Publications by authors named "Adrian Hoffmann"

17 Publications

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Nothing but the truth? Effects of faking on the validity of the crosswise model.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(10):e0258603. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

In self-reports, socially desirable responding threatens the validity of prevalence estimates for sensitive personal attitudes and behaviors. Indirect questioning techniques such as the crosswise model attempt to control for the influence of social desirability bias. The crosswise model has repeatedly been found to provide more valid prevalence estimates than direct questions. We investigated whether crosswise model estimates are also less susceptible to deliberate faking than direct questions. To this end, we investigated the effect of "fake good" instructions on responses to direct and crosswise model questions. In a sample of 1,946 university students, 12-month prevalence estimates for a sensitive road traffic behavior were higher and thus presumably more valid in the crosswise model than in a direct question. Moreover, "fake good" instructions severely impaired the validity of the direct questioning estimates, whereas the crosswise model estimates were unaffected by deliberate faking. Participants also reported higher levels of perceived confidentiality and a lower perceived ease of faking in the crosswise model compared to direct questions. Our results corroborate previous studies finding the crosswise model to be an effective tool for counteracting the detrimental effects of positive self-presentation in surveys on sensitive issues.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258603PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555839PMC
November 2021

A database and deep learning toolbox for noise-optimized, generalized spike inference from calcium imaging.

Nat Neurosci 2021 09 2;24(9):1324-1337. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Inference of action potentials ('spikes') from neuronal calcium signals is complicated by the scarcity of simultaneous measurements of action potentials and calcium signals ('ground truth'). In this study, we compiled a large, diverse ground truth database from publicly available and newly performed recordings in zebrafish and mice covering a broad range of calcium indicators, cell types and signal-to-noise ratios, comprising a total of more than 35 recording hours from 298 neurons. We developed an algorithm for spike inference (termed CASCADE) that is based on supervised deep networks, takes advantage of the ground truth database, infers absolute spike rates and outperforms existing model-based algorithms. To optimize performance for unseen imaging data, CASCADE retrains itself by resampling ground truth data to match the respective sampling rate and noise level; therefore, no parameters need to be adjusted by the user. In addition, we developed systematic performance assessments for unseen data, openly released a resource toolbox and provide a user-friendly cloud-based implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-021-00895-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611618PMC
September 2021

Controlled growth of ordered monolayers of N-heterocyclic carbenes on silicon.

Nat Chem 2021 Sep 21;13(9):828-835. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are promising modifiers and anchors for surface functionalization and offer some advantages over thiol-based systems. Because of their strong binding affinity and high electron donation, NHCs can dramatically change the properties of the surfaces to which they are bonded. Highly ordered NHC monolayers have so far been limited to metal surfaces. Silicon, however, remains the element of choice in semiconductor devices and its modification is therefore of utmost importance for electronic industries. Here, a comprehensive study on the adsorption of NHCs on silicon is presented. We find covalently bound NHC molecules in an upright adsorption geometry and demonstrate the formation of highly ordered monolayers exhibiting good thermal stability and strong work function reductions. The structure and ordering of the monolayers is controlled by the substrate geometry and reactivity and in particular by the NHC side groups. These findings pave the way towards a tailor-made organic functionalization of silicon surfaces and, thanks to the high modularity of NHCs, new electronic and optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41557-021-00721-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Functional analysis of information rates conveyed by rat whisker-related trigeminal nuclei neurons.

J Neurophysiol 2021 04 10;125(4):1517-1531. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Systems Neuroscience, Werner Reichardt Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany.

