Publications by authors named "Adolfo Correa"

326 Publications

Whole-genome association analyses of sleep-disordered breathing phenotypes in the NHLBI TOPMed program.

Genome Med 2021 Aug 26;13(1):136. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, 10461, USA.

Background: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity. The genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing remains poorly understood. Through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, we performed the first whole-genome sequence analysis of sleep-disordered breathing.

Methods: The study sample was comprised of 7988 individuals of diverse ancestry. Common-variant and pathway analyses included an additional 13,257 individuals. We examined five complementary traits describing different aspects of sleep-disordered breathing: the apnea-hypopnea index, average oxyhemoglobin desaturation per event, average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation across the sleep episode, and the percentage of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%. We adjusted for age, sex, BMI, study, and family structure using MMSKAT and EMMAX mixed linear model approaches. Additional bioinformatics analyses were performed with MetaXcan, GIGSEA, and ReMap.

Results: We identified a multi-ethnic set-based rare-variant association (p = 3.48 × 10) on chromosome X with ARMCX3. Additional rare-variant associations include ARMCX3-AS1, MRPS33, and C16orf90. Novel common-variant loci were identified in the NRG1 and SLC45A2 regions, and previously associated loci in the IL18RAP and ATP2B4 regions were associated with novel phenotypes. Transcription factor binding site enrichment identified associations with genes implicated with respiratory and craniofacial traits. Additional analyses identified significantly associated pathways.

Conclusions: We have identified the first gene-based rare-variant associations with objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing traits. Our results increase the understanding of the genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing and highlight associations in genes that modulate lung development, inflammation, respiratory rhythmogenesis, and HIF1A-mediated hypoxic response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00917-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394596PMC
August 2021

Population sequencing data reveal a compendium of mutational processes in the human germ line.

Science 2021 08 12;373(6558):1030-1035. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties between loci. We provide a biological interpretation for seven of these processes. We associate one process with bulky DNA lesions that are resolved asymmetrically with respect to transcription and replication. Two processes track direction of replication fork and replication timing, respectively. We identify a mutagenic effect of active demethylation primarily acting in regulatory regions and a mutagenic effect of long interspersed nuclear elements. We localize a mutagenic process specific to oocytes from population sequencing data. This process appears transcriptionally asymmetric.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aba7408DOI Listing
August 2021

Survey of Adherence with COVID-19 Prevention Behaviors During the 2020 Thanksgiving and Winter Holidays Among Members of the COVID-19 Community Research Partnership.

J Community Health 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Infectious Diseases, Medical Center Blvd, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Prevention behaviors represent important public health tools to limit spread of SARS-CoV-2. Adherence with recommended public health prevention behaviors among 20000 + members of a COVID-19 syndromic surveillance cohort from the mid-Atlantic and southeastern United States was assessed via electronic survey following the 2020 Thanksgiving and winter holiday (WH) seasons. Respondents were predominantly non-Hispanic Whites (90%), female (60%), and ≥ 50 years old (59%). Non-household members (NHM) were present at 47.1% of Thanksgiving gatherings and 69.3% of WH gatherings. Women were more likely than men to gather with NHM (p < 0.0001). Attending gatherings with NHM decreased with older age (Thanksgiving: 60.0% of participants aged < 30 years to 36.3% aged ≥ 70 years [p-trend < 0.0001]; WH: 81.6% of those < 30 years to 61.0% of those ≥ 70 years [p-trend < 0.0001]). Non-Hispanic Whites were more likely to gather with NHM than were Hispanics or non-Hispanic Blacks (p < 0.0001). Mask wearing, reported by 37.3% at Thanksgiving and 41.9% during the WH, was more common among older participants, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics when gatherings included NHM. In this survey, most people did not fully adhere to recommended public health safety behaviors when attending holiday gatherings. It remains unknown to what extent failure to observe these recommendations may have contributed to the COVID-19 surges observed following Thanksgiving and the winter holidays in the United States.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-021-01021-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358902PMC
August 2021

Identification and Predictors for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Equivalents among Adults With Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes Care 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Epidemiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Objective: We examined diabetes mellitus (DM) as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk equivalent based on diabetes severity and other CVD risk factors.

Research Design And Methods: We pooled 4 US cohorts (ARIC, JHS, MESA, FHS-Offspring) and classified subjects by baseline DM/CVD. CVD risks between DM+/CVD- vs. DM-/CVD+ were examined by diabetes severity and in subgroups of other CVD risk factors. We developed an algorithm to identify subjects with CVD risk equivalent diabetes by comparing the relative CVD risk of being DM+/CVD- vs. DM-/CVD+.

