Publications by authors named "Adrian Furnham"

232 Publications

Associations between body image, social physique anxiety, and dating anxiety in heterosexual emerging adults.

Body Image 2021 Dec 5;39:305-312. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.

Studies have suggested that body image is associated with dating anxiety, but are limited by small sample sizes, singular operationalisations of body image, and a lack of consideration of the concurrent effects of social physique anxiety. To overcome these gaps in the literature, we asked an online sample of 501 heterosexual emerging adults from the United Kingdom (age M = 21.16, 50.3% women) to complete measures of multidimensional body image, social physique anxiety, and dating anxiety. Correlational analyses indicated that more negative body image and social physique anxiety were both significantly associated with greater dating anxiety. However, in hierarchical regressions, the variance accounted for by body image variables was largely non-significant and weak after accounting for the effects of social physique anxiety. In exploratory analyses, we found that social physique anxiety mediated the relationship between the body image facet of appearance orientation and dating anxiety. These results highlight the importance of developing targeted interventions to reduce social physique anxiety and unhealthy appearance orientation in heterosocial dating contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.10.004DOI Listing
December 2021

The intuitive eating scale-2: re-evaluating its factor structure using a bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling framework.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Purpose: Previous studies examining the appropriateness of the 4-factor model of intuitive eating scale-2 (IES-2) scores have returned equivocal results, which may reflect methodological limitations in the way IES-2 scores are modelled. Here, we applied a bifactor-exploratory structural equation modelling (B-ESEM) framework to better understand IES-2 multidimensionality.

Methods: A total of 603 participants from the United States completed the IES-2, alongside measures of body appreciation, body acceptance from others, and self-esteem. Our analyses compared the fit of various hypothesised models of IES-2 scores.

Results: Models of IES-2 scores based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) uniformly showed poor fit. ESEM models showed superior fit to CFA representations and a B-ESEM model showed improved fit over higher-order CFA and B-CFA representations of IES-2 scores. The optimal model was a B-ESEM model that accounted for, through correlated uniqueness (CU), the methodological artefact introduced by negatively-worded IES-2 items. This B-ESEM-CU model was fully invariant across gender and showed adequate construct validity.

Conclusion: The B-ESEM-CU framework appears well-suited to understand the multidimensionality of IES-2 scores. A model of IES-2 scores that yields a reliable latent indicator of global intuitive eating while allowing for simultaneous consideration of additional specific factors will likely provide more accurate accounting of the nature and outcomes of intuitive eating.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-021-01271-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Do you have to be mad to believe in conspiracy theories? Personality disorders and conspiracy theories.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2021 Jul 9:207640211031614. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, UK.

This study explored the relationship between belief in conspiracy theories and the personality disorders. A sample of 475 British adults, aged around 30 years, completed measures of Belief in Conspiracy Theories (CTs) and the Personality Disorders (PDs), as well as the SAPAS, a short intelligence test and two self-evaluations. Belief in CTs was correlated with nearly all PDs, as well as the three established higher order clusters (A: odd and eccentric; B: dramatic and emotional; C: anxious). A series of stepwise multiple regressions were computed. A final regression showed five of the variables (education, intelligence, Cluster A, B, and C) were significant, which indicated that less well-educated and less intelligent participants, scoring higher on two PD clusters (Cluster A and B) but lower on Cluster C, believed more in the CTs. Implications of the study for understanding the origin of CTs is discussed. Limitations of the study, particularly the sample and measures used, are acknowledged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00207640211031614DOI Listing
July 2021

The Dark Side of High-Fliers: The Dark Triad, High-Flier Traits, Engagement, and Subjective Success.

Front Psychol 2021 27;12:647676. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Thomas International, Marlow, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between bright-side, High Potential and dark-side Dark Triad traits, as well as work engagement on judgements of perceived success. In all, 290 working adults completed questionnaires assessing their High Potential Personality Traits (HPTI), their dark-triad traits, job engagement and self-rated success at work. The data showed that the three dark-triad traits (Narcissism, Psychopathy, Machiavellianism) were systematically and significantly correlated with High Potential traits Adjustment/neuroticism, Tolerance of Ambiguity and Conscientiousness. Three HPTI traits, namely curiosity, Conscientiousness, and courage, were systematically positively correlated with all three engagement measures. Narcissism was strongly related to all measures of engagement. Those with higher scores Adjustment, Courage, and Narcissism and of the male sex, rated their success highest. Job engagement mediated between high-flier and dark-side traits and success ratings. Implications and limitations are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110703PMC
April 2021

Bright and Dark-Side Traits Associated With Interests in Commerce vs Science: Different Personality Profiles of the Scientist-Practitioner.

