Publications by authors named "Adrienne Guignard"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Incidence of dengue illness in Mexican people aged 6 months to 50 years old: A prospective cohort study conducted in Jalisco.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250253. Epub 2021 May 5.

Vaccines, GSK, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

Background And Objectives: The burden of dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne pathogen, remains difficult to assess due to misdiagnosis and underreporting. Moreover, the large proportion of asymptomatic dengue cases impairs comprehensive assessment of its epidemiology even where effective surveillance systems are in place. We conducted a prospective community-based study to assess the incidence of symptomatic dengue cases in Zapopan and neighboring municipalities in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

Methods: Healthy subjects aged 6 months to 50 years living in households located in the Zapopan and neighboring municipalities were enrolled for a 24-month follow-up study (NCT02766088). Serostatus was determined at enrolment and weekly contacts were conducted via phone calls and home visits. Participants had to report any febrile episode lasting for at least two days. Suspected dengue cases were tested by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), detection of non-structural protein 1 (NS1), anti-DENV immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM) assays.

Results: A total of 350 individuals from 87 households were enrolled. The overall seroprevalence of anti-DENV IgG at enrolment was 19.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.5-25.6) with the highest seroprevalence rate observed in the adult group. Over the 27-month study period from July 2016 to September 2018, a total of 18 suspected dengue cases were reported. Four cases were confirmed by RT-qPCR and serotyped as DENV-1. A fifth case was confirmed by the NS1 assay. The 13 remaining suspected cases were tested negative by these assays. Based on the 5 virologically confirmed cases, symptomatic dengue incidence proportion of 1.4% (95%CI 0.5-3.8) was estimated. No severe cases or hospitalizations occurred during the study.

Conclusion: Community-based active surveillance was shown as efficient to detect symptomatic dengue cases.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02766088.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250253PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099064PMC
May 2021

A prospective, multicentre, cohort study to assess the incidence of dengue illness in households from selected communities in Brazil (2014-2018).

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Instituto de Tecnologia em Imunobiológicos Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil 4.365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, 21.040-900, Brazil.

Objectives: To estimate the incidence of dengue infection across geographically distinct areas of Brazil.

Methods: This prospective, household-based, cohort study enrolled participants in five areas and followed them up for up to 4 years (2014-2018). Dengue seroprevalence was assessed at each scheduled visit. Suspected dengue cases were identified through enhanced passive and active surveillance. Acute symptomatic dengue infection was confirmed through reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction in combination with an antigenic assay (NS1) and serology.

Results: Among 3300 participants enrolled, baseline seroprevalence was 76.2%, although only 23.3% of participants reported a history of dengue. Of 1284 suspected symptomatic dengue cases detected, 50 (3.9%) were laboratory-confirmed. Based on 8166.5 person-years (PY) of follow-up, the incidence of laboratory-confirmed symptomatic infection (primary endpoint) was 6.1 per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 8.1). Incidence varied substantially in different years (1.8-7.4 per 1000 PY). The incidence of inapparent primary dengue infection was substantially higher: 41.7 per 1000 PY (95% CI: 31.1, 54.6).

Conclusions: Our findings, highlighting that the incidence of dengue infection is underestimated in Brazil, will inform the design and implementation of future dengue vaccine trials.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01751139.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.062DOI Listing
April 2021

Hepatitis A antibody persistence 8 and 10 years after 1-dose and 2-dose vaccination in children from Panama.

Vaccine 2021 01 22;39(1):26-34. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

GSK, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a global public health concern, which is potentially growing in Latin America, due to an expected shift from high to intermediate endemicity levels. The use of HAV vaccines in pediatric national immunization programs (NIPs), either as a 2-dose or a 1-dose schedule, has been explored in Latin American countries; however, evidence demonstrating long-term protection in this population is limited in the region. We evaluated long-term antibody persistence following a 1-dose partial series and the recommended 2-dose schedule used in Panama's pediatric NIP.

Methods: Two independent cross-sectional serological surveys were conducted at year 8 (Y8) and Y10 following vaccination under the NIP with 1 or 2 doses of an inactivated HAV vaccine (Havrix, GSK). Seropositivity (anti-HAV antibody concentration ≥ 15 mIU/mL) rates and antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were assessed at each serosurvey. Non-inferiority of 1 dose versus 2 doses was also explored.

