Publications by authors named "Adrian Fairey"

76 Publications

The increasing use of renal tumor biopsy amongst Canadian urologists: When is biopsy most utilized?

Urol Oncol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke and Centre de Recherche du CHUS, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: The role of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) in the management of small renal masses (SRMs) is progressively being recognized as a tool to decrease overtreatment. While an increasing number of studies assessing its role in diagnostics are becoming available, RTB remains variably used amongst urologists. Many patient-, tumor-, and institution-related factors may influence urologists on whether to perform a RTB to help guide management.

Objective: We aimed at identifying factors associated with the use of RTB for localized SRMs within a number of centers contributing data to the Canadian Kidney Cancer information system.

Material And Methods: We identified 3,838 patients diagnosed with a localized SRM (≤4 cm) between January 2011 and December 2018. Patients were stratified based on whether a RTB was performed prior to the primary therapeutic intervention. Factors associated with use of RTB were assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: A total of 993 patients (25.9%) underwent an RTB. There was an overall increase in RTB use over time (P < 0.001), with patients diagnosed between 2015 and 2018 undergoing more RTB than patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 (29.8% vs. 22.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). Patients managed in centers with the highest patient-volume had RTB more frequently than patients managed in low-volume centers. On multivariable analysis, increasing year of diagnosis was significantly associated with more RTB use. Patients treated with surgery underwent RTB statistically less often than patients undergoing thermal ablation (P < 0.001) or managed with active surveillance (P < 0.001). Larger SRMs were associated with more RTB use in patients on active surveillance (P = 0.009), but with less RTB in patients undergoing surgery (P = 0.045).

Conclusion: This large multicenter cohort study reveals an increasing adoption and overall use of RTB amongst Canadian urologists. Patients managed in high-volume centers and those undergoing non-surgical management were associated with greater use of RTB. Tumor size was also associated with RTB use. This study highlights the influence that physician perceptions and clinical factors may have in the decision to use RTB prior to initiating a therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.05.026DOI Listing
June 2021

Adrenalectomy During Radical Nephrectomy- Incidence and Oncologic Outcomes From the Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) -A Modern Era, Nationwide, Multicenter Cohort.

Urology 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Urology Division, Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterize proportion of patients receiving adrenalectomy, adrenal involvement prevalence and oncologic outcomes of routine adrenalectomy in contemporary practice. Ipsilateral adrenalectomy was once standard during radical nephrectomy. However, benefit of routine adrenalectomy has been questioned because adrenal involvement of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is low.

Methods: All patients receiving radical nephrectomy in the Canadian Kidney Cancer information system, a collaborative prospective cohort populated by 14 major Canadian centers, between January 2011 to February 2020 were included. Patients were excluded if they had non-RCC histology, multiple tumors, contralateral tumors, metastatic disease or previous history of RCC. Patient demographic, clinical, and surgical information were summarized and compared. Cox-proportional hazards was used for multivariable analysis.

Results: During study period, 2759 patients received radical nephrectomy, of these, 831(30.1%) had concomitant adrenalectomy. Pathological adrenal involvement was identified in 102 (3.7%overall; 12.3%of adrenalectomy). Median follow-up was 21.6months (Interquartile range 7.0-46.5). Patients with adrenalectomy had higher venous tumor thrombus (30.3% vs 9.6%; P <.0001), higher T stage (71.1% vs 43.4% pT3/4; P <.0001), lymph node metastases (17.6% vs 10.7%; P = .0035), Fuhrman grades (71.4% of Fuhrman grades 3/4 vs 56.2%; P <.0001) and increased proportion of clear cell histology (79.3% vs 74.5%; P = .0074) compared to the no adrenalectomy group. Adrenalectomy patients had higher risk of recurrence (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.04-1.47; P = .019) and no difference in survival (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.86-1.38, P = .48).

Conclusion: Adrenalectomy is not associated with better oncological outcome of recurrence/survival. Adrenalectomy should be reserved for patients with radiographic adrenal involvement and/or intra-operative adrenal involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.05.053DOI Listing
June 2021

Lymph node dissection during radical nephrectomy: A Canadian multi-institutional analysis.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jun 27;39(6):371.e17-371.e25. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine the association between lymph node dissection (LND) at the time of radical nephrectomy and survival in a large, multi-institutional cohort using a propensity score matching design.