Psychol Rep 2021 Mar 27:332941211002134. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical, Educational, and Health Psychology, 4919University College London, London, UK.

This study focused on the idea that there are predictable differences between those individuals who opt for Scientific rather than the Commerce/Practitioner jobs and consulting assignments. A total of 2278 adults from a variety of occupations completed three validated questionnaires: the first assessed the behavioural tendency of an individual when one is exposed to stress and which could derail one's business career (HDS: Hogan Development Survey); the second the values and preferences that indicate work motivation (MVPI: The Motives, Values and Preferences Inventory), and the third, seven bright-side personality factors (HPI: Hogan Personality Inventory). The MVPI measured interests in scientific and commercial/enterprising activities. Correlations, regressions and SEM indicated both similarities and differences in the relationship between personality traits and values. Bright-side personality traits accounted for more the variance for those interested in Science while dark-side traits accounted for more variance for those interested in the Commerce. The biggest difference occurred in Inquisitiveness (Curiosity, Openness to Experience) which was much higher for those interested in science. Implications for personnel selection, job-fit and promotion were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00332941211002134DOI Listing
March 2021

Just world beliefs, personal success and beliefs in conspiracy theories.

Authors:
Adrian Furnham

Curr Psychol 2021 Mar 18:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Norwegian Business School (BI), Nydalveien, Olso, Norway.

Do those who believe in conspiracy theories feel less happy and healthy than others? Do they believe the world is simply unjust? This study was concerned with how demographic factors, personal ratings of success, personal ideology (political and religious beliefs) and Just World Beliefs are related to Conspiracy Theories. In total, 406 participants completed two questionnaires: Just World scale (Rubin & Peplau, 1975) and Conspiracy Theories Inventory (Swami et al., 2010) and provided various personal details. The Just World Scale yielded two scores: Just and Unjust beliefs. Participants also reported on their health, happiness and success and a reliable composite measure of well-being was computed. A regression showed younger males, with Unjust World beliefs and politically right-wing views, were more likely to endorse Conspiracy Theories. The discussion revolved around explaining individual differences in accepting these theories. Implications and limitations are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01576-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971358PMC
March 2021

Measuring work motivation: The facets of the work values questionnaire and work success.

Scand J Psychol 2021 Jun 15;62(3):401-408. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Human Sciences, University of Greenwich, London, UK.

The current study investigates the factor structure of the Work Values Questionnaire (WVQ) which measures how important each of 44 different features of a job are to the respondent. Over 750 international working professionals, primarily from the UK, completed a survey which included the WVQ, and measures of self-perceived success. Factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) was conducted to extract factors and facets. Structural equation modeling was used to compare model fit, and the extracted facets were regressed on subjective work success. The results show that the scales fit a coherent and interpretable model with two factors and six facets, fitting an intrinsic-extrinsic factorial structure, consistent with previous research. Work values and demographics accounted for between 13% and 17% of the variance in subjective work success. Three facets were significant predictors of work success: the intrinsic facets Affiliation and Recognition were positive predictors, and the extrinsic facet Security was a negative predictor, of perceived work success. Limitations and implications of this research are considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12723DOI Listing
June 2021

Motivational profiles and safety-related traits.

Authors:
Adrian Furnham

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2021 Mar 3:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Leadership and Organisational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School (BI), Norway.