Results: This study (NCT02712359) included 600 and 599 children at Y8 and Y10 post-vaccination, respectively. Seropositivity rates were 74.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.0; 79.2) and 97.7% (95% CI: 95.3; 99.1) at Y8 and 71.9% (95% CI: 66.4; 76.9) and 96.3% (95% CI: 93.5; 98.2) at Y10, in the 1-dose and 2-dose groups, respectively. Antibody GMCs were lower in the 1-dose versus the 2-dose group in both surveys. Non-inferiority was not demonstrated since the lower limit of the 2-sided 95% CI for the between-group difference in seropositivity rates (1-dose minus 2-dose) was < -10%.

Conclusion: Anti-HAV antibody persistence was observed in lower percentages of children receiving 1 dose versus 2 doses of Havrix, at 8 and 10 years post-vaccination in Panama. Further investigations are needed to confirm antibody persistence and conclude on the protection afforded beyond 10 years in the pediatric population in Latin America.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.11.030DOI Listing
January 2021

A systematic review of the burden of pertussis disease in infants and the effectiveness of maternal immunization against pertussis.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 07 9;19(7):621-638. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

GSK , Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction Infants too young to be fully immunized are the most vulnerable to severe pertussis disease. To close this susceptibility gap, passive infant immunization through vaccination of pregnant women against pertussis was first introduced in 2011 in the United States and has been extended since then to more than 40 countries. Areas covered We conducted two systematic literature searches to describe the worldwide burden of pertussis disease in infants <6 months of age since 2005, and the effectiveness and impact of maternal pertussis vaccination in preventing infant pertussis since 2011. Expert opinion Pertussis disease incidence rates in infants aged <2-3 months were substantial in all countries with available data, exceeding 1000 cases per 100,000 population during outbreaks. Virtually all pertussis deaths occurred in this age group. Data from Africa, Eastern Mediterranean, and Asia were limited, but suggest a similar or higher disease burden than in Europe or the Americas. Estimates of effectiveness of second/third trimester pertussis vaccination in preventing pertussis disease in <2-3 months old infants were consistently high (69%-93%) across the observational studies reviewed, conducted in various settings with different designs. Maternal vaccination programs appear to be achieving their goal of reducing the burden of disease in very young infants. Plain language summary What is the context? Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious disease of the respiratory tract. Infants too young to be fully vaccinated are at the highest risk of severe pertussis disease, hospitalization, and death. Vaccinating pregnant women against pertussis with a Tdap vaccine is recommended in more than 40 countries as a safe and effective strategy to protect infants for the first months of life. What is new? This review summarizes recent literature describing the burden of pertussis disease in infants worldwide prior to the introduction of maternal vaccination programs; pertussis disease incidence rates in infants aged <2-3 months were substantial in all countries with available data, exceeding 1000 cases per 100,000 population during outbreaks. Immunization of pregnant women with a Tdap vaccine can prevent about 70-90% of pertussis disease and up to 90.5% of pertussis hospitalizations in infants under 3 months of age. What is the impact? Limited available data suggest that incidence rates of pertussis disease after the introduction of Tdap maternal immunization have declined in infants. Current knowledge supports the implementation of Tdap maternal immunization programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1791092DOI Listing
July 2020

Meta-analysis of the risk of autoimmune thyroiditis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease following vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2020 09 24;29(9):1159-1167. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Research and Development, GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Purpose: To assess the risk of three autoimmune diseases - autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - in females following AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccination.

Methods: This meta-analysis included data from 18 randomized controlled trials, one cluster-randomized trial, two large observational retrospective cohort studies, and one case-control study. Following vaccination, a risk window of 2 years was defined for AIT and IBD and 42 days for GBS. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using three methods: meta-analysis inverse-variance with continuity correction (primary analysis), pooled estimate, and beta-binomial regression.