Results: The pooled cohort included 27,730 subjects (mean age of 58.5 years, 44.6% male). CVD rates per 1000 person-years were 16.5, 33.4, 43.2 and 71.4 among those with DM-/CVD-, DM+/CVD-, DM-/CVD+ and DM+/CVD+, respectively. Compared with those with DM-/CVD+, CVD risks were similar or higher for those with HbA1c ≥ 7%, diabetes duration ≥10 years, or diabetes medication use while those with less severe diabetes had lower risks. Hazard ratios (95%CI) for DM+/CVD- vs. DM-/CVD+ were 0.96(0.86-1.07), 0.97(0.88-1.07), 0.96(0.82-1.13), 1.18(0.98-1.41), 0.93(0.85-1.02) and 1.00(0.89-1.13) among women, white race, age <55 years, triglycerides ≥2.26 mmol/L, hs-CRP ≥ 2 mg/L and eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m, respectively. In DM+/CVD- group, 19.1% had CVD risk equivalent diabetes with a lower risk score but a higher observed CVD risk.

Conclusion: Diabetes is a CVD risk equivalent in one-fifth of CVD-free adults living with diabetes. High HbA1c, long diabetes duration, and diabetes medication use were predictors of CVD risk equivalence. Diabetes is a CVD risk equivalent for women, white people, those of younger age, with higher triglycerides or CRP, or reduced kidney function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-0431DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic underpinnings of regional adiposity distribution in African Americans: Assessments from the Jackson Heart Study.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(8):e0255609. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

School of Public Health & Information Sciences, The University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States of America.

Background: African ancestry individuals with comparable overall anthropometric measures to Europeans have lower abdominal adiposity. To explore the genetic underpinning of different adiposity patterns, we investigated whether genetic risk scores for well-studied adiposity phenotypes like body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) also predict other, less commonly measured adiposity measures in 2420 African American individuals from the Jackson Heart Study.

Methods: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated using GWAS-significant variants extracted from published studies mostly representing European ancestry populations for BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) adjusted for BMI (WHRBMIadj), waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMIadj), and body fat percentage (BF%). Associations between each PRS and adiposity measures including BF%, subcutaneous adiposity tissue (SAT), visceral adiposity tissue (VAT) and VAT:SAT ratio (VSR) were examined using multivariable linear regression, with or without BMI adjustment.

Results: In non-BMI adjusted models, all phenotype-PRS were found to be positive predictors of BF%, SAT and VAT. WHR-PRS was a positive predictor of VSR, but BF% and BMI-PRS were negative predictors of VSR. After adjusting for BMI, WHR-PRS remained a positive predictor of BF%, VAT and VSR but not SAT. WC-PRS was a positive predictor of SAT and VAT; BF%-PRS was a positive predictor of BF% and SAT only.

Conclusion: These analyses suggest that genetically driven increases in BF% strongly associate with subcutaneous rather than visceral adiposity and BF% is strongly associated with BMI but not central adiposity-associated genetic variants. How common genetic variants may contribute to observed differences in adiposity patterns between African and European ancestry individuals requires further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255609PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336790PMC
August 2021

County-level phenomapping to identify disparities in cardiovascular outcomes: An unsupervised clustering analysis: Short title: Unsupervised clustering of counties and risk of cardiovascular mortality.

Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Dec 20;4:100118. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Introduction: Significant heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and healthcare resource allocation has been demonstrated in the United States, but optimal methods to capture heterogeneity in county-level characteristics that contribute to CVD mortality differences are unclear. We evaluated the feasibility of unsupervised machine learning (ML)-based phenomapping in identifying subgroups of county-level social and demographic risk factors with differential CVD outcomes.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using county-level data from 2008 to 2018 from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) WONDER platform and the 2020 Robert Wood Johnson County Health Rankings program. Unsupervised clustering was performed on 46 facets of population characteristics spanning the demographic, health behaviors, socioeconomic, and healthcare access domains. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed using the Moran's I test, and temporal trends in age-adjusted CVD outcomes were evaluated using linear mixed effect models and least square means.

Results: Among 2676 counties, 4 county-level phenogroups were identified (Moran's I p-value <0.001). Phenogroup 1 (N ​= ​924; 24.5%) counties were largely white, suburban households with high income and access to healthcare. Phenogroup 2 counties (N ​= ​451; 16.9%) included predominantly Hispanic residents and below-average prevalence of CVD risk factors. Phenogroup 3 (N ​= ​951; 35.5%) counties included rural, white residents with the lowest levels of access to healthcare. Phenogroup 4 (350; 13.1%) comprised counties with predominantly Black residents, substantial cardiovascular comorbidities, and physical and socioeconomic burdens. Least square means in age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality over time increased in a stepwise fashion from 223 in phenogroup 1 to 317 per 100,000 residents in phenogroup 4.