This article is concerned with the relationship between the job motivational and preference profile of individuals and their engagement in safety behaviours. Studies have investigated personality traits but not motive and value correlates of risk-related behaviour. More than 25,000 Americans completed a questionnaire on safety-related competencies in the workplace that measured six different, but related, safety-related traits. They also completed a motivational measure of preferences and values used extensively in personnel assessment and selection. The six safety dimensions yielded two factors labelled observant and resilient that, along with the total score, were the criterion variables. Step-wise regressions indicated that those with high needs for affiliation, hedonism and recognition tended to be less safety conscious. The two different factors also showed a different pattern of demographic and motivational correlates. Problems of method invariance are discussed, as well the role of job motivation individual differences in safety-related traits and competencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2021.1876394DOI Listing
March 2021

Sex Does Not Sell: Effects of Sexual Advertising Parameters on Women Viewers' Implicit and Explicit Recall of Ads and Brands.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 Apr 28;128(2):692-713. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, UK.

This study investigated implicit and explicit memory effects of sexual and non-sexual advertisements embedded in either a sexual or non-sexual program among women viewers. We predicted that sexual appeals would facilitate implicit memory for the brand, and we explored whether program-type (sexual or non-sexual) and its associated congruity would impact or moderate recall of the surrounding advertisement among a small sample (n = 52) of exclusively women advertisement viewers. Sexual (versus non-sexual) advertising led to significantly worse implicit memory for the brand logo but better explicit recall for the advertisement scene itself. There was no effect of sexual appeals on explicit brand name recall, and no significant effect on advertisement recall of the program type. There was a significant interaction effect for program type and advertisement type for explicit recall of the advertisement scene, in which program-type moderated sexual advertisement recall. These results suggest that sexual advertising may increase memory for the advertisement at the expense of recalling the brand advertised. Limitations and implications of this study are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0031512521990352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890690PMC
April 2021

Body acceptance by others: Refinement of the construct, and development and psychometric evaluation of a revised measure - The Body Acceptance by Others Scale-2.

Body Image 2021 Mar 30;36:238-253. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS) measures the degree to which individuals perceive body acceptance by others, but its factor structure is questionable. Here, we developed a revision of the BAOS (i.e., the BAOS-2) by designing novel items reflective of generalised perceptions of body acceptance by others. In three studies, we examined the psychometrics of the 13-item BAOS-2. Study 1, with United Kingdom adults (N = 601), led to the extraction of a unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores and provided evidence of 4-week test-retest reliability. Study 2, with United Kingdom adults (N = 423), indicated that the unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores had adequate fit and that scores were invariant across gender. Study 2 also provided evidence of convergent, construct, criterion, discriminant, and incremental validity. Study 3 cross-validated the fit of the unidimensional model in adults from the United State (N = 503) and provided evidence of invariance across gender and national group. Internal consistency coefficients of BAOS-2 scores were adequate across all three studies. There were no significant gender differences in BAOS-2 scores and a significant national difference had a negligible effect size. Thus, the BAOS-2 is a psychometrically-sound measure that can be utilised in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.11.007DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of background noise and extraversion on reading comprehension performance.

Ergonomics 2021 May 15;64(5):593-599. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Leadership and Organisational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School (BI), Olso, Norway.

This study was concerned with the effects of acoustic distraction at work. Using a within-subject study we aimed to investigate the effect of background distraction on cognitive performance. In the presence of silence, white noise, and sirens, 55 fluent English speakers completed three equivalent variations of a reading comprehension task. As predicted, there was a significant main effect of background sound, with poorer performance in the presence of distraction (particularly sirens), but no interaction was found between distraction and extraversion. Thus, the findings partially replicated previous research in terms of distraction but were inconsistent with regard to the Eysenckian theory of arousal differences between introverts and extraverts. Implications of the effect of sirens on those they are not designed to alert are considered. Limitations of this study are also considered. This study was concerned with whether white noise and the sound of sirens affects reading comprehension. We found that compared to doing a highly involving and demanding cognitive task in silence, siren noise has the most significant negative effect on performance. Compared to working silence, white noise also reduced the efficiency of text comprehension. There were no introvert-extravert effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1854352DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19-related stress and anxiety are associated with negative body image in adults from the United Kingdom.

Pers Individ Dif 2021 Feb 7;170:110426. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.

