Publications by authors named "Adrian Banning"

332 Publications

Ultrasound- Versus Fluoroscopy-Guided Strategy for Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Access: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep 20:CIRCINTERVENTIONS121010742. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Oxford Heart Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, NHS Trust, United Kingdom (R.A.K., J.J.H.B., S.R., R.S., F.M., D.T.-P., R.K., A.P.B.).

Background: Access site vascular and bleeding complications remain problematic for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Ultrasound-guided transfemoral access approach has been suggested as a technique to reduce access site complications, but there is wide variation in adoption in TAVR. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare access site vascular and bleeding complications according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 classification following the use of either ultrasound- or conventional fluoroscopy-guided transfemoral TAVR access.

Methods: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were searched to November 2020 for studies comparing ultrasound- and fluoroscopy-guided access for transfemoral TAVR. A priori defined primary outcomes were extracted: (1) major, (2) minor, and (3) major and minor (total) access site vascular complications and (4) life-threatening/major, (5) minor, and (6) life-threatening, major, and minor (total) access site bleeding complications.

Results: Eight observational studies (n=3875) were included, with a mean participant age of 82.8 years, STS score 5.81, and peripheral vascular disease in 23.5%. An ultrasound-guided approach was significantly associated with a reduced risk of total (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [MH-OR], 0.50 [95% CI, 0.35-0.73]), major (MH-OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.35-0.74]), and minor (MH-OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.38-0.91]) access site vascular complications. Ultrasound guidance was also significantly associated with total access site bleeding complications (MH-OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.90]). The association remained significant in sensitivity analyses of maximally adjusted minor and total vascular access site complications (MH-OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.29-0.90]; MH-OR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.20-0.99], respectively).

Conclusions: In the absence of randomized studies, our data suggests a potential benefit for ultrasound guidance to obtain percutaneous femoral access in TAVR.

Registration: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; Unique identifier: CRD42020218259.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.121.010742DOI Listing
September 2021

Procedural Mortality With Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement - Balloon Inflation is Associated With Increased Risk.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Sussex Cardiac Centre, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Eastern Road, BN2 5BE Brighton, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To assess the impact of balloon use for predilation, valve implantation, or postdilation on in-hospital mortality among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Background: TAVR utilizes self-expanding, mechanically expanding, or balloon-expandable valves. Balloon inflation is inherent to deployment of balloon-expandable valves. Balloons may additionally be used with all valve types for pre- and postdilation. The relationships between valve mechanism, balloon use, and in-hospital mortality are not fully characterized.

Methods: Prospective data were collected on 4063 patients undergoing TAVR for aortic stenosis at 4 high-volume centers in the United Kingdom. In-hospital mortality was analyzed according to valve expansion mechanism, use of balloons for pre- and postdilation, and specific cause of death.

Results: Mean patient age was 83 ± 8 years. Implanted valves were self expanding (n = 2241; 55%), mechanically expanding (n = 1092; 27%), or balloon expandable (n = 727; 18%). In-hospital death occurred in 66 cases (1.6%). Thirty-six deaths (54.5%) were classified as implantation-related mortalities, with rates of 0.8%, 0.5%, and 1.7% (P=.04) among self-expanding, mechanically expanding, and balloon-expandable technologies, respectively. Patients who underwent balloon inflation at any stage of their procedure (n = 2556; 63%) had significantly higher implantation-related mortality than those who did not (1.3% vs 0.3%, respectively; P<.01). Balloon-expandable valve procedures were associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (2.6% vs 1.4%; P=.02) and implantation-related mortality (1.7% vs 0.7%; P=.02) than non-balloon-expandable valve procedures. Balloon-related complications accounted for 18 cases (26%) of total in-hospital mortality, including all 12 cases (17.4%) of annular rupture and 5 cases (7.2%) of coronary occlusion.

Conclusions: Balloon use for predilation, valve implantation, or postdilation was associated with an increased mortality risk. Balloon-related complications were the largest contributor to in-hospital mortality, comprising all cases of annular rupture and the majority of coronary occlusion cases.
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September 2021

The role of coronary physiology in contemporary percutaneous coronary interventions.

Curr Cardiol Rev 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Oxford Heart Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford . United Kingdom.

Invasive assessment of coronary physiology has radically changed the paradigm of myocardial revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease. Despite the prognostic improvement associated with ischemia-driven revascularization strategy, functional assessment of angiographic intermediate epicardial stenosis remains largely underused in clinical practice. Multiple tools have been developed or are under development in order to reduce the invasiveness, cost, and extra procedural time associated with the invasive assessment of coronary physiology. Besides epicardial stenosis, a growing body of evidence highlights the role of coronary microcirculation in regulating coronary flow with consequent pathophysiological and clinical and prognostic implications. Adequate assessment of coronary microcirculation function and integrity has then become another component of the decision-making algorithm for optimal diagnosis and treatment of coronary syndromes. This review aims at providing a comprehensive description of tools and techniques currently available in the catheterization laboratory to obtain a thorough and complete functional assessment of the entire coronary tree (both for the epicardial and microvascular compartments).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573403X17666210908114154DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity on clinical outcome among STEMI patients undergoing mechanical reperfusion: Insights from the ISACS STEMI COVID 19 registry.