Conclusions: Unsupervised ML-based clustering on county-level population characteristics can identify unique phenogroups with differential risk of CVD mortality. Phenogroup identification may aid in developing a uniform set of preventive initiatives for clustered counties to address regional differences in CVD mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpc.2020.100118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315381PMC
December 2020

Rare Coding Variants Associated With Electrocardiographic Intervals Identify Monogenic Arrhythmia Susceptibility Genes: A Multi-Ancestry Analysis.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Aug 28;14(4):e003300. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Regeneron Genetics Center, Tarrytown, NY. Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (S.R.).

Background: Alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals are well-known markers for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk. While the genetics of arrhythmia syndromes have been studied, relations between electrocardiographic intervals and rare genetic variation at a population level are poorly understood.

Methods: Using a discovery sample of 29 000 individuals with whole-genome sequencing from Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine and replication in nearly 100 000 with whole-exome sequencing from the UK Biobank and MyCode, we examined associations between low-frequency and rare coding variants with 5 routinely measured electrocardiographic traits (RR, P-wave, PR, and QRS intervals and corrected QT interval).

Results: We found that rare variants associated with population-based electrocardiographic intervals identify established monogenic SCD genes (, , and ), a controversial monogenic SCD gene (), and novel genes ( and ) involved in cardiac conduction. Loss-of-function and pathogenic variants, carried by 0.1% of individuals, were associated with a nearly 6-fold increased odds of the first-degree atrioventricular block (=8.4×10). Similar variants in and (0.2% of individuals) were associated with a 23-fold increased odds of marked corrected QT interval prolongation (=4×10), a marker of SCD risk. Incomplete penetrance of such deleterious variation was common as over 70% of carriers had normal electrocardiographic intervals.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that large-scale high-depth sequence data and electrocardiographic analysis identifies monogenic arrhythmia susceptibility genes and rare variants with large effects. Known pathogenic variation in conventional arrhythmia and SCD genes exhibited incomplete penetrance and accounted for only a small fraction of marked electrocardiographic interval prolongation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373440PMC
August 2021

Presence and transmission of mitochondrial heteroplasmic mutations in human populations of European and African ancestry.

Mitochondrion 2021 Jul 21;60:33-42. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA 01702, USA; Population Sciences Branch, NHLBI/NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

We investigated the concordance of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmic mutations (heteroplasmies) in 6745 maternal pairs of European (EA, n = 4718 pairs) and African (AA, n = 2027 pairs) Americans in whole blood. Mother-offspring pairs displayed the highest concordance rate, followed by sibling-sibling and more distantly-related maternal pairs. The allele fractions of concordant heteroplasmies exhibited high correlation (R = 0.8) between paired individuals. Discordant heteroplasmies were more likely to be in coding regions, be nonsynonymous or nonsynonymous-deleterious (p < 0.001). The number of deleterious heteroplasmies was significantly correlated with advancing age (20-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years, p-trend = 0.01). One standard deviation increase in heteroplasmic burden (i.e., the number of heteroplasmies carried by an individual) was associated with 0.17 to 0.26 (p < 1e - 23) standard deviation decrease in mtDNA copy number, independent of age. White blood cell count and differential count jointly explained 0.5% to 1.3% (p ≤ 0.001) variance in heteroplasmic burden. A genome-wide association and meta-analysis identified a region at 11p11.12 (top signal rs779031139, p = 2.0e - 18, minor allele frequency = 0.38) associated with the heteroplasmic burden. However, the 11p11.12 region is adjacent to a nuclear mitochondrial DNA (NUMT) corresponding to a 542 bp area of the D-loop. This region was no longer significant after excluding heteroplasmies within the 542 bp from the heteroplasmic burden. The discovery that blood mtDNA heteroplasmies were both inherited and somatic origins and that an increase in heteroplasmic burden was strongly associated with a decrease in average number of mtDNA copy number in blood are important findings to be considered in association studies of mtDNA with disease traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2021.07.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Regional Adiposity and Risk of Heart Failure and Mortality: The Jackson Heart Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 9;10(14):e020920. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine Durham NC.

Background Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with incident heart failure (HF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction, yet it is unknown how pericardial and abdominal adiposity affect HF and mortality risks in Black individuals. We examined the associations of pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), VAT, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with incident HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality in a large community cohort of Black participants. Methods and Results Among the 2882 Jackson Heart Study Exam 2 participants without prevalent HF who underwent body computed tomography, we used Cox proportional hazards models to examine associations between computed tomography-derived regional adiposity and incident HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Fully adjusted models included demographics and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Median follow-up was 10.6 years among participants with available VAT (n=2844), SAT (n=2843), and PAT (n=1386). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) of distinct computed tomography-derived adiposity measures (PAT per 10 cm, VAT or SAT per 100 cm) were as follows: for incident HF, PAT 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02-1.14) and VAT 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.08); for HF with preserved ejection fraction, PAT 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.21) and VAT 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.13); for mortality, PAT 1.07 (95% CI, 1.03-1.12) and VAT 1.01 (95% CI, 0.98-1.04). SAT was not associated with either outcome. Conclusions High PAT and VAT, but not SAT, were associated with incident HF and HF with preserved ejection fraction, and only PAT was associated with mortality in the fully adjusted models in a longitudinal community cohort of Black participants. Future studies may help understand whether changes in regional adiposity improves HF, particularly HF with preserved ejection fraction, risk predictions. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005485.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.020920DOI Listing
July 2021

