Publications by authors named "Adyr A Moss"

49 Publications

Robot Assisted Renal Allograft Nephrectomy: Initial Case Series and Description of Technique.

Urology 2020 Dec 20;146:118-124. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Mayo Clinic Arizona, Department of Urology, Phoenix, AZ.

Objective: To evaluate the outcomes and perioperative complication rates following robot- assisted transplant nephrectomy ((RATN).

Methods: All patients who underwent RATN at our institution were included. No exclusion criteria were applied. Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed and reported. This included preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes. Complications were reported utilizing the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Descriptive statistics were reported using frequencies and percentages for categorical variables, means and standard deviation for continuous variables.

Results: Between July 2014 and April 2018, 15 patients underwent RATN. Most patients had the transplant in the right iliac fossa (13/15). Ten patients underwent a concomitant procedure. The total operative time for the entire cohort was 336 (±102) minutes (including cases who had concomitant procedures) and 259 (±46 minutes) when cases with concomitant procedures were excluded. Mean estimated blood loss was 383 (±444) mL. Postoperatively, 3 patients required blood transfusion. Average hospital stay was 4 (±2.7) days. Most patients had finding consistent with graft rejection on final pathology. There were 5 complications; 3 of which were minor (grade 2 = 2 and grade 3 = 1); one patient had a wound infection requiring dressing (3A) and one patient died due to pulmonary embolism following discharge. Limitations include small series and retrospective nature of the study.

Conclusion: This case series demonstrate that RATN is technically feasible. With continued experience and larger case series, the robotic approach may provide a minimally invasive alternative to open allograft nephrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.10.008DOI Listing
December 2020

Utilization of Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Life Support for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome After Liver Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant 2020 Aug 7. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

From the Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

In this report, we present a case of successful long-term salvage of a patient with transfusion-related acute lung injury associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome immediately after a liver transplant. The patient was a 29-year-old man with end-stage liver disease due to sclerosing cholangitis who underwent liver transplant. After organ reperfusion, there was evidence of liver congestion, acidosis, coagulopathy, and acute kidney injury. He received 61 units of blood products. Continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated intraoperatively. On arrival to the intensive care unit, the patient was on high-dose pressors, and the patient developed respiratory failure and was immediately placed on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation via open femoral exposure. The patient presented with severe coagulopathy and early allograft dysfunction; therefore, no systemic heparin was administered and no thrombotic events occurred. He required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support until posttransplant day 4, when resolution of the respiratory and cardiac dysfunction was noted. At 2 years after liver transplant, the patient has normal liver function, normal cognitive function, and stage V chronic kidney disease. We conclude that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a valuable therapeutic approach in patients with cardiorespiratory failure after liver transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2020.0068DOI Listing
August 2020

Simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation from donation after cardiac death donors: an updated perspective.

Am J Transplant 2020 12 27;20(12):3582-3589. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Outcomes of both donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver and kidney transplants are improving. Experience in simultaneous liver-kidney transplant (SLK) using DCD donors, however, remains limited. In an updated cohort (2010-2018), outcomes of 30 DCD SLK and 131 donation after brain death (DBD) SLK from Mayo Clinic Arizona and Mayo Clinic Minnesota were reviewed. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was lower in the DCD SLK group (23 vs 29, P = .01). Kidney delayed graft function (DGF) rates were similar between the 2 groups (P = .11), although the duration of DGF was longer for DCD SLK recipients (20 vs 4 days, P = .01). Liver allograft (93.3% vs 93.1%, P = .29), kidney allograft (93.3% vs 93.1%, P = .91), and patient (96.7% vs 95.4%, P = .70) 1-year survival rates were similar. At 1 year, there were no differences in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (57.7 ± 18.2 vs 56.3 ± 17.7, P = .75) or progression of fibrosis (ci) on protocol kidney biopsy (P = .67). A higher incidence of biliary complications was observed in the DCD SLK group, with ischemic cholangiopathy being the most common (10.0% vs 0.0%, P = .03). The majority of biliary complications resolved with endoscopic management. With appropriate selection, DCD SLK recipients can have results equivalent to those of DBD SLK recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16191DOI Listing
December 2020

Outcomes and Health Care Utilization After Early Hospital Dismissal in Kidney Transplantation: An Analysis of 1001 Consecutive Cases.

Ann Surg 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona.

Objective: To understand whether reduced lengths of stay after kidney transplantation were associated with excess health care utilization in the first 90 days or long-term graft and patient survival outcomes.

Background: Reducing length of stay after kidney transplant has an unknown effect on post-transplant health care utilization. We studied this association in a cohort of 1001 consecutive kidney transplants.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2011-2015 data from a prospectively-maintained kidney transplant database from a single center.

Results: A total of 1001 patients underwent kidney transplant, and were dismissed from the hospital in 3 groups: Early [≤2 days] (19.8%), Normal [3-7 days] (79.4%) and Late [>7 days] (3.8%). 34.8% of patients had living donor transplants (Early 51%, Normal 31.4%, Late 18.4%, P < 0.001). Early patients had lower delayed graft function rates (Early 19.2%, Normal 32%, Late73.7%, P = 0.001). By the hospital dismissal group, there were no differences in readmissions or emergency room visits at 30 or 90 days. Glomerular filtration rate at 12 months and rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection were also similar between groups. The timing of hospital dismissal was not associated with the risk-adjusted likelihood of readmission. Early and Normal patients had similar graft and patient survival. Late dismissal patients, who had higher rates of cardiovascular complications, had significantly higher late mortality versus Normal dismissal patients in unadjusted and risk-adjusted models.