Atherosclerosis 2021 09 21;332:48-54. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Cardiology, Ospedale "Sant'Anna", Ferrara, Italy.

Background And Aims: SARS-Cov-2 predisposes patients to thrombotic complications, due to excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and coagulation/fibrinolysis disturbances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity among STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).

Methods: We selected SARS-CoV-2 positive patients included in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter European registry including 6609 STEMI patients treated with PPCI from March 1st until April 30th, in 2019 and 2020. As a reference group, we randomly sampled 5 SARS-Cov-2 negative patients per each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient, individually matched for age, sex, and hospital/geographic area. Study endpoints were in-hospital mortality, definite stent thrombosis, heart failure.

Results: Our population is represented by 62 positive SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who were compared with a matched population of 310 STEMI patients. No significant difference was observed in baseline characteristics or the modality of access to the PCI center. In the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, the culprit lesion was more often located in the RCA (p < 0.001). Despite similar pre and postprocedural TIMI flow, we observed a trend in higher use of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and a significantly higher use of thrombectomy in the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was associated with a remarkably higher in hospital mortality (29% vs 5.5%, p < 0.001), definite in-stent thrombosis (8.1% vs 1.6%, p = 0.004) and heart failure (22.6% vs 10.6%, p = 0.001) that was confirmed after adjustment for confounding factors.

Conclusions: Our study showed that among STEMI patients, SARS-CoV-2 positivity is associated with larger thrombus burden, a remarkably higher mortality but also higher rates of in-stent thrombosis and heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.06.926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294603PMC
September 2021

Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on Outcome in Takotsubo Syndrome: Data From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Aug 28;10(15):e014059. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiology Intensive Care Medicine and Angiology Vincentius-Diakonissen-Hospital Karlsruhe Germany.

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for mortality. The prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) have not yet been investigated in a large patient cohort. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in patients with TTS. Methods and Results Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry, which is a multinational network with 26 participating centers in Europe and the United States. Patients were dichotomized according to the presence or absence of AF at the time of admission. Of 1584 patients with TTS, 112 (7.1%) had AF. The mean age was higher (<0.001), and there were fewer women (=0.046) in the AF than in the non-AF group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (=0.001), and cardiogenic shock was more often observed (<0.001) in the AF group. Both in-hospital (<0.001) and long-term mortality (<0.001) were higher in the AF group. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that AF was independently associated with higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.50-3.55; <0.001). Among patients with AF on admission, 42% had no known history of AF before the acute TTS event, and such patients had comparable in-hospital and long-term outcomes compared with those with a history of AF. Conclusions In patients presenting with TTS, AF on admission is significantly associated with increased in-hospital and long-term mortality rates. Whether antiarrhythmics and/or cardioversion are beneficial in TTS with AF should thus be tested in a future trial. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014059DOI Listing
August 2021

Pre-procedural ATI score (age-thrombus burden-index of microcirculatory resistance) predicts long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 23;339:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Oxford Heart Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK; Acute Vascular Imaging Centre, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The ATI (Age-Thrombus burden-Index of Microvascular Resistance [IMR]) score was developed to predict suboptimal myocardial reperfusion in patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). When applied in the early phases of revascularization (e.g. before stent insertion), it predicts which patients are most likely to have a larger infarct size. In this study, we assessed the score's utility in determining which STEMI patients are at highest risk of clinical events during follow-up.

Methods: The ATI-score was calculated prospectively in 254 STEMI patients using age (>50 years = 1 point), pre-stenting IMR (>40 U and < 100 U = 1 point; ≥100 U = 2 points) and angiographic thrombus score (4 = 1 point, 5 = 3 points); the cohort was stratified in high vs. low-intermediate ATI-score strata (≥4 vs. < 4, respectively).

Results: After 3 years of follow-up, patients with high ATI-score presented a higher rate of Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, resuscitated cardiac arrest and new heart failure diagnosis (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 3.07; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.19-7.93; p = 0.02). The ATI-score showed a moderate discriminative power (c-stat: 0.69), not significantly different from that of other risk scores used in the STEMI setting. A high ATI-score was an independent predictor of MACE (HR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.22-8.58; p = 0.018).

Conclusions: The ATI-score can discriminate patients at higher risk of long-term adverse events. The score allows predication of subsequent events even before coronary stenting, and consequently it may allow the option of individualized therapy in the early stages of the clinical care-pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.07.040DOI Listing
September 2021

Improved diagnostic indices for coronary microvascular impairment in ST-elevation myocardial infarction; we've just begun, and now it's time to use them to improve outcomes.