Supplemental Association of Clonal Hematopoiesis With Incident Heart Failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 07;78(1):42-52

Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA; Care New England, Center for Primary Care and Prevention, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, USA; Department of Family Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Age-related clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), defined as clonally expanded leukemogenic sequence variations (particularly in DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, and JAK2) in asymptomatic individuals, is associated with cardiovascular events, including recurrent heart failure (HF).

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate whether CHIP is associated with incident HF.

Methods: CHIP status was obtained from whole exome or genome sequencing of blood DNA in participants without prevalent HF or hematological malignancy from 5 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were performed within each cohort, adjusting for demographic and clinical risk factors, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Large CHIP clones (defined as variant allele frequency >10%), HF with or without baseline coronary heart disease, and left ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated in secondary analyses.

Results: Of 56,597 individuals (59% women, mean age 58 years at baseline), 3,406 (6%) had CHIP, and 4,694 developed HF (8.3%) over up to 20 years of follow-up. CHIP was prospectively associated with a 25% increased risk of HF in meta-analysis (hazard ratio: 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.38) with consistent associations across cohorts. ASXL1, TET2, and JAK2 sequence variations were each associated with an increased risk of HF, whereas DNMT3A sequence variations were not associated with HF. Secondary analyses suggested large CHIP was associated with a greater risk of HF (hazard ratio: 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.44), and the associations for CHIP on HF with and without prior coronary heart disease were homogenous. ASXL1 sequence variations were associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

Conclusions: CHIP, particularly sequence variations in ASXL1, TET2, and JAK2, represents a new risk factor for HF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313294PMC
July 2021

Genome-wide association studies identify 137 genetic loci for DNA methylation biomarkers of aging.

Genome Biol 2021 06 29;22(1):194. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field.

Results: Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels.

Conclusion: This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02398-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243879PMC
June 2021

Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and blood pressure progression among blacks: the Jackson Heart Study.

J Hypertens 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Medicine Welch Prevention Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: There is a paucity of data on the relations of insulin resistance with incident blood pressure (BP) changes among Blacks. We investigated the associations of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) with BP progression in a community-based sample of African Americans.

Methods: We analyzed 1064 participants without hypertension at baseline (2000-2004) who attended at least one follow-up visit in 2005-2008 or 2009-2013. Four insulin resistance indices [fasting insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio (IGR), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)] and MetS (excluding hypertension in the definition) were assessed at baseline. Robust Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for BP progression and incident hypertension.

Results: Over a median of 7 years, 69.6% progressed to a higher BP category and 62.7% developed hypertension. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of HOMA-IR had higher risks of BP progression [RR 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43), Ptrend = 0.004] and hypertension [RR 1.35 (95% CI 1.16-1.58), Ptrend < 0.001] compared with those in the lowest quartile. A similar positive association of insulin resistance with BP outcomes was noted with insulin resistance assessed using IGR, fasting insulin, and QUICKI. MetS was associated with increased risks of BP progression [RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.30), P = 0.02] and incident hypertension [RR 1.23 [95% CI 1.08-1.41], P = 0.002]. These associations were present across baseline BP categories.

Conclusion: Our findings support the notion that higher insulin resistance levels are associated with greater risks of BP progression and incident hypertension among Blacks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002920DOI Listing
June 2021

Plasma Adiponectin And Blood Pressure Progression in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Little is known on the association of plasma adiponectin with blood pressure (BP) changes in African Americans (AAs). We evaluated the associations between plasma adiponectin and BP progression among AAs.

Methods: We analyzed data from 1184 participants without hypertension at baseline (2000-2004) with ≥1 follow-up visits in the Jackson Heart Study. We used robust Poisson regression to generate risk ratios (RR) for BP progression (an increase by ≥1 BP stage) and incident hypertension.