Conclusion: Dismissing patients from the hospital 2 days after kidney transplant is safe, feasible, and improves value. It is not associated with excess health care utilization or worse short or long-term transplant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003948DOI Listing
June 2020

Renal transplantation in the setting of aortic atresia: Utilizing hepatic artery inflow with donor vessel jump graft.

Am J Transplant 2020 09 20;20(9):2602-2605. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Both congenital and acquired recipient anatomy can present a significant challenge to renal transplantation. A patient with congenital aortic atresia and limited dialysis access options presented to our institution for consideration of transplant. Through multidisciplinary planning, a strategy to accommodate the patient's variant anatomy was devised and successfully performed. A deceased donor vessel graft was used as conduit in combination with the recipient hepatic artery for renal graft inflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15908DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of Open and Robot Assisted Radical Nephrectomy With Level I and II Inferior Vena Cava Tumor Thrombus: The Mayo Clinic Experience.

Urology 2020 Feb 14;136:152-157. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ.

Objective: To compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes associated with open radical nephrectomy with tumor thrombus (O-RNTT) vs robot assisted radical nephrectomy with tumor thrombus (RA-RNTT). Renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus has traditionally been managed through an open surgical approach. The robot assisted approach may offers improved perioperative outcomes compared to open, but there are few studies comparing these 2.

Methods: We analyzed patients with renal cell carcinoma and inferior vena cava tumor thrombus between 1998 and 2018, comparing perioperative and oncologic outcomes of these patients with Level I and Level II thrombus. Cohorts were stratified by surgical approach: O-RNTT vs RA-RNTT. Univariate analysis was conducted using chi-squared test and t tests when appropriate. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to evaluate survival.

Results And Limitation: Twenty-seven patients were in the O-RNTT group, and 24 in the RA-RNTT group. Patients in the RA-RNTT group, compared to the O-RNTT group, demonstrated shorter length of stay (3 vs 7 nights, P = .03), lower estimate blood loss (450 vs 1800 mL, P <.01), and lower transfusion rate (21% vs 82%, P <.01). The RA-RNTT group had 26% fever complications compared to the open (17% vs 43%, P <.01). There was no significant difference in estimated overall survival or recurrence-free survival between the O-RNTT and RA-RNTT groups.

Conclusion: RA-RNTT produced a shorter length of stay, less transfusions, and a lower rate of complications with no significant difference in overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.11.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Transplanting kidneys from donation after cardiac death donors with acute kidney injury.

Am J Transplant 2020 03 20;20(3):864-869. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Division of Transplant Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona.

Donation after cardiac death (DCD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) donors have historically been considered independent risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF), allograft failure, and inferior outcomes. With growing experience, updated analyses have shown good outcomes. There continues to be limited data, however, on outcomes specific to DCD donors who have AKI. Primary outcomes for this study were post-kidney transplant patient and allograft survival comparing two donor groups: DCD AKIN stage 2-3 and DBD AKIN stage 2-3. In comparing these groups, there were no short- or long-term differences in patient (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.93, P = .83) or allograft survival (HR 1.47, 95% CI 0.64-2.97, P = .32). In multivariate models, the DCD/DBD status had no significant impact on the estimated GFR (eGFR) at 1 (P = .38), 2 (P = .60), and 3 years (P = .52). DGF (57.9% vs 67.9%, P = .09), rejection (12.1% vs 13.9%, P = .12), and progression of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) on protocol biopsy (P = .16) were similar between the two groups. With careful selection, good outcomes can be achieved utilizing severe AKI DCD kidneys. Historic concerns regarding primary nonfunction, DGF resulting in interstitial fibrosis and rejection, and inferior outcomes were not observed. Given the ongoing organ shortage, increased effort should be undertaken to further utilize these donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15653DOI Listing
March 2020

Robot Assisted Surgery of the Vena Cava: Perioperative Outcomes, Technique, and Lessons Learned at The Mayo Clinic.

J Endourol 2019 12;33(12):1009-1016

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona.

This study aims to describe robot assisted surgery of the inferior vena cava (IVC) by assessing techniques utilized, perioperative outcomes, complications, and long-term patency of the IVC. A retrospective review was performed on all robotic surgeries involving dissection and repair of the IVC at our institution. Patient characteristics, operative reports, and follow-up visits were analyzed. Preoperative and postoperative imaging was independently reviewed by a single radiologist to determine changes in IVC diameter. Complications were analyzed according to early (<30 days) late (>30 days). Thirty-four patients underwent robot assisted surgery of the vena cava from 2008 to 2018. Twenty-six cases were performed for urologic malignancy, four were performed for IVC filter explantation, and four renal vein transpositions were performed for nutcracker syndrome. Twenty-four of the 26 patients with urologic malignancy underwent radical nephrectomy with IVC tumor thrombectomy. Three cases were converted to open. Median length of stay was two nights, and mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 375 mL. There were five complications, ranging from Clavien-Dindo grade II-IIIa, four of which were early complications. No patients required return to the operating room, and there were no perioperative mortalities. IVC diameter was reduced by 41% on axial diameter, with no patients experiencing compromised venous return. Robot assisted surgery offers the advantage of minimally invasive surgery with the ability to apply open surgical principles. In our series, an experienced multidisciplinary team approach yielded low EBL, short length of stay, and low complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2019.0429DOI Listing
December 2019

Long-term Outcomes Following Kidney Transplantation From Donors With Acute Kidney Injury.

Transplantation 2019 09;103(9):e263-e272

Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ.

