected from pediatrics who confirmed OME by an ears, nose and throat (ENT) specialist. Samples were cultured on bacteriological media for bacterial growth and were either extracted for total DNA and RNA to be tested for introduced bacterial and viral agents with simple and Reverse Transcriptase PCR method within specific primers.

Results: Total results from culture and molecular methods showed that the most prevalent infections were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and streptococcus pneumonia with 33.33% and 14.29% respectively. In total, 66.67% of patients were infected with bacteria, 11.9% with test viruses while in 21.42% of patients no infectious agents were detected. Influenza type A was the only virus was detected.

Conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most prevalent agent while mostly detected in patients who were referred from the tropical and humid region. According to these results, it is highly recommended to know the pattern of OME infection in each area separately for more successful treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.06.017DOI Listing
October 2019

Analysis of TLR7, SOCS1 and ISG15 immune genes expression in the peripheral blood of responder and non-responder patients with chronic Hepatitis C.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2017 ;10(4):272-277

Department of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aim: To evaluate the baseline expression of the immune genes in PBMCs of responder and non-responder patients with chronic Hepatitis C.

Background: Although the contribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression in treatment outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is supposed, it has remained to be distinctly delineated. The baseline expression of the immune genes inside PBMCs may reflect the responsiveness status following IFN treatment.

Methods: Totally, 22 chronic HCV encompasses 10 responders and 12 non-responsive cases enrolled randomly regarding medical records. The PBMCs from the peripheral blood samples were isolated and then incubated for 6 hours in the culture media. The baseline expression of TLR7, SOCS1 and ISG15 was measured by Real time PCR.

Results: The gene expression pattern in PBMCs of both groups showed a similar trend. The expression of SOCS1 and TLR7 genes showed higher levels in non-responder group (P>0.05). The result of ISG15 showed a higher but non-significant expression in the responder group (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The similar pattern of TLR7, SOCS1 and ISG15 expression in the responder and non-responder patients indicated their poor discriminating and predictive value in PBMCs sample.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758734PMC
January 2017

Characterization of the neuraminidase genes from human influenza A viruses circulating in Iran from 2010 to 2015.

Arch Virol 2018 Feb 31;163(2):391-400. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Characterization of influenza viruses is critical for detection of new emerging variants. Herein, we analyzed the genetic diversity and drug susceptibility of the neuraminidase gene (NAs) expressed by influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Iran from 2010 to 2015.

Methods: We genetically analyzed the NAs of 38 influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and 35 A/H3N2 isolates.

Results: The Iranian A/H1N1pdm09 viruses belonged to seven genogroups/subgenogroups, with the dominant groups being genogroups 6B and 6C. The A/H3N2 isolates fell into six gneogroups/subgenogroups, with the dominant genogroups being 3C and 3C.2a. The most common mutations detected among the A/H1N1pdm09 viruses included N44S, V106I, N200S, and N248D. All H1N1pdm09 viruses were genetically susceptible to the NAIs. However, one A/H1N1pdm09 virus from the 2013-2014 season possessed an NA-S247N mutation, which reduces the susceptibility to oseltamivir. In case of H3N2, none of the analyzed Iranian strains carried a substitution that might affect its susceptibility to NAIs.

Conclusion: The ongoing evolution of influenza viruses and the detect of influenza viruses with reduced susceptibility to NAIs warrants continuous monitoring of the circulating strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-017-3603-yDOI Listing
February 2018

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human influenza A viruses isolated in Iran during the 2014-2015 season.

Arch Virol 2017 Jul 22;162(7):1975-1984. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Influenza A viruses are an important cause of severe infectious diseases in humans and are characterized by their fast evolution rate. Global monitoring of these viruses is critical to detect newly emerging variants during annual epidemics. Here, we sought to genetically characterize influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses collected in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season. A total of 200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illnesses. Swabs were screened for influenza A and B using real-time PCR. Furthermore, positive specimens with high virus load underwent virus isolation and genetic characterization of their hemagglutinin (HA) and M genes. Of the 200 specimens, 80 were influenza A-positive, including 44 A/H1N1pdm09 and 36 A/H3N2, while 18 were influenza B-positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the A/H1N1pdm09 viruses revealed the circulation of clade 6C, characterized by amino acid substitutions D97N, V234I and K283E. Analysis of the A/H3N2 viruses showed a genetic drift from the vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 with 5 mutations (T128A, R142G, N145S, P198S and S219F) belonging to the antigenic sites A, B, and D of the HA protein. The A/H3N2 viruses belonged to phylogenetic clades 3C.2 and 3C.3. The M gene trees of the Iranian A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 mirrored the clustering patterns of their corresponding HA trees. Our results reveal co-circulation of several influenza A virus strains in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-017-3323-3DOI Listing
July 2017