Results: Over a median of 7 years, 71 % progressed to higher BP stage and 65% developed hypertension. We found evidence of interaction by sex (P-interaction=0.088). Compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q1), male participants in the highest adiponectin quartile (Q4) had reduced risks of BP progression (Risk Ratio [RR] 0.76 [95% CI 0.60-0.96]) and incident hypertension (RR 0.74 [95% CI 0.56-0.97]). After accounting for body mass index, this relation persisted among obese men (RR for the highest (vs. lowest) adiponectin quartile: 0.59 (95% CI 0.36-0.97) for incident hypertension, and 0.69 (95% CI 0.45-1.06) for BP progression). Among women, adiponectin was not associated with BP outcomes (RR [95% CI] for Q4 vs Q1: 1.03 [0.86-1.23], and 1.01[0.83-1.23] for BP progression and incident hypertension respectively). Our findings were consistent across both the ACC/AHA and JNC-7 BP categories.

Conclusions: In a large, community-based sample of African Americans, higher adiponectin concentrations were associated with lower risks of BP progression and incident hypertension in men, but no significant association was observed in women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpab101DOI Listing
June 2021

Physical Activity, Subclinical Myocardial Injury, and Risk of Heart Failure Subtypes in Black Adults.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jul 9;9(7):484-493. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the independent associations and interactions between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and physical activity (PA) with risk of heart failure (HF) subtypes, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Background: Black adults are at high risk for developing HF. Physical inactivity and subclinical myocardial injury, as assessed by hs-cTnI concentration, are independent risk factors for HF.

Methods: Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study without prevalent HF who had hs-cTnI concentration and self-reported PA assessed at baseline were included. Adjusted Cox models were used to evaluate the independent and joint associations and interaction between hs-cTnI concentrations and PA with risk of HFpEF and HFrEF.

Results: Among 3,959 participants, 25.1% had subclinical myocardial injury (hs-cTnI ≥4 and ≥6 ng/l in women and men, respectively), and 48.2% were inactive (moderate-to-vigorous PA = 0 min/week). Over 12.0 years of follow-up, 163 and 150 participants had an incident HFpEF and HFrEF event, respectively. In adjusted analysis, higher hs-cTnI concentration (per 1-U log increase) was associated with higher risk of HFpEF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25 to 1.72]) and HFrEF (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.35 to 1.83]). In contrast, higher PA (per 1-U log increase) was associated with a lower risk of HFpEF (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.99]) but not HFrEF. There was a significant interaction between hs-cTnI and PA for risk of HFpEF (p interaction = 0.04) such that inactive participants with subclinical myocardial injury were at higher risk of HFpEF but active participants were not.

Conclusions: Among Black adults with subclinical myocardial injury, higher levels of PA were associated with attenuated risk of HFpEF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.04.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Determinants of penetrance and variable expressivity in monogenic metabolic conditions across 77,184 exomes.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3505. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Hundreds of thousands of genetic variants have been reported to cause severe monogenic diseases, but the probability that a variant carrier develops the disease (termed penetrance) is unknown for virtually all of them. Additionally, the clinical utility of common polygenetic variation remains uncertain. Using exome sequencing from 77,184 adult individuals (38,618 multi-ancestral individuals from a type 2 diabetes case-control study and 38,566 participants from the UK Biobank, for whom genotype array data were also available), we apply clinical standard-of-care gene variant curation for eight monogenic metabolic conditions. Rare variants causing monogenic diabetes and dyslipidemias display effect sizes significantly larger than the top 1% of the corresponding polygenic scores. Nevertheless, penetrance estimates for monogenic variant carriers average 60% or lower for most conditions. We assess epidemiologic and genetic factors contributing to risk prediction in monogenic variant carriers, demonstrating that inclusion of polygenic variation significantly improves biomarker estimation for two monogenic dyslipidemias.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23556-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190084PMC
June 2021

DNAm-based signatures of accelerated aging and mortality in blood are associated with low renal function.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Jun 2;13(1):121. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: The difference between an individual's chronological and DNA methylation predicted age (DNAmAge), termed DNAmAge acceleration (DNAmAA), can capture life-long environmental exposures and age-related physiological changes reflected in methylation status. Several studies have linked DNAmAA to morbidity and mortality, yet its relationship with kidney function has not been assessed. We evaluated the associations between seven DNAm aging and lifespan predictors (as well as GrimAge components) and five kidney traits (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [uACR], serum urate, microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) in up to 9688 European, African American and Hispanic/Latino individuals from seven population-based studies.

Results: We identified 23 significant associations in our large trans-ethnic meta-analysis (p < 1.43E-03 and consistent direction of effect across studies). Age acceleration measured by the Extrinsic and PhenoAge estimators, as well as Zhang's 10-CpG epigenetic mortality risk score (MRS), were associated with all parameters of poor kidney health (lower eGFR, prevalent CKD, higher uACR, microalbuminuria and higher serum urate). Six of these associations were independently observed in European and African American populations. MRS in particular was consistently associated with eGFR (β =  - 0.12, 95% CI = [- 0.16, - 0.08] change in log-transformed eGFR per unit increase in MRS, p = 4.39E-08), prevalent CKD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.78 [1.47, 2.16], p = 2.71E-09) and higher serum urate levels (β = 0.12 [0.07, 0.16], p = 2.08E-06). The "first-generation" clocks (Hannum, Horvath) and GrimAge showed different patterns of association with the kidney traits. Three of the DNAm-estimated components of GrimAge, namely adrenomedullin, plasminogen-activation inhibition 1 and pack years, were positively associated with higher uACR, serum urate and microalbuminuria.