Results: In all studies apart from the case-control study, 154 398 exposed and 1 504 322 non-exposed subjects were included, among whom there were 141 and 1972 cases of (autoimmune) thyroiditis; 2 and 2 cases of GBS; and 43 and 401 cases of IBD, respectively. In the case-control study, there were 97 cases of AIT and 13 of GBS; matched with 802 and 130 controls, respectively. The primary analysis OR estimates were 1.46 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.76), 11.14 (2.00-61.92), and 1.11 (0.75-1.66) for (autoimmune) thyroiditis, GBS, and IBD, respectively.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis did not show an increased risk of IBD following vaccination with AS04-HPV-16/18. The 1.5-fold increased risk of (autoimmune) thyroiditis does not allow us to conclude about a causal association. For GBS, the very low number of cases and wide 95% CIs negate any firm conclusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.5063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539912PMC
September 2020

Dengue Infection in Children in Fortaleza, Brazil: A 3-Year School-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 07 23;103(1):100-111. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

GlaxoSmithKline, Wavre, Belgium.

Dengue is endemic in Brazil. The dengue surveillance system's reliance on passive reporting may underestimate disease incidence and cannot detect asymptomatic/pauci-symptomatic cases. In this 3-year prospective cohort study (NCT01391819) in 5- to 13-year-old children from nine schools in Fortaleza ( = 2,117), we assessed dengue virus (DENV) infection seroprevalence by IgG indirect ELISA at yearly visits and disease incidence through active and enhanced passive surveillance. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and DENV IgM/IgG capture ELISA were used for diagnosis. We further characterized confirmed and probable cases with a plaque reduction neutralization test. At enrollment, 54.1% (95% CI: 46.6, 61.4) of children were DENV IgG positive. The annual incidence of laboratory-confirmed symptomatic dengue cases was 11.0 (95% CI: 7.3, 14.7), 18.1 (10.4, 25.7), and 10.2 (0.7, 19.7), and of laboratory-confirmed or probable dengue cases with neutralizing antibody profile evocative of dengue exposure was 13.2 (6.6, 19.9), 18.7 (5.3, 32.2), and 8.4 (2.4, 19.2) per 1,000 child-years in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. By RT-qPCR, we identified 14 DENV-4 cases in 2012-2013 and seven DENV-1 cases in 2014. During the course of the study, 32.8% of dengue-naive children experienced a primary infection. Primary inapparent dengue infection was detected in 20.3% (95% CI: 13.6, 29.1) of dengue-naive children in 2012, 8.7% (6.9, 10.9) in 2013, and 5.1% (4.4, 6.0) in 2014. Our results confirmed the high dengue endemicity in Fortaleza, with active and enhanced passive surveillance detecting three to five times more cases than the National System of Disease Notification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356456PMC
July 2020

Immune interference (blunting) in the context of maternal immunization with Tdap-containing vaccines: is it a class effect?

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 04 7;19(4):341-352. Epub 2020 May 7.

Vaccines, GSK , Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: Maternal immunization with reduced antigen content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap)-containing vaccines has been recommended to prevent infant pertussis. However, maternal antibodies may interfere with infant responses to routine immunization with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccines, raising concerns of suboptimal protection after infant vaccination. We performed a narrative literature review to assess whether blunting occurs regardless of the manufacturer of maternal and infant vaccines. Because internationally agreed correlates of protection are lacking, the clinical significance of blunting is not yet fully understood. We have reviewed the evidence available to date.

Areas Covered: Thirteen studies that evaluated blunting after maternal immunization and infant primary/booster series were identified. Blunting was observed with various combinations of Tdap- and DTaP-containing vaccines for maternal and pediatric immunization. Studies assessing the effectiveness of maternal Tdap immunization beyond the primary infant immunization series in England and in the United States suggested no evidence of a clinically relevant blunting effect so far.

Expert Commentary: This review indicates that the phenomenon of blunting does not depend on the manufacturer/brand of the pertussis-containing vaccines used for immunizing mothers or children. Currently, there is no epidemiological evidence that children whose mothers received Tdap are at increased risk of pertussis after pediatric vaccinations, although longer follow-up is required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1749597DOI Listing
April 2020

Hepatitis B virus infection and the risk of liver disease progression in type 2 diabetic patients with potential nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a retrospective, observational, cohort study in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 01;32(1):101-109

GSK, Wavre, Belgium Present address: Germano Ferreira: Pharmacoepidemiologist and data scientist consultant; Tom Cattaert: DICE, Data Investigation Company Europe, Brussels, Belgium; Yang Feng: Ningyang Group Co., Limited, C/O GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Objective: Assess the risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infection in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink with three cohorts: subjects with T2DM and HBV infection (T2DM+HBV cohort; N = 297), with T2DM without HBV-infection (T2DM cohort; N = 261 865), and with HBV-infection without T2DM (HBV cohort; N = 3630). Primary analyses were performed on the three cohorts and secondary analyses on subcohorts including patients with NAFLD diagnosis code (N = 6599). Case/outcome definitions were formulated with International Classification of Diseases/Read codes/laboratory results and classified using validated algorithms. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated with a Poisson regression model.