Antiviral activity of the oseltamivir and Melissa officinalis L. essential oil against avian influenza A virus (H9N2).

Virusdisease 2016 Jun 21;27(2):170-8. Epub 2016 May 21.

Central Research Laboratory, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Lemon balm derivatives are going to acquire a novelty as natural and potent remedy for treatment of viral infections since the influenza viruses are developing resistance to the current antivirals widely. Oseltamivir, Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) and their synergistic efficacy against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 were evaluated in vitro in MDCK cells at different time exposure by using TCID50, HA, Real Time PCR and HI assay. The results showed that MOEO could inhibit replication of AVI through the different virus replication phase (P ≤ 0.05). Also the highest antiviral activity of MOEO was seen when AIV incubated with MOEO before cell infection. The TCID50/ml was reduced 1.3-2.1, 2.3-2.8, 3.7-4.5 log 10 than control group (5.6 log 10), HAU/50 µl was decreased 85-94, 71.4-94, 71.4-94 % and viral genome copy number/µl was brought down 68-95, 90-100, 89.6-99.9 % at pre-infection, post-infection and simultaneous stage, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition result showed the MOEO was not able to inhibit agglutination of the chicken red blood cell (cRBC). Replication of the AVI was suppressed by the different concentration of oseltamivir completely or near 100 %. Also oseltamivir showed a synergistic activity with MOEO especially when oseltamivir concentration reduced under 0.005 mg/ml. The chemical composition was examined by GC-MS analysis and Its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b. In conclusion, the findings of the study showed that lemon balm essential oil could inhibit influenza virus replication through different replication cycle steps especially throughout the direct interaction with the virus particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-016-0321-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4908999PMC
June 2016

In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection.

Int J Biomater 2016 3;2016:8527849. Epub 2016 May 3.

School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n = 10 per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8527849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4868898PMC
May 2016

Noncoding Control Region Pattern of BK polyomavirus in Kidney Transplant Patients With Nephropathy.

Exp Clin Transplant 2017 04 30;15(2):150-156. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

>From the Department of Microbiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran.

Objectives: Adaptation of BK polyomavirus with infected host cells may cause rearrangement of the noncoding control region of viral genomic DNA. Archetype, the prearranged transmissible form of the virus, actively replicates in the tubular epithelial cells, whereas isolates with rearranged noncoding control region sequences are found in other parts of the kidney. Clinical observations highlighted the importance of the noncoding control region rearrangements in BK virus-associated nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated the sequence pattern of the noncoding control region in kidney transplant patients suspected of having BK virus-associated nephropathy.

Materials And Methods: In this single-center, cross-sectional study, 129 kidney transplant patients suspected of having BK virus-associated nephropathy and who were admitted to Namazi Hospital were enrolled for analysis between years 2010 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from each patient. The BK polyomavirus infection was diagnosed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The BK polyomavirus-infected patient plasma samples were amplified using in-house nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The contiguous alignment noncoding control region sequences were analyzed with software.

Results: The BK polyomavirus infection was observed in plasma samples of 11 of 129 (8.5%) patients after kidney transplant. Sequence alignments showed that BK polyomavirus noncoding control region sequences in all viral infected patients with BK virus-associated nephropathy showed a complete rearranged algorithm compared with the archetype sequences. The most prevalent noncoding control region sequences were registered in a genetic sequence database (National Institutes of Health). No association was observed between risk factors and BK polyomavirus infection. There were 3 BK polyomavirus-infected patients who simultaneously had active cytomegalovirus infection.