Conclusion: DNAmAge acceleration and DNAm mortality predictors estimated in whole blood were associated with multiple kidney traits, including eGFR and CKD, in this multi-ethnic study. Epigenetic biomarkers which reflect the systemic effects of age-related mechanisms such as immunosenescence, inflammaging and oxidative stress may have important mechanistic or prognostic roles in kidney disease. Our study highlights new findings linking kidney disease to biological aging, and opportunities warranting future investigation into DNA methylation biomarkers for prognostic or risk stratification in kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01082-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170969PMC
June 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Clonal hematopoiesis associated with epigenetic aging and clinical outcomes.

Aging Cell 2021 06 29;20(6):e13366. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a common precursor state for blood cancers that most frequently occurs due to mutations in the DNA-methylation modifying enzymes DNMT3A or TET2. We used DNA-methylation array and whole-genome sequencing data from four cohorts together comprising 5522 persons to study the association between CHIP, epigenetic clocks, and health outcomes. CHIP was strongly associated with epigenetic age acceleration, defined as the residual after regressing epigenetic clock age on chronological age, in several clocks, ranging from 1.31 years (GrimAge, p < 8.6 × 10 ) to 3.08 years (EEAA, p < 3.7 × 10 ). Mutations in most CHIP genes except DNA-damage response genes were associated with increases in several measures of age acceleration. CHIP carriers with mutations in multiple genes had the largest increases in age acceleration and decrease in estimated telomere length. Finally, we found that ~40% of CHIP carriers had acceleration >0 in both Hannum and GrimAge (referred to as AgeAccelHG+). This group was at high risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.90, p < 4.1 × 10 ) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (hazard ratio 3.24, p < 9.3 × 10 ) compared to those who were CHIP-/AgeAccelHG-. In contrast, the other ~60% of CHIP carriers who were AgeAccelHG- were not at increased risk of these outcomes. In summary, CHIP is strongly linked to age acceleration in multiple clocks, and the combination of CHIP and epigenetic aging may be used to identify a population at high risk for adverse outcomes and who may be a target for clinical interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208788PMC
June 2021

Multiomic Profiling in Black and White Populations Reveals Novel Candidate Pathways in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Incident Heart Failure Specific to Black Adults.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Jun 21;14(3):e003191. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (D.H.K., U.A.T., D.N., M.D.B., X.S., M.J.K., D.S., M.H., J.M.R., Z.-Z.C., D.E.C., B.P., J.G.W., R.E.G.).

Background: Increased left ventricular (LV) mass is associated with adverse cardiovascular events including heart failure (HF). Both increased LV mass and HF disproportionately affect Black individuals. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we undertook a proteomic screen in a Black cohort and compared the findings to results from a White cohort.

Methods: We measured 1305 plasma proteins using the SomaScan platform in 1772 Black participants (mean age, 56 years; 62% women) in JHS (Jackson Heart Study) with LV mass assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Incident HF was assessed in 1600 participants. We then compared protein associations in JHS to those observed in White participants from FHS (Framingham Heart Study; mean age, 54 years; 56% women).

Results: In JHS, there were 110 proteins associated with LV mass and 13 proteins associated with incident HF hospitalization with false discovery rate <5% after multivariable adjustment. Several proteins showed expected associations with both LV mass and HF, including NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; β=0.04; =2×10; hazard ratio, 1.48; =0.0001). The strongest association with LV mass was novel: LKHA4 (leukotriene-A4 hydrolase; β=0.05; =5×10). This association was confirmed on an alternate proteomics platform and further supported by related metabolomic data. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 (C-X3-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) showed a novel association with incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.32; =0.0002). While established biomarkers such as cystatin C and NT-proBNP showed consistent associations in Black and White individuals, LKHA4 and fractalkine were significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusions: We identified several novel biological pathways specific to Black adults hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiologic cascade of LV hypertrophy and incident HF including LKHA4 and fractalkine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003191DOI Listing
June 2021

Epigenome-wide association study of kidney function identifies trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific loci.

Genome Med 2021 Apr 30;13(1):74. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with gene regulation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function. Decreased eGFR is more common among US Hispanics and African Americans. The causes for this are poorly understood. We aimed to identify trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with eGFR using an agnostic, genome-wide approach.