Results: When comparing the T2DM+HBV and T2DM cohorts, adjusted IRRs were 14.06 (95% confidence interval: 4.47-44.19) for cirrhosis and 2.83 (1.06-7.55) for HCC. When comparing the T2DM+HBV and HBV cohorts, adjusted IRRs were 0.68 (0.21-2.27) for cirrhosis and 1.39 (0.46-4.20) for HCC. No cirrhosis cases were identified in T2DM+NAFLD+HBV patients; IRs were 16.92/10 000 person-years (12.97-21.69) and 85.24/10 000 person-years (10.32-307.91) in the T2DM+NAFLD and NAFLD+HBV cohorts.

Conclusion: HBV-infection increased significantly the risk for cirrhosis among T2DM patients, however, not beyond the expected incremental risk among infected non-T2DM subjects. Our approach to evaluate the role of T2DM/NAFLD and HBV-infection in liver disease progression could be applied to other settings with higher HBV prevalence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001537DOI Listing
January 2020

Prevalence and Persistence of Maternal Dengue Neutralizing Antibodies in Infants From Central and Southern Thailand: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 05;31(4):288-295

2 Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Understanding maternal dengue virus (DENV) neutralizing antibody kinetics in infants remains timely to develop a safe and effective childhood immunization. This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and persistence of maternal antibody titers against DENV serotypes 1 to 4 in 139 Thai infants at 2, 6, and 7 months of age, using serum samples collected in a vaccination trial ( http://clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT00197275). Neutralizing antibodies against all 4 DENV serotypes were detected in 87.8% and 22.9% of infants at 2 and 7 months, respectively. At 2 months, DENV-4 neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers were notably lower (80) compared with DENV-1 to DENV-3 (277-471). Our results corroborate previous findings that DENV-1 to DENV-4 maternal antibodies persist at 7 months despite titers decrease from 2 months onwards. As persisting maternal antibodies may inhibit immune responses in DENV-vaccinated infants, a comprehensive understanding of DENV antibody kinetics is required in the perspective of vaccine development for infants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519853396DOI Listing
May 2019

Introducing new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries: challenges and approaches.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2019 02 11;18(2):119-131. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

a Research and Development , GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

Introduction: The number of new vaccine introductions (NVIs) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has markedly increased since 2010, raising challenges to often overstretched and underfunded health care systems.

Areas Covered: We present an overview of some of these challenges, focusing on programmatic decisions, delivery strategy, information and communication, pharmacovigilance and post-licensure evaluation. We also highlight field-based initiatives that may facilitate NVI.

Expert Commentary: Some new vaccines targeting populations other than infants require alternative delivery strategies. NVIs impact upon existing supply chain management, in particular vaccines with novel characteristics. A lack of understanding about immunization and misconceptions may be detrimental to NVI, as well as insufficient or poorly trained health care workforce. Many barriers exist to achieving good vaccination coverage. Real-world evaluation of vaccine safety, effectiveness and impact in LMICs may be limited by lack of robust demographic and disease epidemiology data, as well as limited health care and surveillance infrastructure. A thorough planning phase is crucial to define the most suitable delivery strategy based on the vaccine's and country's specificities. A communication plan and social mobilization are essential. Implementation research and innovative approaches applied to logistics, delivery, communication and program evaluation can facilitate NVI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2019.1574224DOI Listing
February 2019

Biased efficacy estimates in phase-III dengue vaccine trials due to heterogeneous exposure and differential detectability of primary infections across trial arms.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0210041. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Biological Sciences and Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, United States of America.