Conclusions: Determination of the rearranged pattern of the noncoding control region sequences in BK polyomavirus isolates from plasma samples may help improve the diagnostic and therapeutic protocols against this viral infection in patients with BK virus-associated nephropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2014.0230DOI Listing
April 2017

Prevalence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Resistant to Oseltamivir in Shiraz, Iran, During 2012 - 2013.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Aug 29;8(8):e23690. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Oseltamivir has been used as a drug of choice for the prophylaxis and treatment of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection across the world. However, the most frequently identified oseltamivir resistant virus, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, exhibit the H275Y substitution in NA gene.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogenetic relationships of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Shiraz, Iran.

Patients And Methods: Throat swab samples were collected from 200 patients with influenza-like disease from December 2012 until February 2013. A total of 77 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive strains were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Oseltamivir resistance was detected using quantal assay and nested-PCR method. The NA gene sequencing was conducted to detect oseltamivir-resistant mutants and establish the phylogeny of the prevalent influenza variants.

Results: Our results revealed that A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses present in these samples were susceptible to oseltamivir, and contained 5 site specific mutations (V13G, V106I, V241I, N248D, and N369K) in NA gene. These mutations correlated with increasing expression and enzymatic activity of NA protein in the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which were closely related to a main influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cluster isolated around the world.

Conclusions: A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, identified in this study in Shiraz, Iran, contained 5 site specific mutations and were susceptible to oseltamivir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.23690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600350PMC
August 2015

Antigenic Variation of the Haemagglutinin Gene of the Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 Virus Circulating in Shiraz, February-April 2013.

Iran J Immunol 2015 Sep;12(3):198-208

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, e-mail:

Background: A new pandemic influenza A (H1N1) emerged in April 2009, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Since mutations in the haemagglutinin (HA) may influence the antigenicity and pathogenicity of the virus, continued epidemiological and molecular characterization for the effective control of pandemic flu and developing of more appropriate vaccine is crucial.

Objective: To monitor the molecular evolution of A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses in a specific time period in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

Methods: A total of 200 samples were collected from February-April 2013. HA gene of the isolates was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene was performed.

Results: Out of 200 samples, a total of 77 (38.5%) samples were confirmed as A (H1N1) pdm09 virus using Real-time PCR method. Nucleotide similarity of our study strains with respect to reference strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) was 97.5%-98.5%. Phylogenetic analysis of our study strains indicated that the dominant A (H1N1) pdm09 clade was clade 7 and the dominant genetic group in circulating strains in Shiraz was genetic group 6. Some of our study strains showed substitutions at or in the vicinity of the antigenic sites of the HA1 region which may affect the efficacy of the vaccine.

Conclusion: Our study strains showed a high homology to the vaccine strain. Our findings confirm the genetic variability of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and highlight the necessity of continuous molecular study of the virus for effective management of influenza.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv12i3A5DOI Listing
September 2015

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates in Shiraz, Iran.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2015 Jul-Aug;48(4):479-82

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding CTX-M gene in Escherichia coliisolates.

Methods: Phenotypic screening of 376 E. coli isolates for ESBL was conducted using disk diffusion. ESBL-producing isolates were tested using PCR and specific primers. The bla(CTX-M) cluster was identified using the RFLP method, and its genotype was sequenced.

Results: From 202 ESBL-producing E. coli , 185 (91.5%) possessed CTX-M genes. CTX-M-1 subtypes were found in 98% of the isolates. The bla(CTX-M) gene was identical to CTX-M-15.

Conclusions: A high prevalence of CTX-M-1-producing E. coli apparently exists in Shiraz, Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0315-2014DOI Listing
January 2016

The Impact of IFN-γ Gene Polymorphisms on Spontaneous Clearance of HCV Infection in Fars Province, Southern of Iran.

J Clin Lab Anal 2016 Jul 20;30(4):301-7. Epub 2015 May 20.

Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Certain polymorphisms in cytokine genes such as IFN-γ may influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here the frequency of the genotype, allele, and haplotype of IFN-γ gene at some loci is investigated in HCV-infected patients.

Methods: Totally 255 patients with chronic HCV infection and 44 spontaneously cleared individuals were included. The chronic or clearance states were confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and two different qualitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. IFN-γ gene polymorphisms were performed by PCR using sequence-specific primers and PCR-RLFP on extracted genomic DNA.

