Publications by authors named "Adrienne Eastlake"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of enhanced darkfield microscopy and hyperspectral imaging for rapid screening of TiO and SiO nanoscale particles captured on filter media.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Dec 14;84(12):2968-2976. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

College of Nanoscale Science & Engineering, Nanobioscience Constellation, State University of New York (SUNY) Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York, USA.

Here we report on initial efforts to evaluate enhanced darkfield microscopy (EDFM) and light scattering Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging (HSI) as a rapid screening tool for the offline analysis of mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter media used to collect airborne nanoparticulate from work environments. For this study, the materials of interest were nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO ) and silicon dioxide (SiO ; silica), chosen for their frequent use in consumer products. TiO and SiO nanoscale particles (NPs) were collected on MCE filter media and were imaged and analyzed via EDFM-HSI. When visualized by EDFM, TiO and SiO NPs were readily apparent as bright spherical structures against a dark background. Moreover, TiO and SiO NPs were identified in hyperspectral images. EDFM-HSI images and data were compared to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), a NIST-traceable technique for particle size analysis, and the current gold standard for offline analysis of filter media. As expected, STEM provided more accurate sizing and morphology data when compared to EDFM-HSI, but is not ideal for rapid screening of the presence of NPs of interest since it is a costly, low-throughput technique. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of EDFM-HSI in rapidly visualizing and identifying TiO and SiO NPs on MCE filters. This screening method may prove useful in expediting time-to-knowledge compared to electron microscopy. Future work will expand this evaluation to other industrially relevant NPs, other filter media types, and real-world filter samples from occupational exposure assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23856DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of classification methods for identifying multiwalled carbon nanotubes collected on mixed cellulose ester filter media.

J Microsc 2021 08 9;283(2):102-116. Epub 2021 May 9.

College of Nanoscale Science & Engineering, State University of New York (SUNY) Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York.

Enhanced darkfield microscopy (EDFM) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are being evaluated as a potential rapid screening modality to reduce the time-to-knowledge for direct visualisation and analysis of filter media used to sample nanoparticulate from work environments, as compared to the current analytical gold standard of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Here, we compare accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of several hyperspectral classification models and data preprocessing techniques to determine how to most effectively identify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in hyperspectral images. Several classification schemes were identified that are capable of classifying pixels as MWCNT(+) or MWCNT(-) in hyperspectral images with specificity and sensitivity over 99% on the test dataset. Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) was identified as an appropriate data preprocessing technique, testing optimally when coupled with a quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) model with forward stepwise variable selection and with a support vector machines (SVM) model. The success of these methods suggests that EDFM-HSI may be reliably employed to assess filter media exposed to MWCNTs. Future work will evaluate the ability of EDFM-HSI to quantify MWCNTs collected on filter media using this classification algorithm framework using the best-performing model identified here - quadratic discriminant analysis with forward stepwise selection on functional principal component data - on an expanded sample set.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmi.13012DOI Listing
August 2021

An evaluation of engineered nanomaterial safety data sheets for safety and health information post implementation of the revised hazard communication standard.

J Chem Health Saf 2019 Mar-Apr;26(2):12-18. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Collegiate Leader in Occupational Safety and Health.

In 2012, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the revised Hazard Communication Standard to bring the US in closer alignment with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, and make the exchange of health and safety information more effective. To evaluate the impact of this change on the reliability and accuracy of safety data sheets, a sample of safety data sheets specific to engineered nanomaterials was obtained by using an internet search engine and subsequently evaluated. These safety data sheets were evaluated using a modified Kimlisch et al. (1997) criteria for ranking the quality of data into categories of reliability and the Eastlake et al. (2012) ranking scheme for scoring four categories. While 86 safety data sheets for nanomaterials were obtained during 2016-2017, 19 of these had no date of completion or revision and could not be evaluated since it was impossible to determine if they were pre or post 2012, when the revised OSHA Hazard Communication Standard was issued. The remaining 67 safety data sheets were ranked by the Kimlisch et al. criteria, and 28.4% (19) were found to be reliable without restrictions (excellent), 35.8% (24) were reliable with restrictions (good), and 35.8% (24) were determined to be unreliable. Evaluating the SDSs using the Eastlake et al. ranking scheme resulted in 3% (2) as satisfactory, 17.9% (12) as being in need of improvement, and 79% (53) in need of significant improvement. It is noteworthy that out of the 79% in need of significant improvement, 25.4% (17) did not have enough data to be evaluated. This evaluation of nanomaterial safety data sheets revealed that the quality of information on many still cannot be relied upon to offer adequate information on the inherent health and safety hazards, including handling and storage of engineered nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchas.2018.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423961PMC
November 2018