Subjects And Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system was used to identify patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma. Associations between LND with overall survival , recurrence free survival and cancer specific survival were determined using various propensity score techniques in the overall cohort and in patients with varying probabilities of pN1. Cox models were used to determine association of lymph node removed with outcomes.

Results: Of the 2,699 eligible patients, 812 (30%) underwent LND. Of the LND patients, 88 (10.8%) had nodal metastases. There was no association between LND and improved overall survival, recurrence free survival or cancer specific survival using various propensity score techniques (stratification by propensity score quintile, matched pairs, inverse treatment probability weighting and adjusted for propensity score quintile). There was no association between LND and a therapeutic benefit in patients with increased threshold probabilities of nodal metastases. Increased number of lymph nodes removed was not associated with improved survival outcomes.

Conclusions: LND at the time of radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is not associated with improved outcomes. There was no benefit in patients at high risk for nodal metastases, and the number of nodes removed did not correlate with survival. Further studies are needed to determine which high risk patients may benefit from LND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.02.025DOI Listing
June 2021

Liposomal bupivacaine for open urological surgery: Friend or foe?

Urol Oncol 2021 May 18;39(5):306-307. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.02.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Measuring the analgesic effect of adding pre-operative single-shot rectus sheath blocks to postoperative rectus sheath continuous blocks for major urological surgery: A double-blind randomised study.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2021 02;38(2):187-189

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (JG, SN, MV, CD, DD), Department of Surgery, University of Alberta (AF) and Department of Mathematics and Statistics, MacEwan University (KB, NL), Edmonton, AB, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0000000000001306DOI Listing
February 2021

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical cystectomy versus radical cystectomy alone in clinical T2 bladder cancer without hydronephrosis.

BJU Int 2021 Jul 21;128(1):79-87. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Torino School of Medicine, Torino, Italy.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before radical cystectomy (RC) in a retrospective multicentre cohort of patients with cT2N0M0 bladder cancer (BCa) without preoperative hydronephrosis.

Patients And Methods: This was a propensity-based analysis of 619 patients. Of these, 316 were treated with NAC followed by RC and 303 with upfront RC. After multiple imputations, inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to account for potential selection bias. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of NAC on pathological complete response and downstaging at RC, while IPTW-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were built to evaluate the impact of NAC on overall survival (OS).

Results: After IPTW-adjusted analysis, standardised differences between groups were <15%. A complete response (pT0N0) at final pathology was achieved in 94 (30%) patients receiving NAC and nine (3%) undergoing upfront RC. Downstaging to non-muscle-invasive disease (
Conclusions: In patients with cT2N0 BCa and no preoperative hydronephrosis, NAC increased the rate of pathological complete response and downstaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15289DOI Listing
July 2021

Cohort profile: the Alberta Prostate Cancer Research Initiative (APCaRI) Registry and Biorepository facilitates technology translation to the clinic through the use of linked, longitudinal clinical and patient-reported data and biospecimens from men in Alberta, Canada.

BMJ Open 2020 10 16;10(10):e037222. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Purpose: The Alberta Prostate Cancer Research Initiative (APCaRI) Registry and Biorepository was established in 2014 by the APCaRI to facilitate the collection of clinical and patient-reported data, biospecimen, to measure prostate cancer outcomes and to support the development and clinical translation of innovative technologies to better diagnose and predict outcomes for patients with prostate cancer.

Participants: Men suspected with prostate cancer and referred to Urology centres in Alberta were enrolled in the APCaRI 01 study, while men with a prior prostate cancer diagnosis participated in the APCaRI 03 study from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2019. The APCaRI Registry and Biorepository links biospecimens and data from a wide representation of patients drawn from an Alberta population of more than 4 million.

Findings To Date: From 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2019, total APCaRI 01 and 03 study recruitment was 3754 men; 142 (4%) of these men withdrew in full, 65 men (2%) withdrew biospecimens and 123 men (3%) died of any cause. Over this same time, 8677 patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) surveys and 7368 biospecimens were collected and are available from the registry and biorepository, respectively. The data entry error rate was 0.8% and 0.95% for critical and non-critical values, respectively, and 1.8% for patient-reported surveys.