The rat whisker system connects the tactile environment with the somatosensory thalamocortical system using only two synaptic stages. Encoding properties of the first stage, the primary afferents with somas in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), has been well studied, whereas much less is known from the second stage, the brainstem trigeminal nuclei (TN). The TN are a computational hub giving rise to parallel ascending tactile pathways and receiving feedback from many brain sites. We asked the question, whether encoding properties of TG neurons are kept by two trigeminal nuclei, the principalis (Pr5) and the spinalis interpolaris (Sp5i), respectively giving rise to two "lemniscal" and two "nonlemniscal" pathways. Single units were recorded in anesthetized rats while a single whisker was deflected on a band-limited white noise trajectory. Using information theoretic methods and spike-triggered mixture models (STM), we found that both nuclei encode the stimulus locally in time, i.e., stimulus features more than 10 ms in the past do not significantly influence spike generation. They further encode stimulus kinematics in multiple, distinct response fields, indicating encoding characteristics beyond previously described directional responses. Compared with TG, Pr5 and Sp5i gave rise to lower spike and information rates, but information rate per spike was on par with TG. Importantly, both brainstem nuclei were found to largely keep encoding properties of primary afferents, i.e. local encoding and kinematic response fields. The preservation of encoding properties in channels assumed to serve different functions seems surprising. We discuss the possibility that it might reflect specific constraints of frictional whisker contact with object surfaces. We studied two trigeminal nuclei containing the second neuron on the tactile pathway of whisker-related tactile information in rats. We found that the subnuclei, traditionally assumed to give rise to functional tactile channels, nevertheless transfer primary afferent information with quite similar properties in terms of integration time and kinematic profile. We discuss whether such commonality may be due the requirement to adapt to physical constraints of frictional whisker contact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00350.2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Plasma Concentration in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Observational Study.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Intensive Care and Intermediate Care, Medical Faculty Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.

Mortality in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is high and pharmacological treatment strategies remain limited. Early-stage predictive biomarkers are needed to identify patients with a high risk of severe clinical courses and to stratify treatment strategies. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was previously described as a potential predictor for the outcome of critically ill patients and for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a hallmark of severe COVID-19 disease. This prospective observational study evaluates the predictive potential of MIF for the clinical outcome after severe COVID-19 infection. Plasma MIF concentrations were measured in 36 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients over three days after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Increased compared to decreased MIF was significantly associated with aggravated organ function and a significantly lower 28-day survival (sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score; 8.2 ± 4.5 to 14.3 ± 3, = 0.009 vs. 8.9 ± 1.9 to 12 ± 2, = 0.296; survival: 56% vs. 93%; = 0.003). Arterial hypertension was the predominant comorbidity in 85% of patients with increasing MIF concentrations (vs. decreasing MIF: 39%; = 0.015). Without reaching significance, more patients with decreasing MIF were able to improve their ARDS status ( = 0.142). The identified association between an early MIF response, aggravation of organ function and 28-day survival may open future perspectives for biomarker-based diagnostic approaches for ICU management of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922575PMC
February 2021

Do they really wash their hands? Prevalence estimates for personal hygiene behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic based on indirect questions.

BMC Public Health 2021 01 4;21(1):12. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstrasse, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people have to change their behaviours to slow down the spreading of the virus. Protective measures include self-isolation, social (physical) distancing and compliance with personal hygiene rules, particularly regular and thorough hand washing. Prevalence estimates for the compliance with the COVID-19 measures are often based on direct self-reports. However, during a health crisis there is strong public pressure to comply with health and safety regulations so that people's responding in direct self-reports may be seriously compromised by social desirability.

Methods: In an online survey, an indirect questioning technique was used to test whether the prevalence of hygiene practices may be lower than in conventional surveys when confidentiality of responding is guaranteed. The Extended Crosswise Model is an indirect questioning technique that guarantees the confidentiality of responding. To the degree that direct self-reports are biased by social desirability, prevalence estimates of hygiene practices such as thorough hand washing based on the Extended Crosswise Model should be lower than those based on direct self-reports.

Results: We analysed data of 1434 participants. In the direct questioning group 94.5% of the participants claimed to practice proper hand hygiene; in the indirect questioning group a significantly lower estimate of only 78.1% was observed.