Background: Kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI) are more likely to be discarded because of concerns for poor outcomes after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of a large cohort of patients transplanted utilizing kidneys from deceased donors with AKI.

Methods: All patients receiving a deceased donor kidney transplant during a recent 10-year period were included. Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria were used to classify the donors. Donor kidneys with >10% cortical necrosis or more than mild chronic changes were discarded. The primary outcome is the combined endpoint of death or graft loss.

Results: The cohort included 1313 kidneys from 974 donors, AKIN stage 0 (no AKI) in 319 (24.3%), stage 1 in 370 (28.2%), stage 2 in 177 (13.5), and stage 3 in 447 (34.0%). Estimated 5-year graft survival (95% confidence interval) was 78.5% (72.5-84.5), 77.8% (72.8-82.1), 83.8% (76.8-88.9), and 84.6% (79.5-88.7) for AKIN donor stage 0 to 3, respectively (log-rank P = 0.10). After adjusting for baseline differences, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the combined endpoint for the AKIN stage 3 group (relative to AKIN 0 group) was 0.70 (0.45-1.10). Delayed graft function occurred in 44.6% and 75.4% of AKIN 2 and 3 groups, as compared to 33.9% and 33.5% in AKIN 0 and 1 (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: We conclude that transplanting selected kidneys from deceased donors with AKI with preimplantation biopsy showing <10% cortical necrosis and no more than mild chronic changes have excellent long-term graft survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002792DOI Listing
September 2019

Factors associated with adverse outcomes from cardiovascular events in the kidney transplant population: an analysis of national discharge data, hospital characteristics, and process measures.

BMC Nephrol 2019 05 28;20(1):190. Epub 2019 May 28.

Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgeyr, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ, 85054, USA.

Background: Kidney transplant (KT) patients presenting with cardiovascular (CVD) events are being managed increasingly in non-transplant facilities. We aimed to identify drivers of mortality and costs, including transplant hospital status.

Methods: Data from the 2009-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the American Hospital Association, and Hospital Compare were used to evaluate post-KT patients hospitalized for MI, CHF, stroke, cardiac arrest, dysrhythmia, and malignant hypertension. We used generalized estimating equations to identify clinical, structural, and process factors associated with risk-adjusted mortality and high cost hospitalization (HCH).

Results: Data on 7803 admissions were abstracted from 275 hospitals. Transplant hospitals had lower crude mortality (3.0% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.06), and higher un-adjusted total episodic costs (Median $33,271 vs. $28,022, p < 0.0001). After risk-adjusting for clinical, structural, and process factors, mortality predictors included: age, CVD burden, CV destination hospital, diagnostic cardiac catheterization without intervention (all, p < 0.001). Female sex, race, documented co-morbidities, and hospital teaching status were protective (all, p < 0.05). Transplant and non-transplant hospitals had similar risk-adjusted mortality. HCH was associated with: age, CVD burden, CV procedures, and staffing patterns. Hospitalizations at transplant facilities had 37% lower risk-adjusted odds of HCH. Cardiovascular process measures were not associated with adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: KT patients presenting with CVD events had similar risk-adjusted mortality at transplant and non-transplant hospitals, but high cost care was less likely in transplant hospitals. Transplant hospitals may provide better value in cardiovascular care for transplant patients. These data have significant implications for patients, transplant and non-transplant providers, and payers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1390-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6540439PMC
May 2019

Predictors of Biliary Strictures After Liver Transplantation Among Recipients of DCD (Donation After Cardiac Death) Grafts.

Dig Dis Sci 2019 07 2;64(7):2024-2030. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Introduction: Biliary strictures are a common complication among donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT) recipients and may require multiple endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. We evaluated the risk factors associated with development of biliary strictures in DCD LT recipients.

Methods: DCD LT recipients who underwent transplantation from 2012 to 2017 were divided into 2 groups: (a) those with anastomotic or non-anastomotic biliary strictures who required ERCP ("stricture group") and (b) those who did not require ERCP or had cholangiograms without evidence of biliary strictures ("non-stricture group"). Clinical data, cholangiograms and laboratory values at day 0 and day 7 after LT were compared between the two groups.

Results: Forty-nine of the 100 DCD LT recipients underwent ERCP. Thirty-four of these 49 LT recipients had evidence of anastomotic or non-anastomotic biliary strictures (stricture group), while the remaining 66 LT recipients comprised the non-stricture group. Donor age was significantly higher in stricture group compared to non-stricture group (49.2 ± 1.8 vs 42.8 ± 1.57 years, respectively; p = 0.01). The stricture group had a significantly higher total bilirubin at day 0 (3.5 ± 0.37 vs 2.6 ± 0.21 mg/dL; p = 0.02) and INR at day 7 (1.24 ± 0.06 vs 1.13 ± 0.01; p = 0.048) compared to the non-stricture group. Multi-variate analysis demonstrated significant association between biliary strictures and total bilirubin at day 0 of LT and age of donor.

Conclusion: Biliary strictures occur frequently in DCD LT recipients and may be associated with older age of donor. Hyperbilirubinemia immediately after transplant and higher INR in the first 7 days after transplant may predict subsequent development of biliary strictures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-018-5438-0DOI Listing
July 2019

Pilot evaluation of PD-1 inhibition in metastatic cancer patients with a history of liver transplantation: the Mayo Clinic experience.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2018 Dec;9(6):1054-1062

Division of Hematology & Oncology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.

Background: Patients with solid organ transplants (SOTs) have been excluded from programmed death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor clinical trials due to concern for allograft rejection. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy remains controversial in transplant patients.