Methods: The study included up to 5428 participants from multi-ethnic studies for discovery and 8109 participants for replication. We tested the associations between whole blood DNAm and eGFR using beta values from Illumina 450K or EPIC arrays. Ethnicity-stratified analyses were performed using linear mixed models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and study-specific and technical variables. Summary results were meta-analyzed within and across ethnicities. Findings were assessed using integrative epigenomics methods and pathway analyses.

Results: We identified 93 DMPs associated with eGFR at an FDR of 0.05 and replicated 13 and 1 DMPs across independent samples in trans-ethnic and African American meta-analyses, respectively. The study also validated 6 previously published DMPs. Identified DMPs showed significant overlap enrichment with DNase I hypersensitive sites in kidney tissue, sites associated with the expression of proximal genes, and transcription factor motifs and pathways associated with kidney tissue and kidney development.

Conclusions: We uncovered trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific DMPs associated with eGFR, including DMPs enriched in regulatory elements in kidney tissue and pathways related to kidney development. These findings shed light on epigenetic mechanisms associated with kidney function, bridging the gap between population-specific eGFR-associated DNAm and tissue-specific regulatory context.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00877-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088054PMC
April 2021

Associations between air pollution indicators and prevalent and incident diabetes in an African American cohort, the Jackson Heart Study.

Environ Epidemiol 2021 Jun 22;5(3):e140. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Environmental Health, Indianapolis, Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indiana.

Background: Diabetes is especially prevalent among African Americans. Prior studies suggest that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution may be associated with greater incidence of diabetes, but results remain heterogeneous. Few studies have included large numbers of African Americans.

Methods: We assessed diabetes status and concentrations of 1- and 3-year fine particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O) among African American participants of the Jackson Heart Study at visits 1 (2000-2004, N = 5128) and 2 (2005-2008, N = 2839). We used mixed-effect modified Poisson regression to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incidence of diabetes by visit 2 and prevalence ratios (PRs) of the association between air pollution exposure and prevalent diabetes at visits 1 and 2. We adjusted for potential confounding by patient characteristics, as well as inverse probability weights of diabetes at visit 2, accounting for clustering by census tract.

Results: We observed associations between incident diabetes and interquartile range increase in 1-year O (RR 1.34, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.61) and 3-year O (RR 0.88, 95% CI = 0.76, 1.02). We observed associations between prevalent diabetes and 1-year PM (PR 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.17), 1-year O (PR 1.18, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.27), and 3-year O (PR 0.95, 95% CI = 0.90, 1.01) at visit 2.

Conclusions: Our results provide some evidence of positive associations between indicators of long-term PM and O exposure and diabetes. This study is particularly relevant to African Americans, who have higher prevalence of diabetes but relatively few studies of environmental pollution risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EE9.0000000000000140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078431PMC
June 2021

Whole-genome sequencing association analysis of quantitative red blood cell phenotypes: The NHLBI TOPMed program.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 05 21;108(5):874-893. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206199PMC
May 2021

A System for Phenotype Harmonization in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Genotype-phenotype association studies often combine phenotype data from multiple studies to increase power. Harmonization of the data usually requires substantial effort due to heterogeneity in phenotype definitions, study design, data collection procedures, and data set organization. Here we describe a centralized system for phenotype harmonization that includes input from phenotype domain and study experts, quality control, documentation, reproducible results, and data sharing mechanisms. This system was developed for the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program, which is generating genomic and other omics data for >80 studies with extensive phenotype data. To date, 63 phenotypes have been harmonized across thousands of participants from up to 17 studies per phenotype (participants recruited 1948-2012). We discuss challenges in this undertaking and how they were addressed. The harmonized phenotype data and associated documentation have been submitted to National Institutes of Health data repositories for controlled-access by the scientific community. We also provide materials to facilitate future harmonization efforts by the community, which include (1) the code used to generate the 63 harmonized phenotypes, enabling others to reproduce, modify or extend these harmonizations to additional studies; and (2) results of labeling thousands of phenotype variables with controlled vocabulary terms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab115DOI Listing
April 2021

Allele-specific variation at APOE increases nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity but decreases risk of Alzheimer's disease and myocardial infarction.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jul;30(15):1443-1456

Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30 × 10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and AD at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283205PMC
July 2021

Chromosome Xq23 is associated with lower atherogenic lipid concentrations and favorable cardiometabolic indices.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2182. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Cardiology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Healthcare Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22339-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042019PMC
April 2021

Development and Validation of Machine Learning-Based Race-Specific Models to Predict 10-Year Risk of Heart Failure: A Multicohort Analysis.

Circulation 2021 Jun 13;143(24):2370-2383. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (M.W.S., K.V.P., A.C., C.A., S.R., J.A.d.L., A.P.).