EuroIntervention 2021 Jun;17(3):187-188

Oxford Heart Centre, The John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV17I3A34DOI Listing
June 2021

Optical Flow Ratio for Assessing Stenting Result and Physiological Significance of Residual Disease.

EuroIntervention 2021 06 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Biomedical Instrument Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Optical flow ratio (OFR) is a novel method for fast computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of OFR in predicting post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) FFR and to evaluate the impact of stent expansion on within-stent OFR pressure drop (In-stent OFR).

Methods: Post-PCI OFR was computed in patients with both OCT and FFR interrogation immediately after PCI. Calculation of post-PCI OFR (called simulated residual OFR) from pre-PCI OCT pullbacks after elimination of the stenotic segment by virtual stenting was performed in a subgroup of patients who had pre-PCI OCT images. Stent underexpansion was quantified by the minimum expansion index (MEI) of the stented segment.

Results: A total of 125 paired comparisons between post-PCI OFR and FFR were obtained in 119 patients, among which simulated residual OFR was obtained in 64 vessels. Mean post-PCI FFR was 0.92 ± 0.05. Post-PCI OFR showed good correlation (r = 0.74, p<0.001) and agreement (mean difference = -0.01 ± 0.03, p = 0.051) with FFR. The accuracy in predicting post-PCI FFR≤0.90 was 84% for post-PCI OFR. Simulated residual OFR significantly correlated with post-PCI FFR (r = 0.42, p<0.001). MEI showed moderate correlation (r=-0.49, p<0.001) with In-stent OFR.

Conclusions: Post-PCI OFR showed good diagnostic concordance with post-PCI FFR. Simulated residual OFR significantly correlated with post-PCI FFR. Stent underexpansion significantly correlated with in-stent pressure drop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00185DOI Listing
June 2021

Pressure-controlled intermittent coronary sinus occlusion improves the vasodilatory microvascular capacity and reduces myocardial injury in patients with STEMI.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Oxford Heart Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK.

Background: Preliminary data suggest that pressure-controlled intermittent coronary sinus occlusion (PICSO) might reduce the infarct size (IS) in patients with anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the applicability of this therapy to patients with inferior STEMI and its exact mechanism of action is uncertain.

Methods And Results: Thirty-six patients (27 anterior and 9 inferior) with STEMI underwent PICSO-assisted-primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI) and were compared with matched controls who underwent standard PCI (n = 72). Median age was 63 (55-70) years and 82% were male. Coronary microvascular status was assessed using thermodilution-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and the vasodilatory capacity was assessed using the resistive reserve ratio (RRR). IS and microvascular obstruction (MVO) were assessed using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) within 48 h and 6 months of follow-up. At completion of PPCI, IMR improved significantly in PICSO-treated patients compared with controls in patients with either anterior (63.7 [49.8-74.6] vs. 35.9 [27.9-47.6], p < 0.001) or inferior STEMI (60.0 [47.6-67.1] vs. 22.7 [18.4-35.0], p < 0.001). RRR significantly improved after PICSO treatment for anterior (1.21 [1.01-1.42] vs. 1.73 [1.51-2.16], p = 0.002) or inferior STEMI (1.39 [1.05-1.90] vs. 2.87 [2.17-3.78], p = 0.001), whereas it did not change in controls compared with baseline. Patients treated with PICSO presented significantly less frequently with MVO (66.6% vs. 86.1%, p = 0.024) and smaller 6-month IS compared with controls (26% [17%-30%] vs. 30% [21%-37%], p = 0.045).

Conclusion: PICSO therapy may improve microvascular function and vasodilatory capacity, which contributes to reducing IS in patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29793DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and efficacy of Everolimus-Eluting bioabsorbable Polymer-Coated stent in patients with long coronary lesions: The EVOLVE 48 study.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Boston Scientific Corporation, Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: The EVOLVE 48 study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the SYNERGY 48 mm stent for the treatment of long lesions.

Background: Clinical evidence supporting the use of very long stents during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is limited. The bioabsorbable polymer SYNERGY stent has shown good long-term data in a broad population of patients undergoing PCI.

Methods: Patients with lesion length >34- ≤44 mm and reference vessel diameter (RVD) ≥2.5- ≤ 4.0 mm were enrolled in this prospective, multicenter, single-arm study. The primary endpoint was 12-month target lesion failure (TLF; composite of target lesion revascularization [TLR], target-vessel myocardial infarction [TV-MI], or cardiac death) compared to a prespecified performance goal (PG).

