Publications by authors named "Adrian G Parker"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Beyond the Levant: first evidence of a pre-pottery Neolithic incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(7):e68061. Epub 2013 Jul 19.

CNRS, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, UMR 5133 Archéorient, Lyon, France.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic assemblages are best known from the fertile areas of the Mediterranean Levant. The archaeological site of Jebel Qattar 101 (JQ-101), at Jubbah in the southern part of the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia, contains a large collection of stone tools, adjacent to an Early Holocene palaeolake. The stone tool assemblage contains lithic types, including El-Khiam and Helwan projectile points, which are similar to those recorded in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B assemblages in the Fertile Crescent. Jebel Qattar lies ∼500 kilometres outside the previously identified geographic range of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. Technological analysis of the typologically diagnostic Jebel Qattar 101 projectile points indicates a unique strategy to manufacture the final forms, thereby raising the possibility of either direct migration of Levantine groups or the acculturation of mobile communities in Arabia. The discovery of the Early Holocene site of Jebel Qattar suggests that our view of the geographic distribution and character of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures may be in need of revision.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0068061PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3716651PMC
March 2014

Hominin dispersal into the Nefud Desert and Middle palaeolithic settlement along the Jubbah Palaeolake, Northern Arabia.

PLoS One 2012 19;7(11):e49840. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

School of Archaeology, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

The Arabian Peninsula is a key region for understanding hominin dispersals and the effect of climate change on prehistoric demography, although little information on these topics is presently available owing to the poor preservation of archaeological sites in this desert environment. Here, we describe the discovery of three stratified and buried archaeological sites in the Nefud Desert, which includes the oldest dated occupation for the region. The stone tool assemblages are identified as a Middle Palaeolithic industry that includes Levallois manufacturing methods and the production of tools on flakes. Hominin occupations correspond with humid periods, particularly Marine Isotope Stages 7 and 5 of the Late Pleistocene. The Middle Palaeolithic occupations were situated along the Jubbah palaeolake-shores, in a grassland setting with some trees. Populations procured different raw materials across the lake region to manufacture stone tools, using the implements to process plants and animals. To reach the Jubbah palaeolake, Middle Palaeolithic populations travelled into the ameliorated Nefud Desert interior, possibly gaining access from multiple directions, either using routes from the north and west (the Levant and the Sinai), the north (the Mesopotamian plains and the Euphrates basin), or the east (the Persian Gulf). The Jubbah stone tool assemblages have their own suite of technological characters, but have types reminiscent of both African Middle Stone Age and Levantine Middle Palaeolithic industries. Comparative inter-regional analysis of core technology indicates morphological similarities with the Levantine Tabun C assemblage, associated with human fossils controversially identified as either Neanderthals or Homo sapiens.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0049840PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501467PMC
May 2013

The southern route "out of Africa": evidence for an early expansion of modern humans into Arabia.

Science 2011 Jan;331(6016):453-6

Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK.

The timing of the dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH) out of Africa is a fundamental question in human evolutionary studies. Existing data suggest a rapid coastal exodus via the Indian Ocean rim around 60,000 years ago. We present evidence from Jebel Faya, United Arab Emirates, demonstrating human presence in eastern Arabia during the last interglacial. The tool kit found at Jebel Faya has affinities to the late Middle Stone Age in northeast Africa, indicating that technological innovation was not necessary to facilitate migration into Arabia. Instead, we propose that low eustatic sea level and increased rainfall during the transition between marine isotope stages 6 and 5 allowed humans to populate Arabia. This evidence implies that AMH may have been present in South Asia before the Toba eruption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1199113DOI Listing
January 2011

Effects of active silicon uptake by rice on 29Si fractionation in various plant parts.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2009 Aug;23(16):2398-402

Biogeochemistry of Soils and Water Group, Cross Institute Programme for Sustainable Soil Function (SoilCIP), North Wyke Research, Okehampton EX20 2SB, UK.

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) accumulates large amounts of silicon which improves its growth and health due to enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon uptake and loading to xylem in rice are predominantly active processes performed by transporters encoded by the recently identified genes Lsi1 (Si influx transporter gene) and Lsi2 (Si efflux transporter gene). Silicon deposition in rice during translocation to upper plant tissues is known to discriminate against the heavier isotopes (29)Si and (30)Si, resulting in isotope fractionation within the plant. We analyzed straw and husk samples of rice mutants defective in Lsi1, Lsi2 or both for silicon content and delta(29)Si using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and compared these results with those for the corresponding wild-type varieties (WT). The silicon content was higher in husk than in straw. All the mutant rice lines showed clearly lower silicon content than the WT lines (4-23% Si of WT). The delta(29)Si was lower in straw and husk for the uptake defective mutant (lsi1) than for WT, albeit delta(29)Si was 0.3 per thousand higher in husk than in straw in both lines. The effect of defective efflux (lsi2) differed for straw and husk with higher delta(29)Si in straw, but lower delta(29)Si in husk while WT showed similar delta(29)Si in both fractions. These initial results show the potential of Si isotopes to enlighten the influence of active uptake on translocation and deposition processes in the plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.3971DOI Listing
August 2009