The stress and anxiety caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic presents a serious threat to psychological well-being in populations worldwide and may also extend to body image outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study in which an online sample of adults from the United Kingdom ( = 506, age  = 34.25 years) were asked to complete measures of perceived stress, stressful life events, trait anxiety, COVID-19-related stress and anxiety, and negative body image (body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in women, body fat and muscularity dissatisfaction in men). The results of hierarchical regressions indicated that COVID-19-related stress and anxiety explained significant incremental variance in body image outcomes (Adj. Δ  = .02 to .10), over-and-above demographics (age and body mass index) and perceived stress, trait anxiety, and stressful life events. These findings suggest that COVID-19-related stress and anxiety may shape body image outcomes under conditions of physical and social distancing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539826PMC
February 2021

Correlates of the Militant Extremist Mindset.

Front Psychol 2020 2;11:2250. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

This study aimed to examine bright- and dark-side personality, personal beliefs (religion and politics) and self-evaluation correlates of beliefs in the Militant Extremist Mindset (MEM). In all, 506 young adults completed various self-report measures in addition to the three-dimensional MEM questionnaire. The measures included short measures of the Big Five traits, Self-Monitoring, Self-Evaluation and Personality Disorders, as well as demographic questions of how religious and politically liberal participants were. The Proviolence, Vile World, and Divine power mindsets showed varying correlates, with no consistent trend. Stepwise regressions showed that the demographic, personality and belief factors accounted for between 14% (Vile World) and 54% (Divine Power) of the variance, There were many differences between the results of three mindset factors, but personality disorder scores remained positive predictors of all three. The Vile World mindset was predicted by religiousness, liberalism, personality disorder scores and negative self-monitoring, but not personality traits. Religiousness had a contribution to all subscales and predicted the vast majority of the Divine Power mindset with smaller relationships with personality and personality disorders. Proviolence was predicted by the majority personality measures and sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492641PMC
September 2020

Nature exposure and positive body image: (Re-)examining the mediating roles of connectedness to nature and trait mindfulness.

Body Image 2020 Sep 27;34:201-208. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.

Previous studies have reported a significant association between nature exposure and positive body image, but understandings of the mechanisms that help to explain this link remain nascent. Here, we considered the extent to which trait mindfulness and connectedness to nature, respectively, mediate the aforementioned relationship both in parallel and serially. An online sample of 398 participants (199 women, 196 men, 3 other; age M = 28.1 years) from the United Kingdom completed measures of self-reported nature exposure, mindful awareness and acceptance, connectedness to nature, and body appreciation. Results indicated that inter-correlations between scores on all measures were significant and positive. Following the elimination of non-significant pathways, path analysis resulted in an adequately-fitting model in which the direct relationship between nature exposure and body appreciation was significant. In addition, connectedness to nature - but not trait mindfulness - significantly mediated the direct relationship. Finally, we also found evidence of a serial mediation, where the association between nature exposure and body appreciation was mediated by mindful awareness followed by connectedness to nature. The implications of these results for scholarly and practitioner understanding of the impact of nature exposure on positive body image are discussed in conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320863PMC
September 2020

Taking it apart and putting it back together again: Using Item Pool Visualisation to summarise complex data patterns in (positive) body image research.

Body Image 2020 Sep 25;34:155-166. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology and Psychodynamics, Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Krems an der Donau, Austria.

Issues of construct commonality and distinguishability in body image research are typically addressed using structural equal models, but such methods can sometimes present problems of interpretation when data patterns are complex. One recent-developed tool that could help in summarising complex data patterns is Item Pool Visualisation (IPV), an illustrative method that locates item pools from within the same dataset and illustrates these in the form of single or nested radar charts. Here, we demonstrate the utility of IPV in visualising data patterns vis-à-vis positive body image. Five-hundred-and-one adults from the United Kingdom completed seven widely-used measures of positive body image and data were subjected IPV. Results demonstrated that, of the included measures, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 provided the closest and most precise measurement of a core positive body image construct. The Functionality Appreciation Scale and the Authentic Pride subscale of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale tapped more distal aspects. Our results also highlight possible limitations with the use of several other instruments as measures of positive body image. We discuss implications for research aimed at better understanding the nature of positive body image and interpreting complex data patterns in body image research more generally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.05.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Preferences for scarce medical resource allocation: Differences between experts and the general public and implications for the COVID-19 pandemic.

Br J Health Psychol 2020 11 20;25(4):889-901. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Norwegian Business School (BI), Olso, Norway.