Results: A total of 100 patients with mean lesion length of 35.34 ± 7.15 mm (26 patients with lesion length > 40 mm) and mean RVD 2.72 ± 0.44 mm were enrolled. Moderate to severe calcification was present in 30% of the patients and 89% had pre-TIMI flow grade 3. The rates of technical and clinical procedural success were 100%. One-year TLF was observed in 4.1% patients compared to a prespecified PG of 19.5% (95% upper confidence bound = 9.1%; p < 0.0001). Cardiac death and TLR were each observed in one patient, and TV-MI in two patients treated with SYNERGY 48 mm stent. Between the 1-2-year timeframe, TV-MI occurred in one additional patient. None of the patients experienced a definite or probable stent thrombosis through 2 years.

Conclusions: PCI of long coronary lesions with the 48 mm SYNERGY stent demonstrated good procedural and clinical outcomes through 2 years, supporting its clinical safety and efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29798DOI Listing
May 2021

Ethnic comparison in takotsubo syndrome: novel insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Ethnic disparities have been reported in cardiovascular disease. However, ethnic disparities in takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remain elusive. This study assessed differences in clinical characteristics between Japanese and European TTS patients and determined the impact of ethnicity on in-hospital outcomes.

Methods: TTS patients in Japan were enrolled from 10 hospitals and TTS patients in Europe were enrolled from 32 hospitals participating in the International Takotsubo Registry. Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared between Japanese and European patients.

Results: A total of 503 Japanese and 1670 European patients were included. Japanese patients were older (72.6 ± 11.4 years vs. 68.0 ± 12.0 years; p < 0.001) and more likely to be male (18.5 vs. 8.4%; p < 0.001) than European TTS patients. Physical triggering factors were more common (45.5 vs. 32.0%; p < 0.001), and emotional triggers less common (17.5 vs. 31.5%; p < 0.001), in Japanese patients than in European patients. Japanese patients were more likely to experience cardiogenic shock during the acute phase (15.5 vs. 9.0%; p < 0.001) and had a higher in-hospital mortality (8.2 vs. 3.2%; p < 0.001). However, ethnicity itself did not appear to have an impact on in-hospital mortality. Machine learning approach revealed that the presence of physical stressors was the most important prognostic factor in both Japanese and European TTS patients.

Conclusion: Differences in clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes between Japanese and European TTS patients exist. Ethnicity does not impact the outcome in TTS patients. The worse in-hospital outcome in Japanese patients, is mainly driven by the higher prevalence of physical triggers.

Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique Identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01857-4DOI Listing
May 2021

The European bifurcation club Left Main Coronary Stent study: a randomized comparison of stepwise provisional vs. systematic dual stenting strategies (EBC MAIN).

Eur Heart J 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud, Massy, France.

Background: Patients with non-left-main coronary bifurcation lesions are usually best treated with a stepwise provisional approach. However, patients with true left main stem bifurcation lesions have been shown in one dedicated randomized study to benefit from systematic dual stent implantation.

Methods And Results: Four hundred and sixty-seven patients with true left main stem bifurcation lesions requiring intervention were recruited to the EBC MAIN study in 11 European countries. Patients were aged 71 ± 10 years; 77% were male. Patients were randomly allocated to a stepwise layered provisional strategy (n = 230) or a systematic dual stent approach (n = 237). The primary endpoint (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization at 12 months) occurred in 14.7% of the stepwise provisional group vs. 17.7% of the systematic dual stent group (hazard ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.5-1.3; P = 0.34). Secondary endpoints were death (3.0% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.48), myocardial infarction (10.0% vs. 10.1%, P = 0.91), target lesion revascularization (6.1% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.16), and stent thrombosis (1.7% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.90), respectively. Procedure time, X-ray dose and consumables favoured the stepwise provisional approach. Symptomatic improvement was excellent and equal in each group.

Conclusions: Among patients with true bifurcation left main stem stenosis requiring intervention, fewer major adverse cardiac events occurred with a stepwise layered provisional approach than with planned dual stenting, although the difference was not statistically significant. The stepwise provisional strategy should remain the default for distal left main stem bifurcation intervention.

Study Registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov NCT02497014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab283DOI Listing
May 2021

Angiography-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) as a novel pressure-wire-free tool to assess coronary microvascular dysfunction in acute coronary syndromes and stable coronary artery disease.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jun 5;37(6):1801-1813. Epub 2021 May 5.

Oxford Heart Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Headley Way, Oxford, OX39DU, UK.