Vaccine efficacy (VE) estimates are crucial for assessing the suitability of dengue vaccine candidates for public health implementation, but efficacy trials are subject to a known bias to estimate VE toward the null if heterogeneous exposure is not accounted for in the analysis of trial data. In light of many well-characterized sources of heterogeneity in dengue virus (DENV) transmission, our goal was to estimate the potential magnitude of this bias in VE estimates for a hypothetical dengue vaccine. To ensure that we realistically modeled heterogeneous exposure, we simulated city-wide DENV transmission and vaccine trial protocols using an agent-based model calibrated with entomological and epidemiological data from long-term field studies in Iquitos, Peru. By simulating a vaccine with a true VE of 0.8 in 1,000 replicate trials each designed to attain 90% power, we found that conventional methods underestimated VE by as much as 21% due to heterogeneous exposure. Accounting for the number of exposures in the vaccine and placebo arms eliminated this bias completely, and the more realistic option of including a frailty term to model exposure as a random effect reduced this bias partially. We also discovered a distinct bias in VE estimates away from the null due to lower detectability of primary DENV infections among seronegative individuals in the vaccinated group. This difference in detectability resulted from our assumption that primary infections in vaccinees who are seronegative at baseline resemble secondary infections, which experience a shorter window of detectable viremia due to a quicker immune response. This resulted in an artefactual finding that VE estimates for the seronegative group were approximately 1% greater than for the seropositive group. Simulation models of vaccine trials that account for these factors can be used to anticipate the extent of bias in field trials and to aid in their interpretation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210041PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347271PMC
September 2019

Incidence and costs of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in German adults aged ≥50 years: A prospective study.

J Infect 2018 05 8;76(5):475-482. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300 Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objectives: Herpes zoster (HZ) mainly affects elderly people and immunocompromised individuals. HZ is usually characterized by a unilateral painful skin rash. Its most common complication, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), may cause chronic debilitating pain. This study aimed to estimate the HZ incidence in individuals aged ≥50 years in Germany, the proportion of PHN and the economic burden.

Methods: From 2010 to 2014, HZ patients were recruited when consulting physicians in physician networks covering about 157,000 persons aged ≥50 years. PHN was defined as "worst pain" rated ≥3 on the zoster brief pain inventory persisting or appearing over 90 days after rash onset. Costs were calculated based on medical resource utilization and lost working time.

Results: HZ incidence was estimated as 6.7/1000 person-years, increasing with age to 9.4/1000 in ≥80 year-olds. Among 513 HZ patients enrolled, the proportion of PHN was 11.9%, rising with age to 14.3% in HZ patients ≥80 years. Estimated total cost per HZ patient was €156 from the healthcare system perspective and €311 from the societal perspective.

Conclusions: The study confirmed previous findings that HZ causes a substantial clinical and economic burden in older German adults. It also confirmed the age-related increasing risk of HZ and PHN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.02.001DOI Listing
May 2018

Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Brazil and Mexico.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 08 8;13(8):1942-1951. Epub 2017 May 8.

c Department of Global and Community Health , George Mason University , Fairfax , VA , USA.

Background: Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV.

Methods: An age-specific deterministic, dynamic compartmental transmission model with stratification by setting (rural versus urban) was calibrated with country-specific data on demography, urbanization, and seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies. HAV transmission was modeled as a function of setting-specific access to safe water. The model was then used to project various HAV-related epidemiological outcomes in Brazil and in Mexico from 1950 to 2050.

Results: The projected epidemiological outcomes were qualitatively similar in the 2 countries. The age at the midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) increased considerably and the mean age of symptomatic HAV cases shifted from childhood to early adulthood. The projected overall incidence rate of HAV infections decreased by about two thirds as safe water access improved. However, the incidence rate of symptomatic HAV infections remained roughly the same over the projection period. The incidence rates of HAV infections (all and symptomatic alone) were projected to become similar in rural and urban settings in the next decades.

Conclusion: This model featuring population age structure, urbanization and access to safe water as key contributors to the epidemiological transition for HAV was previously validated with data from Thailand and fits equally well with data from Latin American countries. Assuming no introduction of a vaccination program over the projection period, both Brazil and Mexico were projected to experience a continued decrease in HAV incidence rates without any substantial decrease in the incidence rates of symptomatic HAV infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1323158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557237PMC
August 2017

Letter to the editor.