Results: The frequency of GG genotype (P = 0.0001, OR: 5.69 and CI: 2.21-14.62) and allele (P = 0.0003, OR: 2.73 and CI: 1.54-4.83) of IFN-γ gene at +2109 locus was significantly higher in cases that spontaneously cleared the infection. Haplotype analysis showed the association of AG haplotype (P = 0.0046, OR = 6.14 and CI = 1.56-25) with spontaneous clearance of the infection.

Conclusion: Our finding indicated that individuals with GG genotype at +2109 loci of IFN-γ gene and also AG haplotype (A allele at +874 loci and G allele at +2109 loci) may clear HCV infection more frequently than those with AA and AG genotype at +2109 loci and AA, TA, and TG haplotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.21855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6806688PMC
July 2016

The antibacterial effect of four mouthwashes against streptococcus mutans and escherichia coli.

J Pak Med Assoc 2015 Apr;65(4):350-3

Dentist, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of several mouthwash concentrations on oral Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli.

Methods: The study was conducted at Shiraz Medicine School in 2011. Serial dilutions of Chlorohexidin, Oral B and Persica and Irsha (2,4,8,16,64,128) were prepared in Muller-Hinton media. Minimum inhibitory concentration was visually determined and defined as the lowest concentration of each oral washing which inhibited > 95% growth reduction compared to the growth control well.

Results: Chlorhexidine, Oral B and Irsha mouthwash inhibited Streptococcus mutans even with diluted concentrations. Also, Chlorhexidine and Oral B prohibited Escherichia coli with different potencies. But Persica had no antimicrobial activity against either Escherichia coli or Streptococcus mutans.

Conclusions: Chlorhexidine, Irsha, and Oral B mouthwashes can be used for antimicrobial effects, especially on Streptococcus mutans. This chemical activity of mouthwashes is an adjuvant for mechanical removing of plaque. However, the antimicrobial effect of Persicaremains controversial.
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April 2015

In Silico Functional and Structural Characterization of H1N1 Influenza A Viruses Hemagglutinin, 2010-2013, Shiraz, Iran.

Acta Biotheor 2015 Jun 12;63(2):183-202. Epub 2015 May 12.

Influenza Research Center, Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 71348-45794, Shiraz, Iran,

Hemagglutinin (HA) is a major virulence factor of influenza viruses and plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. Analysis of amino acid changes, epitopes' regions, glycosylation and phosphorylation sites have greatly contributed to the development of new generations of vaccine. The hemagglutinins of 10 selected isolates, 8 of 2010 and 2 of 2013 samples were sequenced and analyzed by several bioinformatic softwares and the results were compared with those of 3 vaccine isolates. The study detected several amino acid changes related to altered epitopes' sites, modification sites and physico-chemical properties. The results showed some conserved modification sites in HA structure. This study is the first analytical research on isolates obtained from Shiraz, Iran, and our results can be used to better understand the genetic diversity and antigenic variations in Iranian and Asian H1N1 pathogenic strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10441-015-9260-1DOI Listing
June 2015

In vitro comparison of cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of 16 commercial toothpastes.

J Int Oral Health 2015 Mar;7(3):39-43

Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Toothpastes are considered as one of the most common and usable cosmetic and hygienic materials. Such materials contain chemicals which may have an adverse effect on oral tissue in humans. The present study aimed to compare the toxic effect of current commercial toothpastes including Iranian products and imported types which are consumed globally on oral epithelial- and HeLa cells as well as to evaluate their antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans in Shiraz, Iran.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 16 types of commercial toothpastes were prepared, and their effect was determined on primer epithelial cells of the oral cavity and HeLa cells. Toothpastes anti streptococcal property and toxicity were examined in vitro in different intervals of 1, 2, and 5 min. Data collection and analysis were done using one-way analysis of variance.

Results: All experimented toothpastes revealed variable toxic effects on cultured cells. Through an increase in the time of exposure with toothpastes, the toxicity of these materials substantially increased (P = 0.005). On the other hand, all tested toothpastes showed varying degrees of anti-streptococcal effect in the laboratory (P = 0.005).