To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of (1) hyperaemic angiography-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in defining coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) across patients with acute coronary syndromes (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]; non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome [NSTE-ACS]) and stable chronic coronary syndrome [CCS]) and (2) the accuracy of non-hyperaemic IMR (NH-IMR) to detect CMD in STEMI. 145 patients (STEMI = 66; NSTEMI = 43; CCS = 36) were enrolled. 246 pressure-wire IMR measurements were made in 189 coronary vessels. IMR and NH-IMR was derived using quantitative flow ratio. In patients with STEMI, cardiac magnetic resonance was performed to quantify microvascular obstruction (MVO). IMR was correlated with IMR (overall rho = 0.78, p < 0.0001; STEMI, rho = 0.85 p < 0.0001; NSTE-ACS and rho = 0.72, p < 0.0001; CCS, rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001) and demonstrated good diagnostic performance in predicting high IMR (STEMI AUC = 0.93 [0.88-0.98]; NSTE-ACS AUC = 0.77 [0.63-0.92]; CCS AUC = 0.88 [0.79-0.97]). Agreement between the two indices was evident on Bland Altman analysis. In STEMI, NH-IMR was also well correlated with IMR (rho = 0.64, p < 0.0001), with good diagnostic accuracy in predicting high invasive IMR (AUC = 0.82 [0.74-0.90]). Both IMR (AUC = 0.74 [0.59-0.89]) and NH-IMR (AUC = 0.76 [0.54-0.87]) were significantly associated with MVO in STEMI. In conclusions, IMR is a valid alternative to invasive IMR to detect CMD in patients with acute and stable coronary syndromes, whilst NH-IMR has a good diagnostic accuracy in STEMI where it could become a user-friendly diagnostic tool as it is adenosine-free.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-021-02254-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction Assessed by Pressure Wire and CMR After STEMI Predicts Long-Term Outcomes.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Oxford Heart Centre, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, United Kingdom; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the long-term prognostic implications of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) when assessed with both cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).

Background: Post-ischemic CMD can be assessed using the pressure-wire based IMR and/or by the presence of microvascular obstruction (MVO) on CMR.

Methods: A total of 198 patients with STEMI underwent IMR and MVO assessment. Patients were classified as follows: Group 1, no significant CMD (low IMR [≤40 U] and no MVO); Group 2, CMD with either high IMR (>40 U) or MVO; Group 3, CMD with both IMR >40 U and MVO. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause mortality, diagnosis of new heart failure, cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, and cardioverter defibrillator implantation.

Results: CMD with both high IMR and MVO was present in 23.7% of the cases (Group 3) and CMD with either high IMR or MVO was observed in 40.9% of cases (Group 2). At a median follow-up of 40.1 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 34 (17%) cases. At 1 year of follow-up, Group 3 (hazard ratio [HR]: 12.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6 to 100.6; p = 0.017) but not Group 2 (HR: 7.2; 95% CI: 0.9 to 57.9; p = 0.062) had worse clinical outcomes compared with those with no significant CMD in Group 1. However, in the long-term, patients in Group 2 (HR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.4 to 12.5; p = 0.009) and those in Group 3 (HR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.7 to 16.2; p = 0.004) showed similar adverse outcomes, mainly driven by the occurrence of heart failure.

Conclusions: Post-ischemic CMD predicts a more than 4-fold increase in long-term risk of adverse outcomes, mainly driven by the occurrence of heart failure. Defining CMD by either invasive IMR >40 U or by CMR-assessed MVO showed similar risk of adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.02.023DOI Listing
April 2021

Aortic Valve Disease and Associated Complex CAD: The Interventional Approach.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 1;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Oxford Heart Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, NHS Trust, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is highly prevalent in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). The management of CAD is a central aspect of the work-up of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), but few data are available on this field and the best percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice is yet to be determined. A major challenge is the ability to elucidate the severity of bystander coronary stenosis independently of the severity of aortic valve stenosis and subsequent impact on blood flow. The prognostic role of CAD in patients undergoing TAVI is being still debated and the benefits and the best timing of PCI in this context are currently under evaluation. Additionally, PCI in the setting of advanced AS poses some technical challenges, due to the complex anatomy, risk of hemodynamic instability, and the increased risk of bleeding complications. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available literature on myocardial revascularization in patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. This work can assist the Heart Team in individualizing decisions about myocardial revascularization, taking into account available diagnostic tools as well as the risks and benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957505PMC
March 2021

'Valve for Life': tackling the deficit in transcatheter treatment of heart valve disease in the UK.

Open Heart 2021 03;8(1)

Department of Cardiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a proven treatment for life-threatening aortic valve disease, predominantly severe aortic stenosis. However, even among developed nations, access to TAVI is not uniform. The Valve for Life initiative was launched by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions in 2015 with the objective of improving access to transcatheter valve interventions across Europe. The UK has been identified as a country with low penetration of these procedures and has been selected as the fourth nation to be included in the initiative. Specifically, the number of TAVI procedures carried out in the UK is significantly lower than almost all other European nations. Furthermore, there is substantial geographical inequity in access to TAVI within the UK. As a consequence of this underprovision, waiting times for TAVI are long, and mortality among those waiting intervention is significant. This article reviews these issues, reports new data on access to TAVI in the UK and presents the proposals of the UK Valve for Life team to address the current problems in association with the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996656PMC
March 2021

Novel device-based therapies to improve outcome in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Aug;10(6):687-697

