Publications by authors named "Adrián César-Razquin"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

TASL is the SLC15A4-associated adaptor for IRF5 activation by TLR7-9.

Nature 2020 05 13;581(7808):316-322. Epub 2020 May 13.

CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a crucial role in the recognition of pathogens and initiation of immune responses. Here we show that a previously uncharacterized protein encoded by CXorf21-a gene that is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus-interacts with the endolysosomal transporter SLC15A4, an essential but poorly understood component of the endolysosomal TLR machinery also linked to autoimmune disease. Loss of this type-I-interferon-inducible protein, which we refer to as 'TLR adaptor interacting with SLC15A4 on the lysosome' (TASL), abrogated responses to endolysosomal TLR agonists in both primary and transformed human immune cells. Deletion of SLC15A4 or TASL specifically impaired the activation of the IRF pathway without affecting NF-κB and MAPK signalling, which indicates that ligand recognition and TLR engagement in the endolysosome occurred normally. Extensive mutagenesis of TASL demonstrated that its localization and function relies on the interaction with SLC15A4. TASL contains a conserved pLxIS motif (in which p denotes a hydrophilic residue and x denotes any residue) that mediates the recruitment and activation of IRF5. This finding shows that TASL is an innate immune adaptor for TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 signalling, revealing a clear mechanistic analogy with the IRF3 adaptors STING, MAVS and TRIF. The identification of TASL as the component that links endolysosomal TLRs to the IRF5 transcription factor via SLC15A4 provides a mechanistic explanation for the involvement of these proteins in systemic lupus erythematosus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2282-0DOI Listing
May 2020

A widespread role for SLC transmembrane transporters in resistance to cytotoxic drugs.

Nat Chem Biol 2020 04 9;16(4):469-478. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Solute carriers (SLCs) are the largest family of transmembrane transporters in humans and are major determinants of cellular metabolism. Several SLCs have been shown to be required for the uptake of chemical compounds into cellular systems, but systematic surveys of transporter-drug relationships in human cells are currently lacking. We performed a series of genetic screens in a haploid human cell line against 60 cytotoxic compounds representative of the chemical space populated by approved drugs. By using an SLC-focused CRISPR-Cas9 library, we identified transporters whose absence induced resistance to the drugs tested. This included dependencies involving the transporters SLC11A2/SLC16A1 for artemisinin derivatives and SLC35A2/SLC38A5 for cisplatin. The functional dependence on SLCs observed for a significant proportion of the screened compounds suggests a widespread role for SLCs in the uptake and cellular activity of cytotoxic drugs and provides an experimentally validated set of SLC-drug associations for a number of clinically relevant compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-020-0483-3DOI Listing
April 2020

Prioritization of Transporter-Drug Relationships From Drug Sensitivity Screens.

Front Pharmacol 2018 7;9:1011. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

The interplay between drugs and cell metabolism is a key factor in determining both compound potency and toxicity. In particular, how and to what extent transmembrane transporters affect drug uptake and disposition is currently only partially understood. Most transporter proteins belong to two protein families: the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter family, whose members are often involved in xenobiotic efflux and drug resistance, and the large and heterogeneous family of solute carriers (SLCs). We recently argued that SLCs are collectively a rather neglected gene group, with most of its members still poorly characterized, and thus likely to include many yet-to-be-discovered associations with drugs. We searched publicly available resources and literature to define the currently known set of drugs transported by ABCs or SLCs, which involved ∼500 drugs and more than 100 transporters. In order to extend this set, we then mined the largest publicly available pharmacogenomics dataset, which involves approximately 1,000 molecularly annotated cancer cell lines and their response to 265 anti-cancer compounds, and used regularized linear regression models (Elastic Net, LASSO) to predict drug responses based on SLC and ABC data (expression levels, SNVs, CNVs). The most predictive models included both known and previously unidentified associations between drugs and transporters. To our knowledge, this represents the first application of regularized linear regression to this set of genes, providing an extensive prioritization of potentially pharmacologically interesting interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137680PMC
September 2018

Systematic genetic mapping of necroptosis identifies SLC39A7 as modulator of death receptor trafficking.

Cell Death Differ 2019 06 20;26(6):1138-1155. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Regulation of cell and tissue homeostasis by programmed cell death is a fundamental process with wide physiological and pathological implications. The advent of scalable somatic cell genetic technologies creates the opportunity to functionally map such essential pathways, thereby identifying potential disease-relevant components. We investigated the genetic basis underlying necroptotic cell death by performing a complementary set of loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic screens. To this end, we established FADD-deficient haploid human KBM7 cells, which specifically and efficiently undergo necroptosis after a single treatment with either TNFα or the SMAC mimetic compound birinapant. A series of unbiased gene-trap screens identified key signaling mediators, such as TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL. Among the novel components, we focused on the zinc transporter SLC39A7, whose knock-out led to necroptosis resistance by affecting TNF receptor surface levels. Orthogonal, solute carrier (SLC)-focused CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic screens revealed the exquisite specificity of SLC39A7, among ~400 SLC genes, for TNFR1-mediated and FAS-mediated but not TRAIL-R1-mediated responses. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that loss of SLC39A7 resulted in augmented ER stress and impaired receptor trafficking, thereby globally affecting downstream signaling. The newly established cellular model also allowed genome-wide gain-of-function screening for genes conferring resistance to necroptosis via the CRISPR/Cas9-based synergistic activation mediator approach. Among these, we found cIAP1 and cIAP2, and characterized the role of TNIP1, which prevented pathway activation in a ubiquitin-binding dependent manner. Altogether, the gain-of-function and loss-of-function screens described here provide a global genetic chart of the molecular factors involved in necroptosis and death receptor signaling, prompting further investigation of their individual contribution and potential role in pathological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-018-0192-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748104PMC
June 2019