Int J Cancer 2017 07 10;141(2):414-415. Epub 2017 May 10.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30753DOI Listing
July 2017

A dynamic transmission model with age-dependent infectiousness and reactivation for cytomegalovirus in the United States: Potential impact of vaccination strategies on congenital infection.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2015 ;11(7):1788-802

a GSK Vaccines; Vaccines - Non-Clinical Operations ; King of Prussia , PA , USA.

We present an age-structured dynamic transmission model for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the United States, based on natural history and available data, primarily aiming to combine the available qualitative and quantitative knowledge toward more complex modeling frameworks to better reflect the underlying biology and epidemiology of the CMV infection. The model structure explicitly accounts for primary infections, reactivations and re-infections. Duration of infectiousness and likelihood of reactivation were both assumed to be age-dependent, and natural reduction in the re-infection risk following primary infection was included. We used an empirical social contact matrix (POLYMOD-based) as support for CMV transmission between different age groups. The baseline model reproduced well the age-stratified seroprevalence data (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III) used for calibration. The model was further used to explore the potential impact of hypothetical vaccination on reducing congenital CMV infection under various vaccine profiles and vaccination scenarios. Our preliminary model-based simulations suggested that while infant vaccination may represent an attractive way to reduce congenital CMV infection over time, adolescent female vaccination with an adequate routine booster platform may, under certain conditions, provide an alternative. However, for such tools to be considered toward actual decision-making, enhanced validations based on additional studies and data would be further necessary. The modeling framework presented in this paper was designed to be sufficiently general and flexible, such that it can allow for further adaptations to reflect new knowledge or data that may become available in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2015.1016665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4514193PMC
April 2016

The epidemiology of herpes zoster and its complications in Medicare cancer patients.

BMC Infect Dis 2015 Feb 27;15:106. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

Analysis Group, Inc., 111 Huntington Ave., Tenth Floor, Boston, MA, 02199, USA.

Background: Literature on the epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) in cancer patients is sparse and does not include the elderly. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of HZ and related complications in elderly cancer patients and assess risk factors associated with HZ.

Methods: Patients ≥65 years diagnosed with cancer in 1991-2007 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry-Medicare linked database in this retrospective, longitudinal, open cohort study. The observation period spanned from first cancer diagnosis until the end of data availability. A random group of non-cancer Medicare patients served as the comparison group. Cases of HZ and related complications were ascertained from medical claims. Incidence rates (IR) and adjusted IR ratios were reported.

Results: The study population consisted of 82,832 hematologic (HEM) and 944,777 solid cancer patients (SOLID). During follow-up, 9.2% of HEM and 6.3% of SOLID were diagnosed with HZ. The IR of HZ was significantly higher in HEM than SOLID (31.0 vs. 14.9 per 1,000 patient-years, p <0.01). The adjusted IR ratio vs. non-cancer elderly patients was 2.4 in HEM and 1.2 in SOLID. The proportion of patients with complications was higher in HEM than SOLID (17.8% vs. 15.8%, p <0.01). Age, gender, race, certain cancer therapies, and immunosuppression were HZ risk factors.

Conclusions: Elderly cancer patients run a 1.2-2.4 times higher risk of developing HZ than those without cancer. The rates of HZ and HZ-related complications are significantly higher for hematologic than solid cancer patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-0810-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4352235PMC
February 2015

Incidence and risk factors of herpes zoster among hiv-positive patients in the german competence network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet): a cohort study analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2013 Aug 10;13:372. Epub 2013 Aug 10.

Competence Network for HIV/AIDS, Ruhr-University, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany.

Background: HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of Herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HZ incidence in HIV-infected individuals ranged from 2.9-5.1/100 person-years. There is limited evidence for the impact of ART on HZ occurrence among HIV-infected adults. We analysed the incidence of, and risk factors for, HZ in a large cohort of German HIV-positive patients.

Methods: The study population was taken from the German KompNet cohort, a nationwide multicenter HIV cohort study. The study population was defined by age (≥ 18 years), year of first positive HIV diagnosis, CD4 values ± 6 months from HIV diagnosis (t0), and month of HZ diagnosis. Incidences were estimated using a Poisson distribution, and uni- and multivariate Cox proportional Hazard ratio (HR) regression models were fitted to identify risk factors for developing an initial HZ episode. Independent variables were sex, age at HIV diagnosis, route of HIV transmission, ART status, CD4 count before HZ episode, immunosuppressive medication, and mode of data documentation (retrospective or prospective).