Future Plans: The APCaRI Registry and Biorepository will collect longitudinal data and PROM surveys until 2024, patient outcomes up to 25 years after recruitment and biospecimen storage for up to 25 years. The APCaRI cohorts will continue to provide data and samples to researchers conducting retrospective studies. The richness of the data and biospecimens will complement many different research questions, ultimately to improve the quality of care for men with prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569975PMC
October 2020

Prognostic impact of paraneoplastic syndromes on patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing surgery: Results from Canadian Kidney Cancer information system.

Can Urol Assoc J 2021 Apr;15(4):132-137

Department of Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Introduction: The impact of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) on survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is uncertain. This study was conducted to analyze the association of PNS with recurrence and survival of patients with non-metastatic RCC undergoing nephrectomy.

Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system is a multi-institutional cohort of patients started in January 2011. Patients with nephrectomy for non-metastatic RCC were identified. PNS included anemia, polycythemia, hypercalcemia, and weight loss. Associations between PNS and recurrence or death were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable analysis.

Results: Of 4337 patients, 1314 (30.3%) had evidence of one or more PNS. Patients with PNS were older, had higher comorbidity, and had more advanced clinical and pathological tumor characteristics as compared to patients without PNS (all p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier five-year estimated recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were significantly worse in patients with PNS (63.7%, 84.3%, and 79.6%, respectively, for patients with PNS vs. 73.9%, 90.8%, and 90.1%, respectively, for patients without PNS, all p<0.005). On univariable analysis, presence of PNS increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-1.90, p<0.0001) and cancer-related death (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.34-2.54, p=0.0002). Adjusting for known prognostic factors, PNS was not associated with recurrence or survival.

Conclusions: In non-metastatic RCC patients undergoing surgery, presence of PNS is associated with older age, higher Charlson comorbidity index score, advanced tumor stage, and aggressive tumor histology. Following surgery, baseline PNS is not strongly independently associated with recurrence or death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021432PMC
April 2021

Does renal tumor biopsies for small renal carcinoma increase the risk of upstaging on final surgery pathology report and the risk of recurrence?

Urol Oncol 2020 10 18;38(10):798.e9-798.e16. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Renal tumor biopsies (RTB) have been proposed as a means to diminish overtreatment of small renal masses. A potential concern of RTB is tumor seeding along the biopsy tract leading to worse clinical outcomes.

Objectives: To evaluate whether RTB was associated with greater upstaging to pT3a compared to patients without a biopsy and to determine if pathologic upstaging affects the risk of recurrence.

Design, Setting And Participants: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system was used to identify patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for malignant renal tumors ≤ 4cm (cT1a) between January 1, 2011 and July 2, 2019.

Intervention: RTB prior to nephrectomy or nephrectomy without biopsy.

Outcomes Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Upstaging to pT3a and cancer recurrence were compared between subjects that had a RTB compared to those who did not. A multivariable analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with disease upstaging and recurrence.

Results And Limitations: The cohort consisted of 1993 cT1a patients, followed for a median of 17.5 months. Of these patients, 502 (25%) had a preoperative RTB. There was no difference in the proportion with tumor upstaging to pT3a between patients that had RTB compared to those who did not (7.2% vs. 6.3%; P = 0.5). On multivariable analysis, RTB was not associated with pathological upstaging (Odds Ratio 0.90; 95% Confidence Interval 0.61-1.34) or recurrence (Odds Ratio 1.04; 95% Confidence Interval 0.57-1.89). The main limitation is that the study is underpowered to detect small differences between groups.

Conclusions: In this large, multi-institution cohort, RTB was not associated with increased risk of tumor upstaging or recurrence. Hence, tumor tract seeding, although possible, should not be a clinical deterrent to using RTBs as a means of personalizing renal masses management and diminishing overtreatment.

Patient Summary: Recent evidence suggests that tumor seeding following RTB may be more common than initially perceived. Our results have demonstrated that RTB was not associated with an increased risk of tumor upstaging or disease recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.06.001DOI Listing
October 2020

Achieving the "trifecta" with open versus minimally invasive partial nephrectomy.