Oxford Heart Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has dramatically changed the outcome of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, despite improvements in interventional technology, registry data show little recent change in the prognosis of patients who survive STEMI, with a significant incidence of cardiogenic shock, heart failure, and cardiac death. Despite a technically successful PPCI procedure, a variable proportion of patients experience suboptimal myocardial reperfusion. Large infarct size and coronary microvascular injury, as the consequence of ischaemia-reperfusion injury and distal embolization of atherothrombotic debris, account for suboptimal long-term prognosis of STEMI patients. In order to address this unmet therapeutic need, a broad-range of device-based treatments has been developed. These device-based therapies can be categorized according to the pathophysiological pathways they target: (i) techniques to prevent distal atherothrombotic embolization, (ii) techniques to prevent or mitigate ischaemia/reperfusion injury, and (iii) techniques to enhance coronary microvascular function/integrity. This review is an overview of these novel technologies with a focus on their pathophysiological background, procedural details, available evidence, and with a critical perspective about their potential future implementation in the clinical care of STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuab012DOI Listing
August 2021

Prognostic impact of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with takotsubo syndrome: new insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 06 13;8(3):1924-1932. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Cardiology, Charité, Campus Rudolf Virchow, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Acute pulmonary disorders are known physical triggers of takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This study aimed to investigate prevalence of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with TTS and their impact on outcomes.

Methods And Results: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry and screened for triggering factors and comorbidities. Patients were categorized into three groups (acute pulmonary trigger, chronic lung disease, and no lung disease) to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes. Of the 1670 included patients with TTS, 123 (7%) were identified with an acute pulmonary trigger, and 194 (12%) had a known history of chronic lung disease. The incidence of cardiogenic shock was highest in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger compared with those with chronic lung disease or without lung disease (17% vs. 10% vs. 9%, P = 0.017). In-hospital mortality was also higher in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger than in the other two groups, although not significantly (5.7% vs. 1.5% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.13). Survival analysis demonstrated that patients with an acute pulmonary trigger had the worst long-term outcome (P = 0.002). The presence of an acute pulmonary trigger was independently associated with worse long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.33-3.38; P = 0.002).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that TTS is related to acute pulmonary triggers in 7% of all TTS patients, which accounts for 21% of patients with physical triggers. The presence of acute pulmonary trigger is associated with a severe in-hospital course and a worse long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120351PMC
June 2021

From anatomy to function and then back to anatomy: invasive assessment of myocardial ischaemia in the catheterization laboratory based on anatomy-derived indices of coronary physiology.

Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

MedStar Washington Hospital Centre, Interventional Cardiology Department, Washington, DC, USA.

For many decades, the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the indication to proceed with either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or surgical revascularization has been based on anatomically derived parameters of vessel stenosis, and typically on the percentage of lumen diameter stenosis (DS%) as determined by invasive coronary angiography (CA). However, it is currently a well-accepted concept that pre-specified thresholds of DS% have a weak correlation with the ischaemic and functional potential of an epicardial coronary stenosis. In this regard, the introduction of fractional-flow reserve (FFR) has represented a paradigm-shift in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of CAD, but the adoption of FFR into the clinical practice remains surprisingly limited and sub-standard, probably because of the inherent drawbacks of pressure-wirebased technology such as additional costs, prolonged procedural time, invasive instrumentation of the target vessel, and use of vaso-dilatory agents causing side effects for patients. For this reason, new modalities are under development or validation to derive FFR from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applied to a three-dimensional model (3D) of the target vessel obtained from CA, intravascular imaging, or coronary computed tomography angiography. The purpose of this review is to describe the technical details of these anatomy-derived indices of coronary physiology with a special focus on summarizing their workflow, available evidence, and future perspectives about their application in the clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5683.20.05486-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Survival relative to pacemaker status after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep 27;98(3):E444-E452. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Sussex Cardiac Center, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK.

Objectives: To determine whether a permanent pacemaker (PPM) in situ can enhance survival after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), in a predominantly inoperable or high risk cohort.

Background: New conduction disturbances are the most frequent complication of TAVI, often necessitating PPM implantation before hospital discharge.

Methods: We performed an observational cohort analysis of the UK TAVI registry (2007-2015). Primary and secondary endpoints were 30-day post-discharge all-cause mortality and long-term survival, respectively.

Results: Of 8,651 procedures, 6,815 complete datasets were analyzed. A PPM at hospital discharge, irrespective of when implantation occurred (PPM 1.68% [22/1309] vs. no PPM 1.47% [81/5506], odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-1.84; p = .58), or a PPM implanted peri- or post-TAVI only (PPM 1.44% [11/763] vs. no PPM 1.47% [81/5506], OR 0.98 [0.51-1.85]; p = .95) did not significantly reduce the primary endpoint. Patients with a PPM at discharge were older, male, had right bundle branch block at baseline, were more likely to have received a first-generation self-expandable prosthesis and had experienced more peri- and post-procedural complications including bailout valve-in-valve rescue, bleeding and acute kidney injury. A Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated significantly reduced long-term survival in all those with a PPM, irrespective of implantation timing (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14 [1.02-1.26]; p = .019) and those receiving a PPM only at the time of TAVI (HR 1.15 [1.02-1.31]; p = .032). The reasons underlying this observation warrant further investigation.