Background: Heart failure (HF) risk and the underlying risk factors vary by race. Traditional models for HF risk prediction treat race as a covariate in risk prediction and do not account for significant parameters such as cardiac biomarkers. Machine learning (ML) may offer advantages over traditional modeling techniques to develop race-specific HF risk prediction models and to elucidate important contributors of HF development across races.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 4 large, community cohort studies (ARIC [Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities], DHS [Dallas Heart Study], JHS [Jackson Heart Study], and MESA [Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis]) with adjudicated HF events. The study included participants who were >40 years of age and free of HF at baseline. Race-specific ML models for HF risk prediction were developed in the JHS cohort (for Black race-specific model) and White adults from ARIC (for White race-specific model). The models included 39 candidate variables across demographic, anthropometric, medical history, laboratory, and electrocardiographic domains. The ML models were externally validated and compared with prior established traditional and non-race-specific ML models in race-specific subgroups of the pooled MESA/DHS cohort and Black participants of ARIC. The Harrell C-index and Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino χ tests were used to assess discrimination and calibration, respectively.

Results: The ML models had excellent discrimination in the derivation cohorts for Black (n=4141 in JHS, C-index=0.88) and White (n=7858 in ARIC, C-index=0.89) participants. In the external validation cohorts, the race-specific ML model demonstrated adequate calibration and superior discrimination (Black individuals, C-index=0.80-0.83; White individuals, C-index=0.82) compared with established HF risk models or with non-race-specific ML models derived with race included as a covariate. Among the risk factors, natriuretic peptide levels were the most important predictor of HF risk across both races, followed by troponin levels in Black and ECG-based Cornell voltage in White individuals. Other key predictors of HF risk among Black individuals were glycemic parameters and socioeconomic factors. In contrast, prevalent cardiovascular disease and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were stronger predictors of HF risk in White adults.

Conclusions: Race-specific and ML-based HF risk models that integrate clinical, laboratory, and biomarker data demonstrated superior performance compared with traditional HF risk and non-race-specific ML models. This approach identifies distinct race-specific contributors of HF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.053134DOI Listing
June 2021

Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 Research (C4R) Study: Study Design.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

The Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 Research (C4R) is a national prospective study of adults at risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) comprising 14 established United States (US) prospective cohort studies. For decades, C4R cohorts have collected extensive data on clinical and subclinical diseases and their risk factors, including behavior, cognition, biomarkers, and social determinants of health. C4R will link this pre-COVID phenotyping to information on SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute and post-acute COVID-related illness. C4R is largely population-based, has an age range of 18-108 years, and broadly reflects the racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic diversity of the US. C4R is ascertaining severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19 illness using standardized questionnaires, ascertainment of COVID-related hospitalizations and deaths, and a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey via dried blood spots. Master protocols leverage existing robust retention rates for telephone and in-person examinations, and high-quality events surveillance. Extensive pre-pandemic data minimize referral, survival, and recall bias. Data are being harmonized with research-quality phenotyping unmatched by clinical and survey-based studies; these will be pooled and shared widely to expedite collaboration and scientific findings. This unique resource will allow evaluation of risk and resilience factors for COVID-19 severity and outcomes, including post-acute sequelae, and assessment of the social and behavioral impact of the pandemic on long-term trajectories of health and aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.19.21253986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987050PMC
March 2021

Cigarette Smoking, Incident Coronary Heart Disease, and Coronary Artery Calcification in Black Adults: The Jackson Heart Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 04 23;10(7):e017320. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson MS.

Background Although Black adults are more likely to die from coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with White adults, few studies have examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and CHD risk among Black adults. We evaluated the relationship between cigarette smoking, incident CHD, and coronary artery calcification in the JHS (Jackson Heart Study). Methods and Results We classified JHS participants without a history of CHD (n=4432) by self-reported baseline smoking status into current, former (smoked at least 400 cigarettes/life) or never smokers at baseline (2000-2004). We further classified current smokers by smoking intensity (number of cigarettes smoked per day [1-19 or ≥20]) and followed for incident CHD (through 2016). Hazard ratios (HR) for incident CHD for each smoking group compared with never smokers were estimated with adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. At baseline, there were 548 (12.4%) current, 782 (17.6%) former, and 3102 (70%) never smokers. During follow-up (median, 13.8 years), 254 participants developed CHD. After risk factor adjustment, CHD risk was significantly higher in current smokers compared with never smokers (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.39-3.18); the difference between former smokers and never smokers (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.0-1.90) did not achieve statistical significance. Among current smokers, we did not observe a dose-response effect for CHD risk. Additionally, in multivariable logistic regression models with a subset of our analytic cohort, current smokers had greater odds of coronary artery calcification score >0 compared with never smokers (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.88-3.68). Conclusions In a large prospective cohort of Black adults, current smoking was associated with a >2-fold increased risk of CHD over a median follow-up of greater than a decade.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174312PMC
April 2021
-->