Conclusions: The most cytotoxic effect on primer epithelial cells of oral mucosa and HeLa cells, respectively, belongs to Bath, Daroogar2, Latifeh2, Crend, Sehat, Nasim and Aqua fresh toothpastes; however, the least cytotoxic effect on primer epithelial cells of oral mucosa and HeLa cells, respectively, belongs to Pronamel followed by Crest (sensitive), Close-up, Oral-B, Signal, Colgate, Paradent, and AME.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4385724PMC
March 2015

Altered expression of alpha 2 beta 1 integrin in kidney fibroblasts: a potential mechanism for CsA-induced nephrotoxicity.

Arch Iran Med 2014 Aug;17(8):556-62

Department of Biochemistry, Fars Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran.

Background: Nephrotoxicity is considered a significant cause of patient morbidity following chronic Cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment.  The exact mechanism of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity remains to be fully clarified.  Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is widely regarded as a major pathway of CsA toxicity; therefore, the role of integrins as regulators of collagen in the extra-cellular matrix can be deemed pivotal. The objective of the present study was to observe the expression levels of alpha2beta1 integrin following CsA treatment +/- antioxidants.

Methods: Adhesion assay, immunofluorescent and flow cytometric analyses were performed on kidney fibroblasts obtained from rats after administration of CsA (25 mg/kg/day) +/- Vitamin E (vit. E) and Quercetin (Q) for 4 weeks.  Total RNA was collected from the aforementioned fibroblasts for semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of α2 and β1 integrins.

Results: We found that α2 and β1 integrins were both markedly reduced following treatment with CsA, i.e., 25% and 13%, respectively, but were normal following subsequent consumption of the antioxidants vit. E and Q.  Attachment and spreading of the CsA-treated fibroblasts declined from 82% to 50%; however, this effect was partially reversed to 70% following antioxidant treatment. Similar results were observed in the spreading assay in which the level of spreading decreased from 73% to 21% and was subsequently restored to 46%.

Conclusion: We conclude that cell adhesion, mediated by binding of integrin to collagen, which is a prerequisite of normal cell viability and collagen regulation, may be a novel pathway further explaining the nephrotoxic effects of CsA.
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http://dx.doi.org/014178/AIM.007DOI Listing
August 2014

The Role of Interferon Gamma Gene Polymorphism (+874A/T, +2109A/G, and -183G/T) in Response to Treatment Among Hepatitis C Infected Patients in Fars Province, Southern Iran.

Hepat Mon 2014 Jan 23;14(1):e14476. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as a worldwide health problem is associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With current treatment regimen, pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin, sustain virological response (SVR) is achieved in only 50% of infected individuals. In HCV infection, an inappropriate ratio of cytokines may affect the benefit of antiviral therapy. Given the polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokines genes may influence cytokines production.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate both the frequency of genotypes and alleles of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) gene at +874A/T, +2109A/G, and -183G/T loci in HCV-infected patients and their associations with response to therapy.

Patients And Methods: A total of 158 patients were included and treated with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin. The presence of HCV infection in patients was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes using salting out method. IFN-γ gene polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction using sequence specific primers and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on genomic DNA.

Results: Of 158 patients, 110 (69.5%) subjects achieved SVR and 48 (30.5%) subjects did not respond to therapy. The frequency of AA genotype (P = 0.001; OR: 11.2; CI: 2.26-63.21) and A allele (P = 0.01; OR: 3.23; CI: 1.23 8.56) of IFN-γ gene at +2109 locus were significantly different between the responder and non-responder subjects infected with genotype 1. Regardless of HCV genotype, the frequency of AG genotype was also higher in responder group than those who did not respond to therapy (P = 0.041; OR: 05.05; CI: 1.05-33.25)). In case of IFN-γ gene at +874 locus, there was no difference in genotypes and alleles frequencies between the responder and non-responder subjects infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3. Haplotype analysis showed no association between haplotypes and response to therapy. All participants had G/T genotype at -183 locus.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that heterogeneity at +2109 locus of IFN-γ gene but not at +874 locus could interfere with successful therapy in patients infected with HCV genotype 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.14476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3909640PMC
January 2014

Hyperthyroid state or in vitro thyroxine treatment modulates TH1/TH2 responses during exposure to HSV-1 antigens.

J Immunotoxicol 2014 Apr-Jun;11(2):160-5. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Department of Physiology .