MLL-fusion-driven leukemia requires SETD2 to safeguard genomic integrity.

Nat Commun 2018 05 18;9(1):1983. Epub 2018 May 18.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Cancer Research, Vienna, 1090, Austria.

MLL-fusions represent a large group of leukemia drivers, whose diversity originates from the vast molecular heterogeneity of C-terminal fusion partners of MLL. While studies of selected MLL-fusions have revealed critical molecular pathways, unifying mechanisms across all MLL-fusions remain poorly understood. We present the first comprehensive survey of protein-protein interactions of seven distantly related MLL-fusion proteins. Functional investigation of 128 conserved MLL-fusion-interactors identifies a specific role for the lysine methyltransferase SETD2 in MLL-leukemia. SETD2 loss causes growth arrest and differentiation of AML cells, and leads to increased DNA damage. In addition to its role in H3K36 tri-methylation, SETD2 is required to maintain high H3K79 di-methylation and MLL-AF9-binding to critical target genes, such as Hoxa9. SETD2 loss synergizes with pharmacologic inhibition of the H3K79 methyltransferase DOT1L to induce DNA damage, growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. These results uncover a dependency for SETD2 during MLL-leukemogenesis, revealing a novel actionable vulnerability in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04329-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959866PMC
May 2018

A Call for Systematic Research on Solute Carriers.

Cell 2015 Jul;162(3):478-87

CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria; Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Solute carrier (SLC) membrane transport proteins control essential physiological functions, including nutrient uptake, ion transport, and waste removal. SLCs interact with several important drugs, and a quarter of the more than 400 SLC genes are associated with human diseases. Yet, compared to other gene families of similar stature, SLCs are relatively understudied. The time is right for a systematic attack on SLC structure, specificity, and function, taking into account kinship and expression, as well as the dependencies that arise from the common metabolic space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.07.022DOI Listing
July 2015

Building and exploring an integrated human kinase network: global organization and medical entry points.

J Proteomics 2014 Jul 3;107:113-27. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

CeMM-Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Lazarettgasse 14, AKH-BT 25.3, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: Biological matter is organized in functional networks of different natures among which kinase-substrate and protein-protein interactions play an important role. Large public data collections allowed us to compile an important corpus of interaction data around human protein kinases. One of the most interesting observations analyzing this network is that coherence in kinase functional activity relies on kinase substrate interactions primarily and not on which protein complexes are formed around them. Further dissecting the two types of interactions at the level of kinase groups (CMGCs, Tyrosine kinases, etc.) we show a prevalence of intra-group interconnectivity, which we can naturally relate to current scenarios of evolution of biological networks. Tracking publication dates we observe high correlation of kinase interaction research focus with general kinase research. We find a similar bias in the targets of kinase inhibitors that feature high redundancy. Finally, intersecting kinase inhibitor specificity with sets of kinases located at specific positions in the kinase network, we propose alternative options for future therapeutic strategies using these compounds.

Biological Significance: Despite its importance for cellular regulation and the fact that protein kinases feature prominent targets of modern therapeutic approaches, the structure and logic of the global, integrated protein phosphorylation network have not been investigated intensively. To focus on the regulatory skeleton of the phosphorylation network, we contemplated a network consisting of kinases, their substrates, and publicly available physical protein interactions. Analysis of this network at multiple levels allowed establishing a series of interesting properties such as prevalence of kinase substrate interactions as opposed to general protein-protein interactions for establishing a holistic control over kinases activities. Kinases controlling many or a few only other kinases, in addition to non-kinases, were distributed in cellular compartments differently. They were also targeted by kinase inhibitors with distinct success rates. Non-kinases tightly regulated by a large number of kinases were involved in biological processes both specific and shared with their regulators while being preferably localized in the nucleus. Collectively, these observations may provide for a new perspective in the elaboration of pharmacological intervention strategies. We complemented our study of kinase interactions with a perspective of how this type of data is generated in comparison with general research about those enzymes. Namely, what was the temporal evolution of the research community attention for interaction versus non-interaction-based kinase experiments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "20years of Proteomics" in memory of Viatliano Pallini" Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2014.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4115268PMC
July 2014