Conclusions: These results indicate that estimates of the degree of commitment to measures designed to counter the spread of the disease may be significantly inflated by social desirability in direct self-reports. Indirect questioning techniques with higher levels of confidentiality seem helpful in obtaining more realistic estimates of the degree to which people follow the recommended personal hygiene measures. More realistic estimates of compliance can help to inform and to adjust public information campaigns on COVID-19 hygiene recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10109-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781177PMC
January 2021

Controlling social desirability bias: An experimental investigation of the extended crosswise model.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(12):e0243384. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Indirect questioning techniques such as the crosswise model aim to control for socially desirable responding in surveys on sensitive personal attributes. Recently, the extended crosswise model has been proposed as an improvement over the original crosswise model. It offers all of the advantages of the original crosswise model while also enabling the detection of systematic response biases. We applied the extended crosswise model to a new sensitive attribute, campus islamophobia, and present the first experimental investigation including an extended crosswise model, and a direct questioning control condition, respectively. In a paper-pencil questionnaire, we surveyed 1,361 German university students using either a direct question or the extended crosswise model. We found that the extended crosswise model provided a good model fit, indicating no systematic response bias and allowing for a pooling of the data of both groups of the extended crosswise model. Moreover, the extended crosswise model yielded significantly higher estimates of campus Islamophobia than a direct question. This result could either indicate that the extended crosswise model was successful in controlling for social desirability, or that response biases such as false positives or careless responding have inflated the estimate, which cannot be decided on the basis of the available data. Our findings highlight the importance of detecting response biases in surveys implementing indirect questioning techniques.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243384PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721152PMC
January 2021

Designed CXCR4 mimic acts as a soluble chemokine receptor that blocks atherogenic inflammation by agonist-specific targeting.

Nat Commun 2020 11 25;11(1):5981. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) München, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Targeting a specific chemokine/receptor axis in atherosclerosis remains challenging. Soluble receptor-based strategies are not established for chemokine receptors due to their discontinuous architecture. Macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) is an atypical chemokine that promotes atherosclerosis through CXC-motif chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4). However, CXCR4/CXCL12 interactions also mediate atheroprotection. Here, we show that constrained 31-residue-peptides ('msR4Ms') designed to mimic the CXCR4-binding site to MIF, selectively bind MIF with nanomolar affinity and block MIF/CXCR4 without affecting CXCL12/CXCR4. We identify msR4M-L1, which blocks MIF- but not CXCL12-elicited CXCR4 vascular cell activities. Its potency compares well with established MIF inhibitors, whereas msR4M-L1 does not interfere with cardioprotective MIF/CD74 signaling. In vivo-administered msR4M-L1 enriches in atherosclerotic plaques, blocks arterial leukocyte adhesion, and inhibits atherosclerosis and inflammation in hyperlipidemic Apoe mice in vivo. Finally, msR4M-L1 binds to MIF in plaques from human carotid-endarterectomy specimens. Together, we establish an engineered GPCR-ectodomain-based mimicry principle that differentiates between disease-exacerbating and -protective pathways and chemokine-selectively interferes with atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19764-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689490PMC
November 2020

Revisiting the secretion mechanism(s) of macrophage migration inhibitory factor-welcome to the "UPS club".

Immunol Cell Biol 2020 10 7;98(9):704-708. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Chair of Vascular Biology, Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), Munich 81377, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12388DOI Listing
October 2020

Can detailed instructions and comprehension checks increase the validity of crosswise model estimates?

PLoS One 2020 30;15(6):e0235403. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

The crosswise model is an indirect questioning technique designed to control for socially desirable responding. Although the technique has delivered promising results in terms of improved validity in survey studies of sensitive issues, recent studies have indicated that the crosswise model may sometimes produce false positives. Hence, we investigated whether an insufficient understanding of the crosswise model instructions might be responsible for these false positives and whether ensuring a deeper understanding of the model and surveying more highly educated respondents reduces the problem of false positives. To this end, we experimentally manipulated the amount of information respondents received in the crosswise model instructions. We compared a crosswise model condition with only brief instructions and a crosswise model condition with detailed instructions and additional comprehension checks. Additionally, we compared the validity of crosswise model estimates between a higher- and a lower-educated subgroup of respondents. Our results indicate that false positives among highly educated respondents can be reduced when detailed instructions and comprehension checks are employed. Since false positives can also occur in direct questioning, they do not appear to be a specific flaw of the crosswise model, but rather a more general problem of self-reports on sensitive topics. False negatives were found to occur for all questioning techniques, but were less prevalent in the crosswise model than in the direct questioning condition. We highlight the importance of comprehension checks when applying indirect questioning and emphasize the necessity of developing instructions suitable for lower-educated respondents.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235403PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326177PMC
September 2020

On the validity of non-randomized response techniques: an experimental comparison of the crosswise model and the triangular model.