Methods: A retrospective pilot evaluation was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in patients with liver transplantation (LT). The primary endpoint was the rate of allograft rejection. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Translational objectives included evaluation of tumor PD-L1, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and allograft PD-L1 expression.

Results: Seven metastatic cancer patients with a history of LT who received PD-1 inhibitor therapy were included [hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), n=5; melanoma, n=2]. Rejection was observed in 2 of 7 patients. When rejection occurs it appears to be an early event with a median time to rejection of 24 days in our cohort. One patient achieved a complete response (CR), 3 patients had progressive disease (PD) and 3 patients discontinued therapy prior to restaging assessments. Two of five patients with available tissue had PD-L1 expression in the allograft and both developed rejection. One of five evaluable patients had abundant TILs. Two of five evaluable patients had PD-L1 tumor staining. The single patient with both abundant TILs and PD-L1 staining obtained a response. The median OS and PFS were 1.1 (0.3-21.1) and 1.8 (0.7-21.1) months, respectively.

Conclusions: In this pilot evaluation both preliminary efficacy (1 of 4) and allograft rejection (2 of 7) were exhibited in evaluable patients. Larger, prospective trials are needed to elucidate optimal patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2018.07.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286929PMC
December 2018

Solid pancreas transplant: Pushing forward.

World J Transplant 2018 Nov;8(7):237-251

Division of Transplant, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ 85054, United States.

Pancreas transplant has evolved significantly in recent years. It has now become a viable treatment option on type 1 diabetic patients with poorly controlled diabetes on conventional treatment, insulin intolerance, hypoglycaemia unawareness, brittle diabetes and/ or end-stage kidney disease. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of pancreas transplant historical origins and current barriers to broader utilization of pancreata for transplant, with a focus on areas for future improvement to better pancreas transplant care. Donor pancreata remain underutilized; pancreatic allograft discard rates remain close to 30% in the United States. Donations after cardiac death (DCD) pancreata are seldom procured. Study groups from Europe and the United Kingdom showed that procurement professionalization and standardization of technique, as well as development of independent regional procurement teams might increase organ procurement efficiency, decrease discards and increase pancreatic allograft utilization. Pancreas transplant programs should consider exploring pancreas procurement opportunities on DCD and obese donors. Selected type 2 diabetics should be considered for pancreas transplant. Longer follow-up studies need to be performed in order to ascertain the long-term cardiovascular and quality of life benefits following pancreas transplant; the outcomes of which might eventually spearhead advocacy towards broader application of pancreas transplant among diabetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5500/wjt.v8.i7.237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304337PMC
November 2018

Equivalent Outcomes With Retransplantation and Primary Liver Transplantation in the Direct-acting Antiviral Era.

Transplantation 2019 06;103(6):1168-1174

Department of Transplant, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: The present multicenter study investigated whether equivalent outcomes to primary liver transplant (LT) could be achieved with liver retransplant (reLT) and whether improvements in outcomes have taken place over time, particularly in the direct-acting antiviral era.

Methods: All reLT performed at Mayo Clinic Florida, Mayo Clinic Rochester, and Mayo Clinic Arizona were divided into era 1 (2002-2007), era 2 (2008-2012), and era 3 (2013-2017) based on the date of reLT.

Results: Improvement in graft survival (GS) after reLT was seen over the 3 eras (P < 0.001). In era 1, GS after reLT was inferior to primary LT (P < 0.001), whereas no difference was seen between reLT and primary LT in era 2 (P = 0.68) or era 3 (P = 0.36). A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved sustained viral response (SVR) within the first year after reLT in each subsequent era (era 1: 10.3%, era 2: 22.5%, and era 3: 100%) (P < 0.001). Graft survival was superior in patients undergoing reLT for recurrent hepatitis C virus who achieved SVR after reLT compared with those who did not (P = 0.03).

Conclusions: Results similar to primary LT were achieved in era 3. These improvements coincide with the availability of direct-acting antivirals, which resulted in a 100% SVR rate in era 3 and a decrease in the number of patients undergoing reLT for recurrent hepatitis C virus. The historic dogma that reLT results in inferior outcomes should be revisited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002460DOI Listing
June 2019

Outcomes of Donation After Circulatory Death Liver Grafts From Donors 50 Years or Older: A Multicenter Analysis.

Transplantation 2018 07;102(7):1108-1114

Department of Transplant, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: As the population in the United States continues to age, an increase in the number of potential donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors with advanced chronological age can be expected. The aim of this study was to analyze a multi-institutional experience in liver transplantation using DCD donors 50 years or older.

Methods: All DCD liver transplant (LT) performed at Mayo Clinic Florida, Mayo Clinic Rochester, and Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2002 to 2016 were included. Recipients of DCD LT were divided into 2 groups: those with donors 50 years or older (N = 155) and those with donors younger than 50 years(N = 316).