This study concerns what lay people believe is the best way to allocate scarce medical resources. A sample of 515 individuals completed a short questionnaire asking them to rank-order eight different ethical positions with respect to the allocation of scarce resources. They showed a strong preference for the 'saves most lives' and 'sickest first' options, with 'reciprocity' and a 'lottery' being least favoured. There was a reasonable degree of unanimity amongst respondents and comparatively few correlations with individual difference factors such as demography. The preference results are compared to expert recommendations (Emanuel et al., 2020, N. Engl. J. Med., 382, 2049) made in light of the current coronavirus pandemic, and differences are highlighted. Implications for scare medical resource allocations are discussed, and limitations of the study acknowledged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323072PMC
November 2020

Correlates of Self-Estimated Intelligence.

J Intell 2020 Feb 10;8(1). Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London WC1H 0AP, UK.

This paper reports two studies examining correlates of self-estimated intelligence (SEI). In the first, 517 participants completed a measure of SEI as well as self-estimated emotional intelligence (SEEQ), physical attractiveness, health, and other ratings. Males rated their IQ higher (74.12 vs. 71.55) but EQ lower (68.22 vs. 71.81) than females but there were no differences in their ratings of physical health in Study 1. Correlations showed for all participants that the higher they rated their IQ, the higher their ratings of EQ, attractiveness, and health. A regression of self-estimated intelligence onto three demographic, three self-ratings and three beliefs factors accounted for 30% of the variance. Religious, educated males who did not believe in alternative medicine gave higher SEI scores. The second study partly replicated the first, with an = 475. Again, males rated their IQ higher (106.88 vs. 100.71) than females, but no difference was found for EQ (103.16 vs. 103.74). Males rated both their attractiveness (54.79 vs. 49.81) and health (61.24 vs. 55.49) higher than females. An objective test-based cognitive ability and SEI were correlated = 0.30. Correlations showed, as in Study 1, positive relationships between all self-ratings. A regression showed the strongest correlates of SEI were IQ, sex and positive self-ratings. Implications and limitations are noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8010006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151158PMC
February 2020

Asexuality is inversely associated with positive body image in British adults.

Heliyon 2019 Sep 12;5(9):e02452. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Malaysia.

Research on positive body image has infrequently considered sexual minority orientations beyond lesbians, gay men, and bisexual persons. Indeed, there is no existing research on the relationships between body image and asexuality, which refers to a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything. In two studies, we rectified this by examining associations between asexuality - operationalised as a continuous construct - and indices of positive body image. In Study 1, 188 Britons from the community completed measures of asexuality and body appreciation. Once the effects of self-identified sexual orientation, relationship status, and body mass index (BMI) had been considered, asexuality was found to be significantly and negatively associated with body appreciation in women and men. In Study 2, an online sample of 377 Britons completed measures of asexuality, body appreciation, functionality appreciation, body acceptance from others, and body image flexibility. Beyond the effects of sexual orientation, relationship status, and BMI, asexuality was significantly and negatively associated with all four body image constructs in men, and with body appreciation and functionality appreciation in women. Although asexuality only explained a small proportion of the variance in positive body image (3-11%) and further studies are needed, the relationship appears to be stable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745407PMC
September 2019

Correlates of Adult Vocabulary Task Performance: Findings from a British Cohort.

J Intell 2019 Jan 12;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 12.

BI: Norwegian Business School, Nydalsveien 37, 0484 Oslo, Norway.

This study explored a longitudinal data set of 4361 adults (2119 males and 2239 females) to examine factors that influence adult vocabulary task performance. Data were collected at birth, in childhood (age 10 years), during teenage years (age 16 years), and in adulthood (ages 30, 34, and 42 years) to examine the effects of family social status, childhood cognitive ability, teenager locus of control, psychological distress, educational qualifications, and occupational prestige in adulthood on an adult vocabulary task-an index of crystallized intelligence. Structural equation modeling showed that childhood cognitive ability, teenager locus of control, education, and occupation were all significant and direct predictors of adult vocabulary task performance. Parental social status affected the outcome variable mediated through educational qualifications. The strongest predictor of adult vocabulary task performance was childhood cognitive ability, followed by educational qualifications and locus of control. Finally, limitations were acknowledged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7010002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526404PMC
January 2019

Mental health literacy of maternal and paternal postnatal (postpartum) depression in British adults.