Behav Res Methods 2020 08;52(4):1768-1782

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, Building 23.03, Floor 00, Room 27, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Non-randomized response techniques (NRRTs) such as the crosswise model and the triangular model (CWM and TRM; Yu et al. Metrika, 67, 251-263, 2008) have been developed to control for socially desirable responding in surveys on sensitive personal attributes. We present the first study to directly compare the validity of the CWM and TRM and contrast their performance with a conventional direct questioning (DQ) approach. In a paper-pencil survey of 1382 students, we obtained prevalence estimates for two sensitive attributes (xenophobia and rejection of further refugee admissions) and one nonsensitive control attribute with a known prevalence (the first letter of respondents' surnames). Both NRRTs yielded descriptively higher prevalence estimates for the sensitive attributes than DQ; however, only the CWM estimates were significantly higher. We attribute the higher prevalence estimates for the CWM to its response symmetry, which is lacking in the TRM. Only the CWM provides symmetric answer options, meaning that there is no "safe" alternative respondents can choose to distance themselves from being carriers of the sensitive attribute. Prevalence estimates for the nonsensitive control attribute with known prevalence confirmed that neither method suffered from method-specific bias towards over- or underestimation. Exploratory moderator analyses further suggested that the sensitive attributes were perceived as more sensitive among politically left-oriented than among politically right-oriented respondents. Based on our results, we recommend using the CWM over the TRM in future studies on sensitive personal attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01349-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Studying the Pro-Migratory Effects of MIF.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2080:1-18

Vascular Biology, Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (KUM), Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Munich, Germany.

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of innate immunity and dysregulated MIF is a key mediator of acute and chronic inflammatory processes, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. MIF is a pleiotropic cytokine with chemokine-like functions that has been designated as an atypical chemokine (ACK). It orchestrates leukocyte recruitment and migration into inflamed tissues through non-cognate interactions with the classical chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, pathways that are further facilitated by MIF's cognate receptor CD74. Here, we describe two complementary methods that can be used to characterize immune cell migration and motility responses controlled by MIF and its receptors. These are the Transwell filter migration assay, also known as modified Boyden chamber assay, a two-dimensional (2D) device, and a matrix-based three-dimensional (3D) chemotaxis assay. The Transwell system is primarily suitable to study chemotactic cell transmigration responses toward a chemoattractant such as MIF through a porous filter membrane. The 3D chemotaxis setup enables for the cellular tracking of migration, invasion, and motility of single cells using live cell imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9936-1_1DOI Listing
December 2020

Detecting nonadherence without loss in efficiency: A simple extension of the crosswise model.

Behav Res Methods 2018 10;50(5):1895-1905

Psychological Research Methods, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

In surveys concerning sensitive behavior or attitudes, respondents often do not answer truthfully, because of social desirability bias. To elicit more honest responding, the randomized-response (RR) technique aims at increasing perceived and actual anonymity by prompting respondents to answer with a randomly modified and thus uninformative response. In the crosswise model, as a particularly promising variant of the RR, this is achieved by adding a second, nonsensitive question and by prompting respondents to answer both questions jointly. Despite increased privacy protection and empirically higher prevalence estimates of socially undesirable behaviors, evidence also suggests that some respondents might still not adhere to the instructions, in turn leading to questionable results. Herein we propose an extension of the crosswise model (ECWM) that makes it possible to detect several types of response biases with adequate power in realistic sample sizes. Importantly, the ECWM allows for testing the validity of the model's assumptions without any loss in statistical efficiency. Finally, we provide an empirical example supporting the usefulness of the ECWM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-017-0957-8DOI Listing
October 2018

On the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques.