Results: Graft survival was similar between the DCD donors 50 years or older group and DCD donors younger than 50 group(P = 0.99). Graft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 87.0%, 75.6%, and 71.8% in the DCD donors 50 years or older group and 85.8%, 76.0%, and 70.4% in the DCD donors younger than 50 group.The rate of total biliary complications (32.3% vs 23.7%; P = 0.049) and of anastomotic strictures (16.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.01) were higher in the DCD donors 50 years or older compared with the DCD donors younger than 50 group. No statistical significant difference in the rate of ischemic cholangiopathy (11.6% vs 7.6%; P = 0.15) was seen between the 2 groups. Due to homogeneous practice patterns at the involved institutions, additional Cox regression analysis using national data obtained from Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was used to evaluate predictors of graft failure in DCD donors 50 years or older. Significant predictors of graft failure included: a calculated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 30 or higher (P < 0.001), mechanical ventilation at the time of transplant (P < 0.001), medical condition (in intensive care unit) (P = 0.002), and cold ischemia time (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that acceptable graft and patient survival can be achieved with the usage of DCD LT with donors 50 years or older. Optimizing recipient selection criteria and minimizing cold ischemia time may further improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228627PMC
July 2018

Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Peak Oxygen Uptake): Safe and Effective Measure for Cardiovascular Screening Before Kidney Transplant.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 05 31;7(11). Epub 2018 May 31.

Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ.

Background: Significant heterogeneity exists in practice patterns and algorithms used for cardiac screening before kidney transplant. Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO), is an established validated predictor of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in both healthy and diseased populations. The literature supports its use among asymptomatic patients in abrogating the need for further cardiac testing.

Methods And Results: We outlined a pre-renal transplant screening algorithm to incorporate VO testing among a population of asymptomatic high-risk patients (with diabetes mellitus and/or >50 years of age). Only those with VO <17 mL/kg per minute (equivalent to <5 metabolic equivalents) underwent further noninvasive cardiac screening tests. We conducted a retrospective study of the dichotomization of the VO <17 versus ≥17 mL/kg per minute to determine negative and positive predictive value of future cardiac events and all-cause mortality. We report a high (>90%) negative predictive value, indicating that VO ≥17 mL/kg per minute is effective to rule out future cardiac events and all-cause mortality. However, lower VO had low positive predictive value and should not be used as a reliable metric to predict future cardiac events and/or mortality. In addition, a simple mathematical calculation documented a cost savings of ≈$272 600 in the cardiac screening among our study cohort of 637 patients undergoing evaluation for kidney and/or pancreas transplant.

Conclusions: We conclude that incorporating an objective measure of cardiorespiratory fitness with VO is safe and allows for a cost savings in the cardiovascular screening protocol among higher-risk phenotype (with diabetes mellitus and >50 years of age) being evaluated for kidney transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.008662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015378PMC
May 2018

Hospitalizations for Cardiovascular Disease After Liver Transplantation in the United States.

Liver Transpl 2018 10;24(10):1398-1410

Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of post-liver transplant death, and variable care patterns may affect outcomes. We aimed to describe epidemiology and outcomes of inpatient CVD care across US hospitals. Using a merged data set from the 2002-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, we evaluated liver transplant patients admitted primarily with myocardial infarction (MI), stroke (cerebrovascular accident [CVA]), congestive heart failure (CHF), dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest (CA), or malignant hypertension. Patient-level data include demographics, Charlson comorbidity index, and CVD diagnoses. Facility-level variables included ownership status, payer-mix, hospital resources, teaching status, and physician/nursing-to-bed ratios. We used generalized estimating equations to evaluate patient- and hospital-level factors associated with mortality. There were 4763 hospitalizations that occurred in 153 facilities (transplant hospitals, n = 80). CVD hospitalizations increased overall by 115% over the decade (P < 0.01). CVA and MI declined over time (both P < 0.05), but CHF and dysrhythmia grew significantly (both P < 0.03); a total of 19% of hospitalizations were for multiple CVD diagnoses. Transplant hospitals had lower comorbidity patients (P < 0.001) and greater resource intensity including presence of cardiac intensive care unit, interventional radiology, operating rooms, teaching status, and nursing density (all P < 0.01). Transplant and nontransplant hospitals had similar unadjusted mortality (overall, 3.9%, P = 0.55; by diagnosis, all P > 0.07). Transplant hospitals had significantly longer overall length of stay, higher total costs, and more high-cost hospitalizations (all P < 0.05). After risk adjustment, transplant hospitals were associated with higher mortality and high-cost hospitalizations. In conclusion, CVD after liver transplant is evolving and responsible for growing rates of inpatient care. Transplant hospitals are associated with poor outcomes, even after risk adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, which may be attributable to selective referral of certain patient phenotypes but could also be related to differences in quality of care. Further study is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.25055DOI Listing
October 2018

Transplant artery thrombosis and outcomes.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2017 Dec;7(Suppl 3):S219-S227

Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Post-transplantation allograft arterial thrombosis is a well-recognized complication associated with solid organ transplantation. Much of the literature is centered on liver and kidney transplantation, which will therefore serve as the principle basis for this review, with a brief discussion on pancreas transplantation and associated arterial complications. The number of solid organ transplants has been steadily increasing over the past decade in parallel with growing demand for organs and expansion of the transplantation criteria for both donors and recipients. This increase has been accompanied by a number of innovative medical advances and surgical techniques, as well as improved imaging that has allowed for thoughtful exploration of vascular anatomic variants and the possibilities for transplant with which they are associated. It has also been accompanied by a growing field of behavioral research, as potential recipients must weigh the risk of accepting certain organs based on perceived outcomes that may differ according to the quality of the underlying organ. Improvements in imaging technology have brought greater sensitivity to detecting arterial complications in post-operative surveillance examinations and have allowed for further development of tailored endovascular and surgical interventions for transplant-associated vascular complications. This review will focus on post-transplantation solid organ allograft artery thrombosis, including discussion of risk factors, diagnostic imaging, natural history, and therapeutic options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2017.10.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778523PMC
December 2017

Patterns of Care and Outcomes in Cardiovascular Disease After Kidney Transplantation in the United States.