Sample preparation method for visualization of nanoparticulate captured on mixed cellulose ester filter media by enhanced darkfield microscopy and hyperspectral imaging.

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Jun 15;82(6):878-883. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

College of Nanoscale Science, Nanobioscience Constellation, State University of New York (SUNY) Polytechnic Institute, College of Nanoscale Science, New York.

A significant hurdle in conducting effective health and safety hazard analysis and risk assessment for the nanotechnology workforce is the lack of a rapid method for the direct visualization and analysis of filter media used to sample nanomaterials from work environments that represent potential worker exposure. Current best-known methods include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for elemental identification. TEM-EDS is considerably time-, cost-, and resource-intensive, which may prevent timely health and safety recommendations and corrective actions. A rapid screening method is currently being explored using enhanced darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral imaging (EDFM-HSI). For this approach to be effective, rapid, and easy, sample preparation that is amenable to the analytical technique is needed. Here, we compare the sample preparation steps for mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter media specified in NIOSH Method 7400-Asbestos and Other Fibers by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM)-against a new method, which involves saturation of the filter media with acetone. NIOSH Method 7400 was chosen as a starting point since it is an established technique for preparing transparent MCE filters for optical microscopy. Limitations in this method led to the development and comparison of a new method. The new method was faster, easier, and rendered filters more transparent, resulting in improved visualization and analysis of nanomaterials via EDFM-HSI. This new method is suitable for a rapid screening protocol due to its speed, ease of use, and the improvement in image acquisition and analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520123PMC
June 2019

Control Banding Tools for Engineered Nanoparticles: What the Practitioner Needs to Know.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Education and Information Division (EID), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Tusculum Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Control banding (CB) has been widely recommended for the selection of exposure controls for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the absence of ENM-specific occupational exposure limits (OELs). Several ENM-specific CB strategies have been developed but have not been systematically evaluated. In this article, we identify the data inputs and compare the guidance provided by eight CB tools, evaluated on six ENMs, and assuming a constant handling/use scenario. The ENMs evaluated include nanoscale silica, titanium dioxide, silver, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and cellulose. Several of the tools recommended the highest level of exposure control for each of the ENMs in the evaluation, which was driven largely by the hazard banding. Dustiness was a factor in determining the exposure band in many tools, although most tools did not provide explicit guidance on how to classify the dustiness (high, medium, low), and published data are limited on this topic. The CB tools that recommended more diverse control options based on ENM hazard and dustiness data appear to be better equipped to utilize the available information, although further validation is needed by comparison to exposure measurements and OELs for a variety of ENMs. In all CB tools, local exhaust ventilation was recommended at a minimum to control exposures to ENMs in the workplace. Generally, the same or more stringent control levels were recommended by these tools compared with the OELs proposed for these ENMs, suggesting that these CB tools would generally provide prudent exposure control guidance, including when data are limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxy002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153190PMC
February 2018

Nano-metal oxides: Exposure and engineering control assessment.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2017 09;14(9):727-737

a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) , Cincinnati , Ohio.