Behav Res Methods 2017 08;49(4):1470-1483

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, Building 23.03, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents' willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is rarely tested. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of their comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found to be less comprehensible by respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the crosswise model was found to be the most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning in general was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-016-0804-3DOI Listing
August 2017

A Strong Validation of the Crosswise Model Using Experimentally-Induced Cheating Behavior.

Exp Psychol 2015 ;62(6):403-14

1 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Düsseldorf, Germany.

We constructed an online cheating paradigm that could be used to validate the Crosswise Model ( Yu, Tian, & Tang, 2008 ), a promising indirect questioning technique designed to control for socially desirable responding on sensitive questions. Participants qualified for a reward only if they could identify the target words from three anagrams, one of which was virtually unsolvable as shown on a pretest. Of the 664 participants, 15.5% overreported their performance and were categorized as cheaters. When participants were asked to report whether they had cheated, a conventional direct question resulted in a substantial underestimate (5.1%) of the known prevalence of cheaters. Using a CWM question resulted in a more accurate estimate (13.0%). This result shows that the CWM can be used to control for socially desirable responding and provides estimates that are much closer to the known prevalence of a sensitive personal attribute than those obtained using a direct question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000304DOI Listing
August 2016

Bimodal role of NADPH oxidases in the regulation of biglycan-triggered IL-1β synthesis.

Matrix Biol 2016 Jan 12;49:61-81. Epub 2015 Dec 12.

Pharmazentrum Frankfurt, Institut für Allgemeine Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Biglycan, a ubiquitous proteoglycan, acts as a danger signal when released from the extracellular matrix. As such, biglycan triggers the synthesis and maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-, TLR4-, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Here, we discovered that biglycan autonomously regulates the balance in IL-1β production in vitro and in vivo by modulating expression, activity and stability of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1, 2 and 4 enzymes via different TLR pathways. In primary murine macrophages, biglycan triggered NOX1/4-mediated ROS generation, thereby enhancing IL-1β expression. Surprisingly, biglycan inhibited IL-1β due to enhancement of NOX2 synthesis and activation, by selectively interacting with TLR4. Synthesis of NOX2 was mediated by adaptor molecule Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF). Via myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) as well as Rac1 activation and Erk phosphorylation, biglycan triggered translocation of the cytosolic NOX2 subunit p47(phox) to the plasma membrane, an obligatory step for NOX2 activation. In contrast, by engaging TLR2, soluble biglycan stimulated the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, which bound to NOX2, and consequently impaired the inhibitory function of NOX2 on IL-1β expression. Notably, a genetic background lacking biglycan reduced HSP70 expression, rescued the enhanced renal IL-1β production and improved kidney function of Nox2(-/y) mice in a model of renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Here, we provide a novel mechanism where the danger molecule biglycan influences NOX2 synthesis and activation via different TLR pathways, thereby regulating inflammation severity. Thus, selective inhibition of biglycan-TLR2 or biglycan-TLR4 signaling could be a novel therapeutic approach in ROS-mediated inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2015.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953411PMC
January 2016

Assessing the validity of two indirect questioning techniques: A Stochastic Lie Detector versus the Crosswise Model.

Behav Res Methods 2016 09;48(3):1032-46

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, Building 23.03, Duesseldorf, 40225, Germany.

Estimates of the prevalence of sensitive attributes obtained through direct questions are prone to being distorted by untruthful responding. Indirect questioning procedures such as the Randomized Response Technique (RRT) aim to control for the influence of social desirability bias. However, even on RRT surveys, some participants may disobey the instructions in an attempt to conceal their true status. In the present study, we experimentally compared the validity of two competing indirect questioning techniques that presumably offer a solution to the problem of nonadherent respondents: the Stochastic Lie Detector and the Crosswise Model. For two sensitive attributes, both techniques met the "more is better" criterion. Their application resulted in higher, and thus presumably more valid, prevalence estimates than a direct question. Only the Crosswise Model, however, adequately estimated the known prevalence of a nonsensitive control attribute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-015-0628-6DOI Listing
September 2016
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