World J Urol 2021 May 12;39(5):1569-1575. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

University of British Columbia, Level 6, 2775 Laurel Street, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada.

Introduction: The "trifecta" is a summary measure of outcome after partial nephrectomy (PN) that encompasses three parameters: negative surgical margin, ≤ 10% decrease in post-operative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and absence of urological complications. We assessed trifecta rates in patients undergoing open (OPN), laparoscopic (LPN), and robotic PN (RPN) for a clinical T1 renal mass (≤ 7 cm).

Methods: Clinical and pathologic parameters were extracted from the prospectively maintained Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System for patients treated between January 2011 and October 2018. Comparisons between groups were made using Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Chi-squared independence test for categorical variables. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of each component of the trifecta and the trifecta itself.

Results: Of 1708 total patients, 746 underwent OPN, 678 LPN, and 284 RPN for a T1 renal mass. A 'trifecta' was achieved in 53% OPN, 52% LPN and 47% RPN (p = 0.194). On multivariable analysis, OPN and LPN were associated with less frequent post-operative decline in eGFR and more frequent trifecta when compared to RPN, but there was no difference between OPN and LPN. OPN also predicted a higher rate of negative margins compared to RPN but not LPN.

Conclusion: After correction for confounding variables, OPN and LPN were more likely than RPN to achieve the trifecta, which appeared to be due primarily to loss of renal function. No difference was observed between OPN and LPN. Analyses were limited by the lack of nephrometry score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03349-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Are urologic surgeons performing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at the University of Alberta meeting surgical quality performance benchmarks? The PROCURE-02 quality assurance study.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Aug;14(8):E369-E372

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Introduction: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a standard of care primary treatment for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (CLPC). The 2010 Canadian Urological Association (CUA) consensus guideline examining surgical quality performance for radical prostatectomy suggested benchmarks for surgical performance. To date, no study has examined whether Canadian surgeons are achieving these benchmarks. We determined the proportion of University of Alberta (UA) urologic surgeons achieving the CUA surgical quality performance outcome (SQPO) benchmarks.

Methods: A retrospective quality assurance analysis of prospectively collected data from the PROstate Cancer Urosurgery Repository of Edmonton (PROCURE) was performed. Men who underwent RARP for CLPC between September 2007 and May 2018 by one of seven surgeons were analyzed. SQPO were an unadjusted pT2-R1 resection rate <25%, blood transfusion rate <10%, rectal injury rate <1%, and 90-day mortality rate <1%. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the proportion of surgeons achieving the benchmarks.

Results: Data were evaluable for 2821 men. Seven of seven (100%) surgeons achieved a blood transfusion rate <10%, rectal injury rate <1%, and 90-day mortality rate <1%. However, only six of seven surgeons achieved an unadjusted pT2-R1 resection rate <25%; one surgeon had an unadjusted pT2-R1 resection rate of 27.9%. Limitations include the lack of centralized pathology review for surgical margin status by a dedicated genitourinary pathologist.

Conclusions: UA surgeons are achieving the CUA SQPO benchmarks for blood transfusion, rectal injury, and perioperative mortality. However, not all UA urologists are achieving a pT2-R1 resection rate <25%. Surgical quality performance initiatives designed to improve cancer control may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402697PMC
August 2020

Impact of sex on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with bladder cancer.

Urol Oncol 2020 07 11;38(7):639.e1-639.e9. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Urology, The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: To assess the effect of patient's sex on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with clinically nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

Methods: Complete pathologic response, defined as ypT0N0 at radical cystectomy, and downstaging were evaluated using sex-adjusted univariable and multivariable logistic regression modeling. We used interaction terms to account for age of menopause and smoking status. The association of sex with overall survival and cancer-specific survival was evaluated using Cox regression analyses.

Results: A total of 1,031 patients were included in the analysis, 227 (22%) of whom were female. Female patients had a higher rate of extravesical disease extension (P = 0.01). After the administration of NAC, ypT stage was equally distributed between sexes (P = 0.39). On multivariable logistic regression analyses, there was no difference between the sexes or age of menopause with regards to ypT0N0 rates or downstaging (all P > 0.5). On Cox regression analyses, sex was associated with neither overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.75-1.45, P = 0.81) nor cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.58, P = 0.77).