In January 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a field study to evaluate process specific emissions during the production of ENMs. This study was performed using the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT). During this study, it was determined that ENMs were released during production and cleaning of the process reactor. Airborne concentrations of silver, nickel, and iron were found both in the employee's personal breathing zone and area samples during reactor cleaning. At the completion of this initial survey, it was suggested that a flanged attachment be added to the local exhaust ventilation system.  NIOSH re-evaluated the facility in December 2011 to assess worker exposures following an increase in production rates. This study included a fully comprehensive emissions, exposure, and engineering control evaluation of the entire process. This study made use of the nanoparticle exposure assessment technique (NEAT 2.0). Data obtained from filter-based samples and direct reading instruments indicate that reactor cleanout increased the overall particle concentration in the immediate area. However, it does not appear that these concentrations affect areas outside of the production floor. As the distance between the reactor and the sample location increased, the observed particle number concentration decreased, creating a concentration gradient with respect to the reactor. The results of this study confirm that the flanged attachment on the local exhaust ventilation system served to decrease exposure potential.  Given the available toxicological data of the metals evaluated, caution is warranted. One should always keep in mind that occupational exposure levels were not developed specifically for nanoscale particles. With data suggesting that certain nanoparticles may be more toxic than the larger counterparts of the same material; employers should attempt to control emissions of these particles at the source, to limit the potential for exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2017.1326699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5655802PMC
September 2017

Can Control Banding be Useful for the Safe Handling of Nanomaterials? A Systematic Review.

J Nanopart Res 2016;18. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Nanotechnology Research Center, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Objectives: Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question "can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials."

Methods: A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included 'control', 'hazard', 'exposure' and 'risk' banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). The quality of the evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).

Results: A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended exposure controls using CB to existing exposure controls previously recommended by an industrial hygienist. It was determined that the selection of exposure controls using CB were consistent with those recommended by an industrial hygienist for 19 out of 32 (59.4%) job activities. A higher level of exposure control was recommended for nine out of 32 (28.1%) job activities using CB while four out of 32 (12.5%) job activities had in place exposure controls that were more stringent than those recommended using CB. After evaluation using GRADE, evidence indicated that the use of CB Nanotool can recommend exposure controls for many ENM job activities that would be consistent with those recommended by an experienced industrial hygienist.

Conclusion: The use of CB for reducing exposures to ENMs has the potential to be an effective risk management strategy when information is limited on the health risk to the nanomaterial and/or there is an absence of an occupational exposure limit (OEL). However, there remains a lack of evidence to conclude that the use of CB can provide adequate exposure control in all work environments. Additional validation work is needed to provide more data to support the use of CB for the safe handling of ENMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11051-016-3476-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961048PMC
June 2016

NIOSH field studies team assessment: Worker exposure to aerosolized metal oxide nanoparticles in a semiconductor fabrication facility.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2016 11;13(11):871-80

b National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , Cincinnati , Ohio.

The ubiquitous use of engineered nanomaterials-particulate materials measuring approximately 1-100 nanometers (nm) on their smallest axis, intentionally engineered to express novel properties-in semiconductor fabrication poses unique issues for protecting worker health and safety. Use of new substances or substances in a new form may present hazards that have yet to be characterized for their acute or chronic health effects. Uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards may exist when there is insufficient validated hazard data available to make a decision on potential hazard and risk to exposed workers under condition of use. To advance the knowledge of potential worker exposure to engineered nanomaterials, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Studies Team conducted an on-site field evaluation in collaboration with on-site researchers at a semiconductor research and development facility on April 18-21, 2011. The Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (2.0) was used to perform a complete exposure assessment. A combination of filter-based sampling and direct-reading instruments was used to identify, characterize, and quantify the potential for worker inhalation exposure to airborne alumina and amorphous silica nanoparticles associated with th e chemical mechanical planarization wafer polishing process. Engineering controls and work practices were evaluated to characterize tasks that might contribute to potential exposures and to assess existing engineering controls. Metal oxide structures were identified in all sampling areas, as individual nanoparticles and agglomerates ranging in size from 60 nm to >1,000 nm, with varying structure morphology, from long and narrow to compact. Filter-based samples indicated very little aerosolized material in task areas or worker breathing zone. Direct-reading instrument data indicated increased particle counts relative to background in the wastewater treatment area; however, particle counts were very low overall, indicating a well-controlled working environment. Recommendations for employees handling or potentially exposed to engineered nanomaterials include hazard communication, standard operating procedures, conservative ventilation systems, and prevention through design in locations where engineered nanomaterials are used or stored, and routine air sampling for occupational exposure assessment and analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1183015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016214PMC
November 2016

Refinement of the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique into the Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0).