Conclusions: A PPM did not confer a survival advantage in the first 30 days after hospital discharge following TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29498DOI Listing
September 2021

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic upon patients, staff, and on the future practices of percutaneous coronary intervention.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Dec 23;22(Suppl Pt t):P13-P18. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital Universitätsspital, Bern Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern 3010, Switzerland.

The COVID pandemic in 2020 had unpredictable consequences on the presentation and management of patients with ischaemic heart disease. Subsequent to these initial responses the impact of the initial pandemic can be reviewed and responses can be considered. It is clear that there are new opportunities for optimising patient management pathways and in particular enhanced use of information technology. Changes in attitudes towards health and perceived risk are evident within both the catheter lab teams and our patient cohorts. Summating both the intellectual and emotional experiences of the pandemic are essential to prepare for either a second wave of COVID 19 or any new pandemic threat in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757716PMC
December 2020

Outpatient Versus Inpatient Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Left Main Disease (from the EXCEL Trial).

Am J Cardiol 2021 03 5;143:21-28. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York; The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Prior studies in patients with noncomplex coronary artery disease have demonstrated the safety of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the outpatient setting. We sought to examine the outcomes of outpatient PCI in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). In the EXCEL trial, 1905 patients with LMCAD and site-assessed low or intermediate SYNTAX scores were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary end point was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; the composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction). In this sub-analysis, outcomes at 30 days and 5 years were analyzed according to whether PCI was performed in the outpatient versus inpatient setting. Among 948 patients with LMCAD assigned to PCI, 935 patients underwent PCI as their first procedure, including 100 (10.7%) performed in the outpatient setting. Patients who underwent outpatient compared with inpatient PCI were less likely to have experienced recent myocardial infarction. Distal left main bifurcation disease involvement and SYNTAX scores were similar between the groups. Comparing outpatient to inpatient PCI, there were no significant differences in MACE at 30 days (4.0% vs 5.0% respectively, adjusted OR 0.52 95% CI 0.12 to 2.22; p = 0.38) or 5 years (20.6% vs 22.1% respectively, adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.29; p = 0.27). Similar results were observed in patients with distal left main bifurcation lesions. In conclusion, in the EXCEL trial, outpatient PCI of patients with LMCAD was not associated with an excess early or late hazard of MACE. These data suggest that outpatient PCI may be safely performed in select patients with LMCAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.12.039DOI Listing
March 2021

Outcomes Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Binational Collaborative Analysis.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 02 25;96(2):363-376. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Centre for Prognosis Research, Institute of Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK, and Academic Department of Cardiology, Royal Stoke Hospital, University Hospitals of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, UK; Department of Cardiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the clinical and procedural characteristics in patients with a history of renal transplant (RT) and compare the outcomes with patients without RT in 2 national cohorts of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Patients And Methods: Data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) were used to compare the clinical and procedural characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing PCI who had RT with those who did not have RT. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality.

Results: Of the PCI procedures performed in 2004-2014 (NIS) and 2007-2014 (BCIS), 12,529 of 6,601,526 (0.2%) and 1521 of 512,356 (0.3%), respectively, were undertaken in patients with a history of RT. Patients with RT were younger and had a higher prevalence of congestive cardiac failure, hypertension, and diabetes but similar use of drug-eluting stents, intracoronary imaging, and pressure wire studies compared with patients who did not have RT. In the adjusted analysis, patients with RT had increased odds of in-hospital mortality (NIS: odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% CI, 1.41-2.57; BCIS: OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.05-2.46) compared with patients who did not have RT but no difference in vascular or bleeding events. Meta-analysis of the 2 data sets suggested an increase in in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.40-2.29) but no difference in vascular (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.77-2.00) or bleeding (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.86-1.68) events.

Conclusion: This large collaborative analysis of 2 national databases revealed that patients with RT undergoing PCI are younger, have more comorbidities, and have increased mortality risk compared with the general population undergoing PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.04.045DOI Listing
February 2021

Safety and Operational Efficiency of Restructuring and Redeploying a Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Service During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Oxford Experience.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 10 3;31:26-31. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Oxford Heart Center, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The risk of nosocomial COVID-19 infection for vulnerable aortic stenosis patients and intensive care resource utilization has led to cardiac surgery deferral. Untreated severe symptomatic aortic stenosis has a dismal prognosis. TAVR offers an attractive alternative to surgery as it is not reliant on intensive care resources. We set out to explore the safety and operational efficiency of restructuring a TAVR service and redeploying it to a new non-surgical site during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The institutional prospective service database was retrospectively interrogated for the first 50 consecutive elective TAVR cases prior to and after our institution's operational adaptations for the COVID-19 pandemic. Our endpoints were VARC-2 defined procedural complications, 30-day mortality or re-admission and service efficiency metrics.