Transplant Direct 2017 Feb 16;3(2):e126. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Transplant Center, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ.; Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important driver of mortality after kidney transplantation. Its broader impact on posttransplant health care utilization in US hospitals is unknown.

Methods: We used administrative claims data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey to identify hospitalizations for kidney transplant patients with a cardiovascular diagnosis from 2005 to 2011. CVD hospitalizations were stratified by transplant hospital status to characterize patterns in inpatient health care utilization and outcomes. Based on these analyses, the domestic burden of treatment for posttransplant CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, dysrhythmia, cardiac arrest, malignant hypertension) was estimated.

Results: The total domestic burden of post-kidney transplant hospitalization between 2005 and 2011 is estimated at 389 138 of which 26.5% of episodes were related to CVD (n = 103 118). CVD was responsible for a growing proportion of post-transplant hospitalizations over time (24.4%-30.4%, < 0.001). Compared with nontransplant hospitals, transplant hospitals had similar length of stay (median length of stay, 3.7 days), higher median costs per hospitalization (US $10 364 vs US $8606, overall US $9324), and lower adjusted mortality (3.2% vs 3.9%, overall 3.6%; = 0.003).

Conclusions: Inpatient CVD care is increasing over time for kidney transplant patients, accounting for 30% of all post-transplant hospitalizations. Variation exists in the inpatient care, outcomes, and costs between by hospital type. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms behind these phenomena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TXD.0000000000000640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5367743PMC
February 2017

Hospital resource intensity and cirrhosis mortality in United States.

World J Gastroenterol 2017 Mar;23(10):1857-1865

Amit K Mathur, Ryan Day, Andrew L Singer, Winston R Hewitt, Kunam S Reddy, Adyr A Moss, Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ 85054, United States.

Aim: To determine whether hospital characteristics predict cirrhosis mortality and how much variation in mortality is attributable to hospital differences.

Methods: We used data from the 2005-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the American Hospital Association Annual survey to identify hospitalizations for decompensated cirrhosis and corresponding facility characteristics. We created hospital-specific risk and reliability-adjusted odds ratios for cirrhosis mortality, and evaluated patient and facility differences based on hospital performance quintiles. We used hierarchical regression models to determine the effect of these factors on mortality.

Results: Seventy-two thousand seven hundred and thirty-three cirrhosis admissions were evaluated in 805 hospitals. Hospital mean cirrhosis annual case volume was 90.4 (range 25-828). Overall hospital cirrhosis mortality rate was 8.00%. Hospital-adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for mortality ranged from 0.48 to 1.89. Patient characteristics varied significantly by hospital aOR for mortality. Length of stay averaged 6.0 ± 1.6 days, and varied significantly by hospital performance ( < 0.001). Facility level predictors of risk-adjusted mortality were higher Medicaid case-mix (OR = 1.00, = 0.029) and LPN staffing (OR = 1.02, = 0.015). Higher cirrhosis volume (OR = 0.99, = 0.025) and liver transplant program status (OR = 0.83, = 0.026) were significantly associated with survival. After adjusting for patient differences, era, and clustering effects, 15.3% of variation between hospitals was attributable to differences in facility characteristics.

Conclusion: Hospital characteristics account for a significant proportion of variation in cirrhosis mortality. These findings have several implications for patients, providers, and health care delivery in liver disease care and inpatient health care design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v23.i10.1857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5352927PMC
March 2017

Hepatoid Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Case Report, Next-Generation Tumor Profiling, and Literature Review.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2016 Sep-Dec;10(3):605-612. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Division of Transplant and Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Ariz., USA.

Fewer than 25 cases of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We present a case in a 61-year-old male with a remote history of Hodgkin's lymphoma and gastric neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. On surveillance endoscopic ultrasound, an 8 × 5 mm cystic lesion was seen in the tail of the pancreas. MRI showed a focal pancreatic duct cut-off with mild ductal dilation. Fine needle aspiration was performed, which was concerning for acinar cell carcinoma. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and recovered uneventfully. Final pathology demonstrated a 1.3-cm hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas, with a final clinicopathological stage of T1N0M0. Next-generation nucleic acid sequencing of the tumor did not suggest a viable adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent, and no adjuvant therapy was administered. The patient has no evidence of disease 6 months following resection. A further characterization and description of the outcomes of these rare tumors is warranted to help guide providers and counsel patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000448064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5121547PMC
October 2016

Should quality of the liver transplant candidate evaluation be measured?

Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) 2016 Sep 2;8(3):64-67. Epub 2016 Oct 2.

Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery; Phoenix AZ.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cld.572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6490198PMC
September 2016

Prospective Analysis of Metabolic Parameters in the Detection of Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome in Liver Transplant Recipients.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2016 08 10;14(6):305-10. Epub 2016 May 10.

4 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic , Phoenix, Arizona.

Background: Liver transplant recipients are at increased risk of metabolic complications, including new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) and post-transplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS), both of which are associated with decreased patient survival. We prospectively monitored traditional and novel metabolic parameters in nondiabetic liver transplantation (LT) candidates to determine their role in detecting these conditions.

Methods: Nondiabetic adults undergoing initial LT were prospectively identified. NODAT and PTMS were defined according to WHO and ATP III criteria. Metabolic measures were collected at pre-LT, 4, and 12 months post-LT.

Results: Of 49 subjects enrolled, 24.5% were found to be diabetic pre-LT by 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) despite fasting glucose below the diabetic range. Two patients developed NODAT post-LT. A single patient was found to have MS at baseline, while PTMS developed in 26% and 31.3% of patients at 4 and 12 months. Novel metabolic markers did not detect these conditions.