J Ment Health 2020 Apr 9;29(2):217-224. Epub 2019 May 9.

Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Malaysia.

Postnatal depression affects between 6 and 13% of new parents, but only a small proportion of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria receive optimal treatment. One reason for this is poor mental health literacy of postnatal depression. Studies have examined mental health literacy of maternal postnatal depression, but there are no similar studies of paternal postnatal depression, which we sought to rectify. A sample of 406 British adults was presented with vignettes describing cases of either maternal or paternal postnatal depression. Based on the vignettes, participants were asked to report if they thought anything was wrong with the targets and, if so, to describe what they thought was wrong. Participants also rated the targets on a range of attitudinal dimensions. Participants were more likely to indicate that something was wrong when the target was female (97.0%) compared to male (75.9%). Of those who believed something was wrong, 90.1% of participants correctly described the female target as experiencing postnatal depression, but only 46.3% did so for the male target. Participants also held more positive attitudes toward the female target than the male target. There is a gender binary in symptom recognition of postnatal depression, which highlights the need for greater awareness of paternal postnatal depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2019.1608932DOI Listing
April 2020

Mental health literacy for autism spectrum disorder and depression.

Psychiatry Res 2019 09 17;279:272-277. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Norwegian Business School (BI), Nydalveien, Olso, Norway. Electronic address:

In this study, three hundred and sixty-eight participants answered a questionnaire consisting of three vignettes describing a person with depression, severe Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder/Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Each vignette was followed by thirteen questions concerning the participant's knowledge about diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Participants demonstrated good mental health literacy (MHL) for depression, but were poor at diagnosing ASD. Drug therapy was rated as the least effective treatment and 'talking to a family member of friend' was rated as the most effective for each disorder. The highest prognosis ratings were given to depression, and the lowest given to ASD. Participants demonstrated better MHL than expected, possibly due to the availability of information on the Internet and the increase in prevalence of mental illnesses such as depression and ASD among the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.04.004DOI Listing
September 2019

GHQ score changes from teenage to young adulthood.

J Psychiatr Res 2019 06 11;113:46-50. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

ESRC Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies, Institute of Education, University College London, London, WC1H 0AL, UK.

This study investigated the change in the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores from teenage years to young adulthood using a large, nationally representative sample in the UK. It took account of socio-demographic variables, childhood intelligence, behavioural problems and self-esteem at teenage and educational qualifications in early adulthood. In total, 3942 cohort members had the complete data on GHQ at ages 16 and 30 years. T-tests showed that there was statistically significant increase of GHQ mean scores over the 14 years (p < .001), however at the item level there were changes in both directions. The analysis showed that over 14 years the test-retest correlation was r = 0.24, indicating a modest level of stability. The GHQ was significantly and negatively associated with self-esteem, and positively associated with childhood behavioural problems. Regression analysis showed that gender, self-esteem, and behavioural problems measured in the teenage years were all significant predictors of GHQ at both time points, indicating the long-term effects of psychological and behavioural factors on teenagers and young adults' mental health outcome. The implications for early interventions in school and family settings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.03.006DOI Listing
June 2019

Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a nationally representative sample.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2020 08;42(3):570-578

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.

Objective: To identify personality, biomedical and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a large longitudinal sample.

Method: In total, 5360 participants with data on personality, neurological functioning, maternal smoking during pregnancy, education and occupation, physical exercise, adult self-reported BMI and obesity were included in the study. Obesity at 55 years was the outcome variable.

Results: The rates of obesity increased from 9.5 to 22.8% from age 33 to 55 years. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted estimates) showed that childhood neurological functioning (OR = 1.32: 1.07-1.63, P < 0.01), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.42: 1.22-1.65, P < 0.001), educational qualifications (OR = 0.54: 0.37-0.79, P < 0.01), trait conscientiousness (OR = 0.80:0.74-0.86, P < 0.001) and physical exercise (OR = 0.87: 0.82-0.92, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of obesity at age 55 years for both men and women. Trait extraversion for men (OR = 1.16: 1.07-1.26, P < 0.001) and trait emotional stability for women (OR = 0.90: 0.82-0.99, P < 0.05) were also significant predictors of the outcome variable.