Increasingly in recent years, thyroid hormones (THs) have been considered to be important regulators of the immune system. However, their roles in host defense against viral infections are not clearly established. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine proliferative activity and cytokine production by lymphocytes isolated from hyperthyroid and euthyroid Balb/c mice in response to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Lymphocytes of hyperthyroid animals showed a significantly higher rate of proliferation and interferon (IFN)-γ production when compared with that by lymphocytes from euthyroid mice. In vitro thyroxine (T4) treatment was similarly effective in the potentiation of proliferation, but not IFNγ production, by euthyroid lymphocytes. Furthermore, the hyperthyroid state significantly attenuated ConA-, but not HSV-1-, induced interleukin (IL)-10 release; in vitro T4 treatment synergized this effect. These findings suggest that supra-physiologic TH levels (i.e. as occur in hyper-thyroid states) or in vitro TH treatment modulate T-helper (TH)1/TH2 lymphocyte responses and thereby amplifies host defenses against viral infections. One may also conclude that THs may have a potential application in viral immunization and/or treatment of viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1547691X.2013.816983DOI Listing
December 2014

Effects of hypo- and hyperthyroid states on herpes simplex virus infectivity in the rat.

Endocr Res 2014 24;39(2):50-5. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Department of Physiology .

Objective: Available data from in vitro studies show that thyroid hormones (THs) regulate herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene expression and may modulate latency/reactivation of the virus. Whether infectivity of the virus is also affected by THs is not known. Using animal models (in vivo study) and Vero cell culture (in vitro study), we examined the effects of alterations in THs level on HSV-1 infectivity.

Methods: Rats were rendered hypo- and hyperthyroid by daily addition of methimazole and l-thyroxine into their drinking water, respectively. Euthyroid animals served as control. All animals were given a single dose of HSV-1 (10(7)TCID50, ip) and sacrificed 3 d later. The spleen of the animals was then removed and viral particles were recovered from the tissue extract through aseptic procedures. Serial dilution of the extracts was prepared and added to Vero cell culture. For the in vitro study, the cultures were pretreated with l-thyroxine and the viral particles were then added. Virus titration was determined by Reed-Muench quantal assay.

Results: The viral load of spleen in hyperthyroid rats was significantly lower (1000-fold) than that of the euthyroid rats. Similarly, in vitro presence of supraphysiologic levels of l-thyroxine in the culture media of Vero cells decreased virus infectivity. Interestingly, hypothyroid animals showed a significant increase (10-fold) in spleen viral load as compared to that of their euthyroid counterparts.

Conclusions: These data clearly show that the HSV-1 infectivity is affected by THs, and suggest that THs or their analogs may have a potential application in prevention and/or treatment of viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07435800.2013.808208DOI Listing
December 2014

Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

PLoS One 2013 31;8(1):e55043. Epub 2013 Jan 31.

Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age.

Method: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran). Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA.

Result: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42) years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5), and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5). One hundred sixty-eight women (96%) had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL) of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7%) had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01), immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25).

Conclusion: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055043PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3561451PMC
July 2013

Titering of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin inhibition antibody in nonvaccinated pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2012 May 1;8(5):604-11. Epub 2012 May 1.

Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Influenza may cause severe complications for pregnant women. In this study antibody response against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in pregnant women was investigated. This seroprevalance cross sectional and questionnaire based study was conducted using a convenient sampling method. Blood samples of pregnant women were checked for antibodies against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus using hemagglutination inhibition assay. An antibody titer level of ≥ 1:40 dilution was considered as the protective level. 167 (43.60%) of 383 pregnant women who participated in this study had protective antibody levels against this virus. 62 (35.63%) of 3rd trimester, 79 (46.74%) of 2nd trimester, and 21(52.50%) of 1st trimester pregnant women were immune respectively (χ2(for trend) = 8.20, p < 0.004). Lack of protective antibody level was significantly seen more in pregnant women of 3rd trimester of pregnancy (OR = 2.37, CI = 1.09-5.18). Pregnant women with higher education (OR = 1.67, CI = 1.02-2.73) and those with history of anemia (OR = 2.09, CI = 1.18-3.68) had more immunity. Older women (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.91-0.99) and those with history of psychological diseases (OR = 0.19, CI = 0.05-0.70) had less immunity. Vaccination of pregnant women, especially those who are in the higher trimesters of pregnancy, older, or less educated, against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus should be continued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.19189DOI Listing
May 2012