J Occup Environ Hyg 2016 09;13(9):708-17

a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Cincinnati , Ohio.

Engineered nanomaterial emission and exposure characterization studies have been completed at more than 60 different facilities by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These experiences have provided NIOSH the opportunity to refine an earlier published technique, the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT 1.0), into a more comprehensive technique for assessing worker and workplace exposures to engineered nanomaterials. This change is reflected in the new name Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0) which distinguishes it from NEAT 1.0. NEAT 2.0 places a stronger emphasis on time-integrated, filter-based sampling (i.e., elemental mass analysis and particle morphology) in the worker's breathing zone (full shift and task specific) and area samples to develop job exposure matrices. NEAT 2.0 includes a comprehensive assessment of emissions at processes and job tasks, using direct-reading instruments (i.e., particle counters) in data-logging mode to better understand peak emission periods. Evaluation of worker practices, ventilation efficacy, and other engineering exposure control systems and risk management strategies serve to allow for a comprehensive exposure assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1167278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4956539PMC
September 2016

Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes.

J Nanopart Res 2015 Sep;17(9):366

Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, (SUNY Poly).

A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles that includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11051-015-3152-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589526PMC
September 2015

Lifestyle and safety practices of firefighters and their relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

Work 2015 Jan;50(2):285-94

Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: In the United States, over 50% of the deaths of on-duty firefighters are classified as sudden cardiac deaths. A holistic view of the multiple risk factors and their relation to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is necessary to determine a baseline for prevention.

Methods: This study surveyed 154 firefighters in a large Midwestern county about their individual exposure to particulates, noise, heat stress, skin contamination, and physical stress; lifestyle factors such as exercise, diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption; health status; and demographic factors.

Results: Consumption of whole grains and alcohol were associated with a reduction of the risk of heart disease, while higher Body Mass Index (BMI) scores and increasing age were associated with increased risk of heart disease.

Conclusions: Although firefighters are exposed to substantial occupational risks, only lifestyle factors were found to significantly predict CVD and related health issues. BMI is a modifiable risk factor, which, if controlled, could appreciably improve health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-131796DOI Listing
January 2015

A critical evaluation of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for engineered nanomaterials.

Chem Health Saf 2012 Sep-Oct;19(5):1-8

Environmental Data Validation, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) provide employers, employees, emergency responders, and the general public with basic information about the hazards associated with chemicals that are used in the workplace and are a part of every-day commerce. They are a primary information resource used by health, safety, and environmental professionals in communicating the hazards of chemicals and in making risk management decisions. Engineered nanomaterials represent a growing class of materials being manufactured and introduced into multiple business sectors. MSDSs were obtained from a total of 44 manufacturers using Internet search engines, and a simple ranking scheme was developed to evaluate the content of the data sheets. The MSDSs were reviewed using the ranking scheme, and categorized on the quality and completeness of information as it pertains to hazard identification, exposure controls, personal protective equipment (PPE), and toxicological information being communicated about the engineered nanomaterial. The ranking scheme used to evaluate the MSDSs for engineered nanomaterials was based on the determination that the data sheet should include information on specific physical properties, including particle size or particle size distribution, and physical form; specific toxicological and health effects; and protective measures that can be taken to control potential exposures. The first MSDSs for nanomaterials began to appear around 2006, so these were collected in the time period of 2007-2008. Comparison of MSDSs and changes over time were evaluated as MSDSs were obtained again in 2010-2011. The majority (67%) of the MSDSs obtained in 2010-2011 still provided insufficient data for communicating the potential hazards of engineered nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchas.2012.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707963PMC
January 2016
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