Conclusion: Our study generates the hypothesis that NAC equalizes the preoperative disparity in pathologic stage between males and females suggesting a possible differential response between sexes. This might be the explanation underlying the comparable survival outcomes between sexes despite females presenting with more advanced tumor stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.01.010DOI Listing
July 2020

The prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy.

Urol Oncol 2020 01 31;38(1):3.e17-3.e27. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada; Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, AB, Canada.

Introduction: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an attractive marker because it is derived from routine bloodwork. NLR has shown promise as a prognostic factor in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) but its value in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before radical cystectomy (RC) is not yet established. Since NLR is related to an oncogenic environment and poor antitumor host response, we hypothesized that a high NLR would be associated with a poor response to NAC and would remain a poor prognostic indicator in patients receiving NAC.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with nonmetastatic MIBC (cT2-4aN0M0) who received NAC prior to RC between 2000 and 2013 at 1 of 19 centers across Europe and North America. The pre-NAC NLR was used to split patients into a low (NLR ≤ 3) and high (NLR > 3) group. Demographic and clinical parameters were compared between the groups using Student's t test, chi-squared, or Fisher's exact test. Putative risk factors for disease-specific and overall survival were analyzed using Cox regression, while predictors of response to NAC (defined as absence of MIBC in RC specimen) were investigated using logistic regression.

Results: Data were available for 340 patients (199 NLR ≤ 3, 141 NLR > 3). Other than age and rate of lymphovascular invasion, demographic and pretreatment characteristics did not differ significantly. More patients in the NLR > 3 group had residual MIBC after NAC than the NLR ≤ 3 group (70.8% vs. 58.3%, P = 0.049). NLR was the only significant predictor of response (odds ratio: 0.36, P = 0.003) in logistic regression. NLR was a significant risk factor for both disease-specific (hazard ratio (HR): 2.4, P = 0.006) and overall survival (HR:1.8, P = 0.02).

Conclusion: NLR > 3 was associated with a decreased response to NAC and shorter disease-specific and overall survival. This suggests that NLR is a simple tool that can aid in MIBC risk stratification in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.09.023DOI Listing
January 2020

Exercise duRing Active Surveillance for prostatE cancer-the ERASE trial: a study protocol of a phase II randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2019 07 4;9(7):e026438. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Introduction: Active surveillance (AS) is the preferred primary treatment strategy for men with low-risk clinically localised prostate cancer (PCa); however, the majority of these men still receive radical treatment within 10 years due to disease progression and/or fear of cancer progression. Interventions designed to suppress tumour growth, mitigate fear of cancer progression and precondition men for impending radical treatments are an unmet clinical need. Exercise has been shown to delay the progression of prostate tumours in animal models, improve physical and functional health and manage psychological outcomes in cancer patients; however, these outcomes have not been demonstrated in PCa patients undergoing AS.

Methods And Analysis: This phase II randomised controlled trial will randomise 66 men undergoing AS to either an exercise group or a usual care group. The exercise group will perform a 12-week, supervised, high-intensity interval training programme, consisting of 3 sessions/week for 28-40 min/session. The primary outcome will be cardiorespiratory fitness. Secondary outcomes will include immunosurveillance and cancer-related biomarkers, psychosocial outcomes including fear of cancer progression and quality of life and physical function. Exploratory outcomes will include clinical indicators of disease progression. The trial has 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference in VO of 3.5 mL/kg/min with a two-tailed alpha level <0.05 and a 10% dropout rate.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study has received full ethical approval from the Health Research Ethics Board of Alberta - Cancer Committee (Protocol Number: HREBA.CC-17-0248). The findings of the study will be disseminated through public and scientific channels.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03203460; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6615898PMC
July 2019

Morphologic subtyping as a prognostic predictor for survival in papillary renal cell carcinoma: Type 1 vs. type 2.