Conclusions: Screening OGTT detected pre-LT diabetes in patients with normal fasting glucose. Serial measurement of metabolic parameters allowed earlier detection of PTMS. Novel metabolic parameters did not correspond to post-LT outcomes, but provided a baseline for future study. More frequent and intensive metabolic monitoring appears reasonable, but larger studies are needed to clarify its efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2015.0162DOI Listing
August 2016

Glucose homeostasis after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation: a comparison of subjects with C-peptide-positive non-type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Clin Transplant 2016 Jan 26;30(1):52-9. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Division of Transplant Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Background: While simultaneous pancreas kidney transplant (SPKTx) is a therapeutic option for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and renal failure, few centers offer SPKTx to "select" non-T1DM patients. To address concerns that existing insulin resistance may limit the benefits of the pancreas allograft among non-T1DM, we compared several indices of glucose homeostasis, in "select" non-T1DM and T1DM patients who received SPKTx.

Methods: Criteria for "select" non-T1DM included the following: positive C-peptide, BMI <30 kg/m(2) , treatment with oral agents before insulin initiation, and insulin at <1 unit/kg/d. We compared several indices of glucose homeostasis within 1 yr post-SPKTx among seven "select" patients with non-T1DM and nine patients with T1DM with similar age, BMI, and immunosuppression. Measurements of insulin resistance included the following: homeostatic model, insulin sensitivity index, and insulin-glucose ratio; insulin secretion measures included the following: corrected insulin response.

Results: Non-T1DM had similar pre-transplant metabolic (fasting glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipid) parameters to the T1DM cohort. There were no significant differences in the various measures of insulin resistance and secretion between T1DM and "select" non-T1DM patients.

Conclusion: Our results suggest SPKTx should be considered in the therapeutic armamentarium among carefully select non-T1DM with features of minimal insulin resistance; however, a larger cohort with longer follow-up is needed to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.12658DOI Listing
January 2016

Kidney Transplant Program at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona.

Clin Transpl 2014 :61-8

Since 1999, we have performed 2,302 kidney transplants at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona. Transplant volume has increased by 45% since 2010. Our center performed 269 kidney transplants in 2013. Our growth is related to multiple factors, including an experienced, committed team and strong support from our institution and referring nephrologists. Areas of program innovation at our center include: transplanting deceased donors with acute kidney injury, outcomes in older kidney transplant recipients, alemtuzumab induction with steroid avoidance, living donor paired kidney exchange-3 site experience, and other non-traditional deceased donor kidney transplants. Of the 162 acute kidney injury (AKI) donor transplants done at our program, 71% had severe AKI. The AKI donor kidneys had more delayed graft function; but graft survival, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and biopsy findings at 1 year were not different form the control group. We have transplanted 188 patients ≥ 70 years old at the time of transplantation. Graft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was similar to that of patients < 70. Since 2008, 778 (37%) patients received alemtuzumab induction, therapy with excellent patient and graft survival. We have used steroid avoidance immunosuppression with excellent outcomes since 2003. Since starting kidney paired donation in 2009, it has resulted in 54 kidney transplants, including 4 compatible pairs. More than half of the deceased donor transplants done at our center are from non-traditional donors such as Public Health Service increased risk, donation after cardiac death, extended criteria donors/high kidney donor profile index, and pediatric en-bloc donors. One- and 3-year graft survival of the non-traditional deceased donor kidney transplants are not different than the traditional deceased donor kidney transplants.
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September 2015

Preoperative chemoradiation and IOERT for unresectable or borderline resectable pancreas cancer.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2013 Dec;4(4):352-60

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center - Arizona (MCCC-A), Scottsdale/Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Background And Objectives: Pre-operative chemoradiation (preop CRT) plus intraoperative electron irradiation (IOERT) has been used in the multidisciplinary treatment for patients with locally advanced unresectable or borderline resectable pancreas cancer. This review was performed to evaluate survival, relapse patterns and prognostic factors in patients treated with curative intent.

Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2010, 48 patients with locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma received preop CRT prior to an attempt at resection and IOERT. 31/48 (65%) patients proceeded to curative-intent surgical resection. Resection status prior to preop CRT was locally unresectable (20 patients) and borderline resectable (11 patients). Preop CRT (45-50.4 Gy/25-28 Fx in 27/31) was delivered with concurrent 5FU or gemcitabine-based regimens. Subsequent gross total resection was achieved in 16 patients (R0, 11; R1, 5). IOERT was delivered in 28 patients (dose, 10-20 Gy). 16 patients also received adjuvant post-operative systemic chemotherapy. Outcomes evaluated include survival, local failure in the EBRT field (LF), central failure in the IOERT field (CF), and distant metastases.

Results: Resection status was predictive for survival and for patterns of relapse. For patients with at least a gross total resection after preop CRT (R0/R1; n=16) vs. no resection (n=15), both median and overall survival were improved (median 23 vs. 10 months; 2-year, 40% vs. 17%; 3-year, 40% vs. 0%; P=0.002). Liver or peritoneal relapse was documented in 22/31 patients (71%); LF/CF in 5/26 (16%).

Conclusions: Long term survival and disease control are achievable in select patients with borderline resectable or locally unresectable pancreas cancer when gross total surgical resection is achieved after preop CRT. Continued evaluation of curative-intent combined modality therapy is warranted in this high risk population, but additional strategies are needed to improve resectability and disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2013.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819779PMC
December 2013

Delayed allograft inflammation following alemtuzumab induction for kidney transplantation.