Conclusion: Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors were all associated with adult obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdz009DOI Listing
August 2020

Childhood heart problems, adulthood emotional stability, and sex associated with self-report heart conditions in adulthood.

J Health Psychol 2021 03 1;26(4):489-499. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

University College London, UK.

The present study investigated biomedical, social, and psychological factors associated with self-reported heart conditions in adulthood in a British cohort. In total, 5697 (50.7% males) participants with data on parental socioeconomic status, childhood cognitive ability, childhood heart problems, educational qualifications, current occupational levels, adulthood personality traits, and the prevalence of self-reported heart conditions in adulthood were included in the study. The prevalence of self-reported heart conditions measured at age 54 years was the outcome variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that childhood heart problems identified by physicians (OR = 3.47:1.74-6.92,  < 0.001) and trait emotional stability (OR = 0.83:0.75-0.93,  < 0.001) were the significant and independent predictors of self-reported heart conditions in adulthood. There were also significant sex effects on the prevalence of the outcome variable (OR = 0.53:0.42-0.63,  < 0.001). Both a biomedical and a psychological factor were significantly associated with self-reported heart conditions in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105318820107DOI Listing
March 2021

A Big Five facet analysis of sub-clinical dependent personality disorder (Dutifulness).

Authors:
Adrian Furnham

Psychiatry Res 2018 12 22;270:622-626. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Norwegian Business School (BI), Nydalveien, Olso, Norway. Electronic address:

This study aimed to examine a Big Five, normal personality trait, "bright side" analysis of a sub-clinical personality disorder: Dependency Personality Disorder. Around 6000 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R which measures the Big Five personality factors at the domain and the facet level. They also completed the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) which has a measure of sub-clinical Dependency Personality Disorder called Dutiful as one of its eleven dysfunctional interpersonal tendencies. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between the Big Five domains and facets and sub-clinical Dependency. The Dutiful (Dependent) scale from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. The results showed that those high on Dutiful are highly unstable Neurotic, Agreeable people who are low on Openness. They are Anxious, Compliant, Self-Conscious, Unassertive and Vulnerable. It is thus possible to assess subclinical personality disorder "dark-side" traits, like Dutifulness, in terms of normal "bright-side" traits. Limitations of the study are acknowledged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.10.052DOI Listing
December 2018

The Great Divide: Academic Versus Practitioner Criteria for Psychometric Test Choice.

Authors:
Adrian Furnham

J Pers Assess 2018 Sep-Oct;100(5):498-506

a Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour , Norwegian Business School (BI), Nydalveien , Olso , Norway.

This article looks at the two very different worlds of academic personality psychologists and business (human resources) professionals who both use personality tests. It examines the decisions practitioners make when choosing to purchase and use psychometric tests in the workplace. It reviews the relatively few papers on practitioner's knowledge of, attitudes toward, and beliefs about psychological tests. Data are then reported from a study looking at practitioners' rank ordering of criteria they would use in choosing psychological tests. This is contrasted with typical academic concerns as expressed in the literature. The article shows some divide between academic personality psychology researchers and those who purchase and use these tests in applied settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2018.1488134DOI Listing
October 2019

Childhood locus of control and self-esteem, education, psychological distress and physical exercise as predictors of adult obesity.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2019 09;41(3):439-446

BI Norwegian Business School, Nydalsveien 37, 0484 Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To investigate to what extent locus of control, self-esteem, psychological distress, physical exercise, as well as socio-demographic factors are associated with obesity in 42-year-old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study.

Method: The sample consisted of 5645 participants born in Great Britain in 1970 and followed up at 10, 34 and 42 years with data on body mass index measured at 34 and 42 years.

Results: There was an increase of adult obesity from 15.5% at age 34 to 21.2% at 42 years. Locus of control and self-esteem measured at age 10 years, psychological distress and educational qualifications assessed at age 34, and current occupational levels and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity at age 42. The associations remained significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, and intelligence.

Conclusion: Childhood locus of control and self-esteem, educational qualifications, psychological distress and physical exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy125DOI Listing
September 2019

The perception of sub-clinical personality disorders by employers, employees and co-workers.