Results: HZ incidence in the overall study population was 1.2/100 person-years. In a subset of patients for that we were able to examine risk factors the following was observed: We examined 3,757 individuals whose mean age at t0 was 38 years. Of those individuals, 96% were diagnosed with HIV in 1996 or later, with a mean observation time of 5.8 years. HZ episodes (n = 362) were recorded in 326 patients (8.7%), resulting in annual HZ incidences of 1.7/100 person-years overall, and 1.6/100 person-years for initial HZ cases. The main risk factors associated with an initial HZ episode were: not partaking in ART compared with an ART regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (HR 0.530, p < 0.001) or a protease inhibitor (HR 0.624, p = 0.004); and lower CD4 count by 100 cells/μl (HR 0.918, p=0.001).

Conclusions: HZ incidence was 4-11-fold higher than in non HIV-infected individuals, but in our study HZ incidences were lower than in previous studies relating to HIV-positive patients. We showed that ART is an important protective factor for HZ episodes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-13-372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751196PMC
August 2013

Cost analysis of human islet transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in the Swiss-French Consortium GRAGIL.

Diabetes Care 2004 Apr;27(4):895-900

Department of Medical Information, Hospices Civils, Lyon, France.

Objective: To evaluate the cost of islet transplantation in type 1 diabetic patients with a functional renal graft in a multicenter network.

Research Design And Methods: The study involved nine diabetic patients transplanted in the Swiss-French Groupe Rhône-Alpes, Rhin et Geneve pour la transplantation d'Ilots Langerhans (GRAGIL) consortium between March 1999 and June 2000. The direct medical costs were estimated from Social Security's perspective from the inclusion of the patient to 1 year after transplantation. All cost components were computed separately and included evaluation, screening and candidacy, organ retrieval, islet processing, pancreas and islet transportation, hospitalization for transplantation, follow-up, medications (immunosuppressive, antidiabetic, and adjuvant drugs), and adverse events requiring hospitalization.

Results: During the study period, 56 pancreata were processed and 14 islet preparations were transplanted. The average cost of an islet transplantation (procedure and 1-year follow-up) was 77,745 euro (French rate, year 2000). The four main cost components were islet preparation (30% of the total cost), adverse events (24%), drugs (14%), and hospitalization (13%).

Conclusions: Overall costs of islet transplantation are slightly higher than those of pancreas transplantation. The cell isolation process is a critical point; a reduction in overall cost will require more efficient ways of isolating high yields of viable islets. Costs generated by shipments within the GRAGIL network did not represent an economic burden. It can be expected that the costs will decrease with growing experience and improving technology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.4.895DOI Listing
April 2004

Economic impact of pharmacists' interventions with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

Ann Pharmacother 2003 Mar;37(3):332-8

Département d'Information Médicale, Unité de Méthodologie en Evaluation Médicale, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Objective: To estimate the economic impact of community pharmacists' interventions following the detection of problems related to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), whether in a prescription or self-medication format. The evaluation focused on the gastroduodenal adverse events that could be avoided and the subsequent savings of healthcare resources spent on treating these adverse effects.

Methods: A previous study conducted during a 12-week period in 924 French community pharmacies provided the number of interventions for drug-related problems concerning NSAIDs. A simulation model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: a systematic pharmacist's intervention and the absence of intervention. The base-case patient was assumed to have been taking an NSAID for 3 months. The model's inputs were extracted from medical literature and from an institutional medical database.

Results: In this study, 608 interventions were the results of NSAID-related problems. All of these interventions reduced the risk of gastrointestinal adverse events and avoided a total cost of 37 300.

Conclusions: This model indicates that the dispensing of NSAIDs by pharmacists and related pharmaceutical care activities have a positive impact by reducing the number of gastrointestinal complications. The model quantifies the costs thus avoided. It also underlines the necessity of effective collaboration between the prescriber and the pharmacist if optimal patient management is to be achieved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1345/aph.1C134xDOI Listing
March 2003