Results: The profile of patients undergoing TAVR during the pandemic was similar to patients undergoing TAVR prior to the pandemic with the exception of a lower mean age (79 vs 82 years, p < 0.01) and median EuroScore II (3.1% vs 4.6%, p = 0.01). The service restructuring and redeployment contributed to the pandemic-mandated operational efficiency with a reduction in the distribution of pre-admission hospital visits (3 vs 3 visits, p < 0.001) and the time taken from TAVR clinic to procedure (26 vs 77 days, p < 0.0001) when compared to the pre-COVID-19 service. No statistically significant difference was noted in peri-procedural complications and 30-day outcomes, while post-operative length of stay was significantly reduced (2 vs 3 days, p < 0.0001) when compared to pre-COVID-19 practice.

Conclusions: TAVR service restructuring and redeployment to align with pandemic-mandated healthcare resource rationalization is safe and feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2020.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836266PMC
October 2021

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mechanical Reperfusion for Patients With STEMI.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 11;76(20):2321-2330

Division of Cardiology, Ospedale "Sant'Anna", Ferrara, Italy.

Background: The fear of contagion during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have potentially refrained patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from accessing the emergency system, with subsequent impact on mortality.

Objectives: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry aims to estimate the true impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the treatment and outcome of patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), with identification of "at-risk" patient cohorts for failure to present or delays to treatment.

Methods: This retrospective registry was performed in European high-volume PPCI centers and assessed patients with STEMI treated with PPPCI in March/April 2019 and 2020. Main outcomes are the incidences of PPCI, delayed treatment, and in-hospital mortality.

Results: A total of 6,609 patients underwent PPCI in 77 centers, located in 18 countries. In 2020, during the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in PPCI as compared with 2019 (incidence rate ratio: 0.811; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.84; p < 0.0001). The heterogeneity among centers was not related to the incidence of death due to COVID-19. A significant interaction was observed for patients with arterial hypertension, who were less frequently admitted in 2020 than in 2019. Furthermore, the pandemic was associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon and total ischemia times, which may have contributed to the higher mortality during the pandemic.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic had significant impact on the treatment of patients with STEMI, with a 19% reduction in PPCI procedures, especially among patients suffering from hypertension, and a longer delay to treatment, which may have contributed to the increased mortality during the pandemic. (Primary Angioplasty for STEMI During COVID-19 Pandemic [ISACS-STEMI COVID-19] Registry; NCT04412655).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.09.546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834750PMC
November 2020

Percutaneous coronary intervention for bifurcation coronary lesions: the 15 consensus document from the European Bifurcation Club.

EuroIntervention 2021 03;16(16):1307-1317

Insitute of Cardiology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

The 15th European Bifurcation Club (EBC) meeting was held in Barcelona in October 2019. It facilitated a renewed consensus on coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL) and unprotected left main (LM) percutaneous interventions. Bifurcation stenting techniques continue to be refined, developed and tested. It remains evident that a provisional approach with optional side branch treatment utilising T, T and small protrusion (TAP) or culotte continues to provide flexible options for the majority of CBL patients. Debate persists regarding the optimal treatment of side branches, including assessment of clinical significance and thresholds for bail-out treatment. In more complex CBL, especially those involving the LM, adoption of dedicated two-stent techniques should be considered. Operators using such techniques have to be fully familiar with their procedural steps and should acknowledge associated limitations and challenges. When using two-stent techniques, failure to perform a final kissing inflation is regarded as a technical failure, since it may jeopardise clinical outcome. The development of novel technical tools and drug regimens deserves attention. In particular, intracoronary imaging, bifurcation simulation, drug-eluting balloon technology and tailored antiplatelet therapy have been identified as promising tools to enhance clinical outcomes. In conclusion, the evolution of a broad spectrum of bifurcation PCI components has resulted from studies extending from bench testing to randomised controlled trials. However, further advances are still needed to achieve the ambitious goal of optimising the clinical outcomes for every patient undergoing PCI on a CBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-00169DOI Listing
March 2021

Consensus statements, guidelines and definition: will they actually improve our treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions?

Authors:
Adrian P Banning

EuroIntervention 2020 Oct 9;16(9):e695-e697. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Cardiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV16I9A127DOI Listing
October 2020

Reply to the Letter to the Editor Entitled "Intravascular Lithotripsy Facilitated Cardiovascular Interventions".

Angiology 2021 01 6;72(1):98. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Oxford Heart Centre, 11269John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319720963603DOI Listing
January 2021
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