Clin Transplant 2013 Sep-Oct;27(5):772-80. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Background: In a recent clinical trial in kidney transplant recipients, induction with alemtuzumab and rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) was equally effective in preventing rejection during the first post-transplant year; however, this study did not include protocol biopsies.

Methods: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of alemtuzumab induction on rejection and subclinical inflammation during the first post-transplant year compared with a historic control group receiving induction with r-ATG. All patients received tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF).

Results: There were 361 in the alemtuzumab group and 478 in the r-ATG groups. Rejection (excluding Banff borderline), during the first year, occurred in 14% of the alemtuzumab group and 9% of the r-ATG group (p = 0.03). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (chronic kidney disease (CKD)-EPI formula) at one yr and graft survival at three yr were similar. On the protocol biopsies, interstitial inflammation (Banff i scores) and tubulitis (Banff t scores) were more likely in the r-ATG group at one month, but at four and 12 months, both inflammation and tubulitis were more likely in the alemtuzumab group.

Conclusions: We conclude that alemtuzumab induction is associated with delayed inflammation at four and 12 months, but this inflammation did not appear to negatively impact the GFR or graft survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.12201DOI Listing
May 2014

Laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomies with simultaneous kidney transplantation.

BJU Int 2012 Dec 9;110(11 Pt C):E1003-7. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Unlabelled: Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Extirpation of polycystic kidneys for various medical reasons has been performed using many different approaches in attempts to limit morbidity from such a large operation. In indicated patients, it has usually been offered in a staged approach with renal transplantation to avoid graft complications. We published the first case of simultaneous laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy with kidney transplant in 2008. The present study shows our continued experience with offering this minimally invasive, single surgery alternative. The results are comparable to a staged laparoscopic approach with significantly shorter total hospital stay and one recovery for the patient and his/her family.

Objective: • To analyse the perioperative outcomes of native bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy (BLN) with simultaneous kidney transplantation.

Patients And Methods: • From November 2000 to April 2011, 37 patients were seen for renal failure secondary to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and underwent renal transplant with native nephrectomies at a single tertiary academic centre. • In all, 15 patients underwent BLN for ADPKD followed by simultaneous kidney transplantation. • The other 22 patients underwent BLN for ADPKD with kidney transplant performed at a separate setting. • Demographic data, perioperative outcomes, complications regardless of need for intervention, and graft function were analysed in both groups.

Results: • The combined surgery was completed without intraoperative complication in all cases. • The median total operative duration was 372 min, estimated blood loss was 300 mL with two patients requiring transfusion, and the median (range) hospital stay was 5 (3-7) days. • All patients had immediate graft function with additional relief of compressive symptoms. • In comparison to our staged cohort, the simultaneous group had a significantly shorter total hospital stay. • All other outcomes and complication rates were comparable.

Conclusion: • In ADPKD, a less invasive laparoscopic approach for native nephrectomies with simultaneous renal transplant offers comparable morbidity without graft compromise and the convenience of one operation and one recovery for the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11379.xDOI Listing
December 2012

Ureteral stricture formation in laparoscopically procured living donor kidney transplantation.

Can J Urol 2012 Apr;19(2):6188-92

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona 85054, USA.

Introduction: To identify the incidence of and risk factors for ureteral stricture formation in laparoscopically procured living donor kidney transplantation (LLDKT).

Materials And Methods: An IRB approved retrospective review of our institution's living donor database was performed. Patients were divided into two cohorts, those with ureteral strictures requiring procedural intervention and those without evidence of ureteral strictures. Analysis was limited to those patients with at least 1 year of follow up.

Results: Of the 584 LLDKT's performed at our institution since June 1999, 510 had at least 1 year of follow up. Four hundred and ninety-six patients had no evidence of stricture disease (97.2%) while 14 (2.8%) developed clinically significant ureteral strictures. The incidence of delayed graft function was higher in the stricture group (21% versus 3%, p < 0.0001) while the intraoperative placement of a ureteral stent was associated with decreased incidence of ureteral strictures (21% of the stricture group received stents compared to 58% in the no stricture group, p = 0.006). In multivariable logistic regression models, delayed graft function was strongly associated with the development of clinically significant ureteral stricture disease (OR 19.3; 95% CI 3.59, 104.2; p = 0.001) while the placement of intraoperative ureteral stents was protective against ureteral stricture formation (OR 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.49; p = 0.005).

Conclusion: Delayed graft function and nonuse of ureteral stents are associated with the development of ureteral strictures following LLDKT.
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April 2012

Pretransplant fasting glucose predicts new-onset diabetes after liver transplantation.

J Transplant 2012 29;2012:614781. Epub 2012 Jan 29.

Division of Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 5777 E. Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA.

New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is common after liver transplant and associated with poorer outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for NODAT in liver transplant recipients off corticosteroids. In 225 adult nondiabetic liver transplant recipients, the mean age was 51.7 years, the majority were men (71%), and half had HCV (49%). The mean calculated MELD score at transplantation was 18.7, and 19% underwent living-donor transplant (LDLT). One year after transplantation, 17% developed NODAT, and an additional 16% had impaired fasting glucose. The incidence of NODAT in patients with HCV was 26%. In multivariate analysis, HCV, pretransplant FPG, and LDLT were significant. Each 10 mg/dL increase in pretransplant FPG was associated with a twofold increase in future development of NODAT. The incidence of NODAT after liver transplant in patients off corticosteroids is 17%. Risk factors for developing NODAT include HCV and pretransplant FPG; LDLT is protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/614781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3306927PMC
August 2012