Psychiatry Res 2018 12 19;270:1082-1091. Epub 2018 May 19.

Norwegian Business School (BI), Nydalveien, Olso, Norway. Electronic address:

This study set out to determine people's perceptions of different dark-side personality types in the workplace. A total of 240 adults with at least one year's work experience rated vignettes describing job candidates with sub-clinical PDs. PDs were grouped into (Hogan and Hogan's 1997) personality clusters 'Moving Away from', 'Moving Against' and 'Moving Toward' others. PDs in the Moving Toward cluster were rated as the most desirable employees. Participants were least willing to work with or for PDs in the Moving Against cluster. Moving Against candidates were perceived as less successful than Moving Towards candidates, suggesting that people believe the costs of working with people with many PDs (e.g. psychopathy and narcissism) outweigh any benefits there may be. Implications and limitations are noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.036DOI Listing
December 2018

Teenage locus of control, psychological distress, educational qualifications and occupational prestige as well as gender as independent predictors of adult binge drinking.

Alcohol 2019 05 1;76:103-109. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; BI: Norwegian Business School, Nydalsveien 37, 0484 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Our objective was to investigate various psychological and socio-demographic factors in childhood and adulthood that relate to alcohol intake and binge drinking at age 42 years. Data were drawn from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70), a prospective longitudinal study monitoring the development of babies born in 1970, with nine follow-ups. The analytic sample comprised 5190 cohort members with complete data on parental social class at birth, cognitive ability at age 10 years, locus of control at age 16 years, psychological distress at age 30 years, educational qualifications obtained at age 34 years, and current occupation and alcohol consumption at age 42 years. Results showed that sex (male), lower parental social class, adolescent external locus of control, psychological distress, lower scores on childhood intelligence, lower educational qualifications, and less-professional occupations were all significantly and positively associated with binge drinking in adulthood. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that sex (OR = 0.52, CI: 0.44-0.60, p < .001), parental social class (OR = 0.67, CI: 0.50-0.92 to OR = 0.49, CI: 0.31-0.57, p < .05 to p < .01), locus of control beliefs (OR = 0.90, CI: 0.84-0.96, p < .01), adult psychological distress (OR = 1.28, CI: 1.04-1.58, p < .05), educational qualifications (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.53-0.92 to OR = 0.39, CI: 0.25-0.61, p < .05 to p < .001), and occupational prestige (OR = 0.59, CI: 0.38-0.95 to OR = 0.36, CI: 0.20-0.65, p < .05 to p < .01) were all significant and independent predictors of adult binge drinking. Both psychological and socio-demographic factors associated with adult excessive alcohol consumption. Adolescent locus of control beliefs had a significant effect on adult binge drinking 26 years later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2018.08.008DOI Listing
May 2019

Associations between childhood biomedical factors, maternal smoking, personality traits, Body and Mass Index and the prevalence of asthma in adulthood.

Psychol Health 2018 09 8;33(9):1116-1129. Epub 2018 May 8.

a Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology , University College London , London , UK.

Objective: The study set out to investigate socio-economic, biomedical, health and behavioural and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood, drawing data from The National Child Development Studies (NCDS), a birth cohort in the UK.

Design: The National Child Development Study, a nationally representative sample of 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33 and 50 years was used.

Main Outcome Measure: The prevalence of asthma at age 50 was the outcome measure. The analytic sample consists of 5118 participants with complete data on a set of measures at birth, at ages 7, 11, 33 and 50 years.

Results: Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood asthma (OR = 6.77: 4.38-10.48, p < .001) and respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.83: 1.18-2.86, p < .01), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.26: 1.00-1.59, p < .05), Body and Mass Index (BMI) (OR = 1.03: 1.02-1.05, p < .001), traits Neuroticism (OR = 1.13: 1.01-1.21, p < .05) and Conscientiousness (OR = 0.76: 0.76-0.96, p < .01), as well as sex (OR = 1.49: 1.15-1.94, p < .001) were all significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood.

Conclusion: The study shows that both childhood and adulthood psychological and sociological factors are significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood, though more work need to be done in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2018.1467014DOI Listing
September 2018
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