Urol Oncol 2019 10 5;37(10):721-726. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Hamilton, Ontario. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate outcomes of surgically treated patients with clinically localized papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and determine if papillary RCC subtype is associated with recurrence and survival.

Methods: This is a historical cohort study using the prospectively maintained Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System database between January 2011 and September 2018. All patients underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. Patient, tumor, treatment, and outcomes were compared between papillary RCC type 2 and type 1 cohorts.

Results: During the study period, 509 patients had clinically localized papillary RCC type 2 (n = 172) or type 1 (n = 337) histology. Sex, race, and comorbidities were similar between groups. Pathologic stage (pT3 or pT4), nuclear grade (3 or 4), and tumor diameter were higher in the type 2 papillary RCC cohort (P < 0.0001). A greater proportion of type 2 papillary RCC patients received radical nephrectomy (42.4% vs. 24.6%, P< 0.0001). More type 2 papillary RCC patients underwent lymph node dissection (19.6% vs. 5.5%, P< 0.0001) and had lymph node metastases removed during surgery (6.4% vs. 0.6%, P= 0.103). Overall, adjusting for age, grade, pathologic stage, positive nodes, and tumor size, type 2 papillary RCC had worse outcomes compared to type 1, as demonstrated by elevated all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 7.7 [95% confidence interval: 2.0-28.9]), P=0.0027) and worse recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 8.2 [95% confidence interval: 3.6-19.0], P< 0.0001).

Conclusion: Patients with clinically localized type 2 papillary RCC present with higher risk disease and have worse prognosis compared to patients with clinically localized type 1 papillary RCC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study comparing papillary RCC subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.05.009DOI Listing
October 2019

Rectus sheath single-injection blocks: a study to quantify local anaesthetic absorption using serial ultrasound measurements and lidocaine serum concentrations.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2019 Aug 27;71(8):1282-1290. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Objectives: Rectus sheath blocks are an established option for analgesia following abdominal surgery, but pharmacokinetic data are limited. This study sought to characterise the absorption of lidocaine injectate and the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine after rectus sheath injection.

Methods: Bilateral rectus sheath single-injection blocks were given to 10 patients undergoing general or urological surgery. Afterwards, serial lidocaine serum levels and ultrasound measurements of the rectus sheath injectate reservoir were collected.

Key Findings: Injectate within the rectus sheath was visible with ultrasound up to 12 h after injection. However, the rate of drug absorption exceeded that of injectate disappearance. Peak serum concentration occurred within 30 min with average peak concentrations of 1.65 μg/ml. Lidocaine clearance was lower than reported in young healthy subjects. The body mass index positively correlated with lidocaine terminal phase half-life, and clearance negatively correlated with age.

Conclusions: The study provides the first data describing lidocaine pharmacokinetics after rectus sheath injection. Peak serum concentrations transiently achieved systemic levels associated with pain relief after a single bolus injection. The data from this study could be used to develop a regime using single shot rectus sheath blockade with a bolus of lidocaine followed by infusion using bilateral rectus sheath catheters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13110DOI Listing
August 2019

Development and Acceptability Testing of a Patient Decision Aid for Urinary Diversion with Radical Cystectomy.

J Urol 2019 11 9;202(5):1001-1007. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Division of Urology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Purpose: The choice of urinary diversion at cystectomy is a life altering decision. Patient decision aids are clinical tools that promote shared decision making by providing information about management options and helping patients communicate their values. We sought to develop and evaluate a patient decision aid for individuals undergoing cystectomy with urinary diversion.

Materials And Methods: We used the IPDAS (International Patient Decision Aids Standards) to guide a systematic development process. A literature review was performed to determine urinary diversion options and the incidence of outcomes. We created a prototype using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. A 10-question survey was used to assess patient decision aid acceptability among patients, allied health professionals and urologists. The primary outcome was acceptability of the patient decision aid.

Results: Ileal conduit and orthotopic neobladder were included as primary urinary diversion options because they had the most evidence and are most commonly performed. Continent cutaneous diversion was identified as an alternative option. Outcomes specific to ileal conduit were stomal stenosis and parastomal hernia. Outcomes specific to neobladder were daytime and nighttime urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Acceptability testing was completed by 8 urologists, 9 patients and 1 advanced practice nurse. Of the respondents 94% reported that the language was appropriate, 94% reported that the length was adequate and 83% reported that option presentation was balanced. The patient decision aid met all 6 IPDAS defining criteria, all 6 certification criteria and 21 of 23 quality criteria.

