Publications by authors named "Adrian Kayanja"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HIV Infection Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality Among Adults with Reduced Level of Consciousness in Uganda.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Phoenix, Arizona.

The clinical epidemiology of adults admitted with reduced level of consciousness (LOC) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the impact of HIV infection on the risk of mortality in this population is unknown. We secondarily analyzed data from a cohort study that enrolled 359 consecutive adults with reduced LOC presenting to Mbarara Regional Hospital in Uganda with the aim of comparing the prognostic utility of the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Score. For this analysis, we included 336 individuals with known HIV serostatus, obtaining clinical, laboratory, and follow-up data. We recorded investigations and treatments deemed critical by clinicians for patient care but were unavailable. We computed mortality rates and used logistic regression to determine predictors of 30-day mortality. The median GCS was 10. Persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) accounted for 97 of 336 (29%) of the cohort. The 30-day mortality rate in the total cohort was 148 of 329 (45%), and this was significantly higher in PLWH (57% versus 40%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.39: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-4.35, P = 0.0046). Other predictors of mortality were presence of any unmet clinical need (aOR 1.72; 95% CIL 1.04-2.84, P = 0.0346), anemia (aOR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.01-2.81, P = 0.047), and admission FOUR score < 12 [aOR 4.26; 95% CI: 2.36-7.7, P < 0.0001). Presentation with reduced LOC in Uganda is associated with high mortality rates, with worse outcomes in PLWH. Improvement of existing acute care services is likely to improve outcomes.
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January 2022

Stroke Mortality Outcomes in Uganda.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 6;30(5):105661. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Stroke outcome data in Uganda is lacking. The objective of this study was to capture 30-day mortality outcomes in patients presenting with acute and subacute stroke to Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) in Uganda.

Methods: A prospective study enrolling consecutive adults presenting to MRRH with abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficits suspicious for stroke, from August 2014 to March 2015. All patients had head computed tomography (CT) confirmation of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Data was collected on mortality, morbidity, risk factors, and imaging characteristics.

Results: Investigators screened 134 potential subjects and enrolled 108 patients. Sixty-two percent had ischemic and 38% hemorrhagic stroke. The mean age of all patients was 62.5 (SD 17.4), and 52% were female. More patients had hypertension in the hemorrhagic stroke group than in the ischemic stroke group (53% vs. 32%, p = 0.0376). Thirty-day mortality was 38.1% (p = 0.0472), and significant risk factors were National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, female sex, anemia, and HIV infection. A one unit increase of the NIHSS on admission increased the risk of death at 30 days by 6%. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke had statistically higher NIHSS scores (p = 0.0408) on admission compared to patients with ischemic stroke, and also had statistically higher Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge (p = 0.0063), and mRS score change from baseline (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Our study highlights an overall 30-day stroke mortality of 38.1% in southwestern Uganda, and identifies NIHSS at admission, female sex, anemia, and HIV infection as predictors of mortality.
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May 2021

Healthcare provider perspectives regarding epilepsy care in Uganda.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 01 3;114(Pt B):107294. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Duke Division of Global Neurosurgery and Neurology, Department of Neurosurgery, Box 3807 Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA; Duke Global Health Institute, 310 Trent Dr, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Duke University, School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in the world and imposes a large economic burden on global healthcare systems, especially in low-income settings and rural areas as is found in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite the high epilepsy prevalence, there are no systematic descriptions of healthcare provider (HCP) perceptions and needs in managing people with epilepsy (PWE) in Uganda. Identifying these perceptions and needs is crucial for understanding community priorities, thereby enhancing the development of culturally sensitive communications, interventions, and research approaches.

Methods: In this qualitative study, we used semistructured interview guides to conduct focus group discussions that explored the perspectives of 32 providers of epilepsy care from health facilities around Mbarara, Uganda. Our sample included nonspecialized general physicians (n = 3), medical residents (n = 8), medical clinical officers (n = 3), psychiatric clinical nurses (n = 6), medical nurses and nursing assistants (n = 9), and other providers (n = 3), who were loosely grouped into discussion groups based on level or type of training. Self-assessed proficiency ratings were also administered to gain a better understanding of participants' confidence in their training, preparedness, and capabilities regarding epilepsy care. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted to ascertain commonly occurring themes about perceptions and challenges in epilepsy care.

Results: Our analyses identified nine major themes that dominated the perspectives of the study participants: care management, medications, diagnostics, HCP training, human resources, location, patient education, social support, and community knowledge and beliefs. Proficiency ratings prioritized areas of confidence as knowledge related to referrals, psychosocial impacts, and seizure neurophysiology. Areas of need were revealed as knowledge of diagnostic tools and antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens.

Conclusions: Our findings delineate the perspectives of providers caring for PWE, with consistent recognition of challenges centering around resource augmentation, infrastructure strengthening, and education. Participants emphasized the urgent need to augment these resources to address limitations in medication types and access, trained human resources, and diagnostic tools. They overwhelmingly recognized the need for infrastructure strengthening to address human, diagnostic, medicinal, and capital resource limitations that place undue burden on patients with epilepsy and physicians. Providers indicated a clear desire to learn more about different diagnostic tools and medical management practices, potentially through continuing education, specialized training, or more intentional in-school diagnostic preparation. They also advocated for the powerful influence of patient and family education and clearly articulated the need for community sensitization and support. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".
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January 2021

Clinical Conditions of Hospitalized Older Adult Patients and Their Outcomes in a Regional Referral Hospital in Southwestern Uganda.

J Aging Res 2020 29;2020:6830495. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Microbiology, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.

Background: Recent advances in medicine have caused positive impact on the life expectancy of most countries, resulting in increased older adult population. Aging comes with a number of health challenges. This study investigated health conditions of older adults at admission and clinical outcomes in a regional referral hospital in southwestern Uganda.

Methods: A retrospective study reviewed clinical data of older adult patients admitted between January 2016 and December 2017. Demographic data, cause of admission, length, and outcomes of hospitalization are described.

Results: Up to 813 patient files were reviewed. The patients had been hospitalized to emergency, 371 (45.6%); medical, 355 (43.7%); surgical, 84 (10.3%); psychiatry, 2 (0.3%); and obstetrics and gynecology, 1 (0.1%) wards. The majority, 427 (52.5%), of the patients were females. Cancer was the most common reason for hospitalization, 130/889 (14.6%), followed by stroke, 94/889 (10.6%); heart failure, 76/889 (8.6%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 56/889 (6.3%); pneumonia, 47/889 (5.3%); and head injury, 45/889 (5.1%), whilst 560 (68.9%) of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 197 (24.2%) died, 18 (2.2%) were referred for advanced care, and 38 (4.7%) escaped from the facility. The emergency ward had the highest deaths, 101 (51.3%), then medical, 56 (28.4%), and surgical, 39 (19.8%), wards. Mortality of those who died was admitted with stroke, 30 (15.2%), cancer, 21 (10.7%), head injury, 16 (8.1%), heart failure, 14 (7.1%), sepsis, 14 (7.1%), and renal disease, 12 (6.1%). On average, patients were admitted for 5 days (IQR: 3-8).

Conclusions: The high proportion of mortality in this group is worrying and requires further investigations.
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June 2020