Conclusions: We created a novel patient decision aid to improve the quality of decisions made by patients when deciding among urinary diversion options. Effectiveness testing will be performed prospectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000341DOI Listing
November 2019

Implications of micropapillary urothelial carcinoma variant on prognosis following radical cystectomy: A multi-institutional investigation.

Urol Oncol 2019 01 13;37(1):48-56. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the association of micropapillary urothelial carcinoma (MUC) variant histology with bladder cancer outcomes after radical cystectomy.

Materials And Methods: Information on MUC patients treated with radical cystectomy was obtained from five academic centers. Data on 1,497 patients were assembled in a relational database. Tumor histology was categorized as urothelial carcinoma without any histological variants (UC; n = 1,346) or MUC (n = 151). Univariable and multivariable models were used to analyze associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and overall (OS) survival.

Results: Median follow-up was 10.0 and 7.8 years for the UC and MUC groups, respectively. No significant differences were noted between UC and MUC groups with regard to age, gender, clinical disease stage, and administration of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (all, P ≥ 0.10). When compared with UC, presence of MUC was associated with higher pathologic stage (organ-confined, 60% vs. 27%; extravesical, 18% vs. 23%; node-positive, 22% vs. 50%; P < 0.01) and lymphovascular invasion (29% vs. 58%; P < 0.01) at cystectomy. In comparison with UC, MUC patients had poorer 5-year RFS (70% vs. 44%; P < 0.01) and OS (61% vs. 38%; P < 0.01). However, on multivariable analysis, tumor histology was not independently associated with the risks of recurrence (P = 0.27) or mortality (P = 0.12).

Conclusions: This multi-institutional analysis demonstrated that the presence of MUC was associated with locally advanced disease at radical cystectomy. However, clinical outcomes were comparable to those with pure UC after controlling for standard clinicopathologic predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.10.013DOI Listing
January 2019

Editorial Comment.

J Urol 2018 11 25;200(5):979-980. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Division of Urology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2018.04.103DOI Listing
November 2018

Effects of high-intensity interval training on fatigue and quality of life in testicular cancer survivors.

Br J Cancer 2018 05 8;118(10):1313-1321. Epub 2018 May 8.

Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9, Canada.

Background: Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at increased risk of cancer-related fatigue (CRF), psychosocial impairment, and poor mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Here, we examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in TCS. Secondarily, we explore cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of intervention effects and select baseline characteristics as moderators of intervention effects.

Methods: TCS (n = 63) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of supervised HIIT or usual care (UC). PROs included CRF, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, sleep quality, and HRQoL assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up.

Results: TCS (median 7 years postdiagnosis) completed 99% of training sessions and achieved 98% of target training intensity. ANCOVA revealed that, compared to UC, HIIT significantly improved post-intervention CRF (p = 0.003), self-esteem (p = 0.029), and multiple HRQoL domains (ps ≤ 0.05). Effects on CRF (p = 0.031) and vitality (p = 0.015) persisted at 3-month follow-up. Cardiorespiratory fitness changes mediated CRF and HRQoL improvements. CRF effects were larger for TCS with an inactive lifestyle, lower fitness, higher testosterone, and clinical fatigue at baseline.

Conclusions: HIIT significantly improves CRF and HRQoL in TCS. Mediation by cardiorespiratory fitness and moderation by clinical characteristics suggests opportunities for targeted exercise interventions to optimise PROs in TCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0044-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959855PMC
May 2018

Effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training on cardiovascular disease risk in testicular cancer survivors: A phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

Cancer 2017 Oct 14;123(20):4057-4065. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) have an increased risk of treatment-related cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may limit their overall survival. We evaluated the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on traditional and novel CVD risk factors and surrogate markers of mortality in a population-based sample of TCS.

Methods: This phase 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02459132) randomly assigned 63 TCS to usual care (UC) or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (ie, alternating periods of vigorous-intensity and light-intensity aerobic exercise). The primary outcome was peak aerobic fitness (VO ) assessed via a treadmill-based maximal cardiorespiratory exercise test. Secondary endpoints included CVD risk (eg, Framingham Risk Score), arterial health, parasympathetic nervous system function, and blood-based biomarkers.

Results: Postintervention VO data were obtained for 61 participants (97%). HIIT participants attended 99% of the exercise sessions and achieved 98% of the target exercise intensity. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that HIIT was superior to UC for improving VO (adjusted between-group mean difference, 3.7 mL O /kg/min; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-5.1 [P<.001]) and multiple secondary outcomes including CVD risk (P = .011), arterial thickness (P<.001), arterial stiffness (P<.001), postexercise parasympathetic reactivation (P = .001), inflammation (P = .045), and low-density lipoprotein (P = .014). Overall, HIIT reduced the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors by 20% compared with UC.

Conclusions: This randomized trial provides the first evidence that HIIT improves cardiorespiratory fitness, multiple pathways of CVD risk, and surrogate markers of mortality in TCS. These findings have important implications for the management of TCS. Further research concerning the long-term effects of HIIT on CVD morbidity and mortality in TCS is warranted. Cancer 2017;123:4057-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30859DOI Listing
October 2017

Quality indicators in the management of bladder cancer: A modified Delphi study.

Urol Oncol 2017 06 3;35(6):328-334. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Survival in patients with bladder cancer has only moderately improved over the past 2 decades. A potential reason for this is nonadherence to clinical guidelines and best practice, leading to wide variations in care. Common quality indicators (QIs) are needed to quantify adherence to best practice and provide data for benchmarking and quality improvement.

Objective: To produce an evidence- and consensus-based list of QIs for the management of bladder cancer.

Methods: A modified Delphi method was used to develop the indicator list. Candidate indicators were extracted from the literature and rated by a 27-member Canadian expert panel in several rounds until consensus was reached on the final list of indicators. In rounds with numeric ratings, a frequency analysis was performed.

Results: A total of 86 indicators were rated, 52 extracted from the literature and 34 suggested by the panel. After iterative rounds of ratings and discussion, a final list of 60 QIs spanning several disciplines and phases of the cancer care continuum was developed.

Conclusions: This is the first study to comprehensively produce common QIs representing structure, process, and outcome measures in bladder cancer management. Though developed in Canada, these indicators can be used in other countries with slight modifications to track performance and improve care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.12.003DOI Listing
June 2017

Assessment of Wound Complications After Bulbar Urethroplasty: The Impact of a Lambda Perineal Incision.

Urology 2016 Apr 8;90:184-8. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze risk factors for wound-specific complications after bulbar urethroplasty, including the association between incision type and complications.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of 829 urethroplasties excluding penile strictures, incomplete data sets, and radiation-induced urethral stenosis. Ninety-day wound complications were reported using the modified Clavien-Dindo classification of postoperative complications. Risk factors for wound complications were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis: patient age, positive preoperative urine culture, Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 2, diabetes, body mass index ≥ 35, smoking, and incision type (lambda perineal incision [LPI] vs. midline perineal incision [MPI]).

Results: Five hundred forty patients met inclusion criteria; 373 patients with an LPI and 167 patients with an MPI. Ninety-day wound complications (any Clavien grade) occurred in 21% of patients. Multivariable analyses indicated that incision type alone was significantly associated with wound complications (multivariable: MPI OR 0.53 (0.34-0.83), P = .01). The majority of complications were Clavien ≤ 2, which occurred in 23.3% (87 patients) of LPIs compared to 11.9% (20 patients) of MPIs (P = .002). The primary difference between the incisions was superficial wound edge separation (LPI 10.7% [40 patients]; MPI 0%, P  <  .0001). Early (6-month) urethroplasty success favored the midline incision (LPI 6.2% vs MPI 0%, P  =  .0003), implying no obvious technical advantage for the lambda incision. Study limitations include a retrospective design and the use of some patient-reported complication outcomes.

Conclusion: An LPI is independently associated with increased 90-day wound complications after urethroplasty, with no identifiable advantage in urethroplasty outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.047DOI Listing
April 2016
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