Publications by authors named "Adnan Khan"

378 Publications

Prospecting cellulose fibre-reinforced composite membranes for sustainable remediation and mitigation of emerging contaminants.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 24:135291. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Science, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

Many environmental pollutants caused by uncontrolled urbanization and rapid industrial growth have provoked serious concerns worldwide. These pollutants, including toxic metals, dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum hydrocarbons, unenviably compromise the water quality and manifest a severe menace to aquatic entities and human beings. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to acquaint bio-nanocomposites with the capability to remove and decontaminate this extensive range of emerging pollutants. Recently, considerable emphasis has been devoted to developing low-cost novel materials obtained from natural resources accompanied by minimal toxicity to the environment. One such component is cellulose, naturally the most abundant organic polymer found in nature. Given bio-renewable sources, natural abundance, and impressive nanofibril arrangement, cellulose-reinforced composites are widely engineered and utilized for multiple applications, such as wastewater decontamination, energy storage devices, drug delivery systems, paper and pulp industries, construction industries, and adhesives, etc. Environmental remediation prospective is among the fascinating application of these cellulose-reinforced composites. This review discusses the structural attributes of cellulose, types of cellulose fibrils-based nano-biocomposites, preparatory techniques, and the potential of cellulose-based composites to remediate a diverse array of organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135291DOI Listing
June 2022

Joint Transcriptome and Metabolome Analysis Prevails the Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Pro-Survival Fight in In Vitro Heat-Stressed Granulosa Cells.

Biology (Basel) 2022 May 30;11(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, MARA, College of Animal Sciences and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Previous studies reported the physical, transcriptome, and metabolome changes in in vitro acute heat-stressed (38 °C versus 43 °C for 2 h) bovine granulosa cells. Granulosa cells exhibited transient proliferation senescence, oxidative stress, an increased rate of apoptosis, and a decline in steroidogenic activity. In this study, we performed a joint integration and network analysis of metabolomic and transcriptomic data to further narrow down and elucidate the role of differentially expressed genes, important metabolites, and relevant cellular and metabolic pathways in acute heat-stressed granulosa cells. Among the significant (raw -value < 0.05) metabolic pathways where metabolites and genes converged, this study found vitamin B6 metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, histidine metabolism, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Important significant convergent biological pathways included ABC transporters and protein digestion and absorption, while functional signaling pathways included cAMP, mTOR, and AMPK signaling pathways together with the ovarian steroidogenesis pathway. Among the cancer pathways, the most important pathway was the central carbon metabolism in cancer. Through multiple analysis queries, progesterone, serotonin, citric acid, pyridoxal, L-lysine, succinic acid, L-glutamine, L-leucine, L-threonine, L-tyrosine, vitamin B6, choline, and , , , , , , , , , , and appeared to be important enriched metabolites and genes, respectively. These genes, metabolites, and metabolic, cellular, and cell signaling pathways comprehensively elucidate the mechanisms underlying the intricate fight between death and survival in acute heat-stressed bovine granulosa cells and essentially help further our understanding (and will help the future quest) of research in this direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11060839DOI Listing
May 2022

Designing, characterization, and evaluation of chitosan-zinc selenide nanoparticles for visible-light-induced degradation of tartrazine and sunset yellow dyes.

Environ Res 2022 Jun 18;213:113722. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai'an, 223003, China. Electronic address:

Employing dyes in different industrial sectors has produced a serious threat to the environment and living organisms of water bodies and land. For the decontamination of such toxic dyes, efforts have been made to develop an efficient, feasible, and low maintenance processes. In this context, chitosan-zinc selenide (CS-ZnSe) nanoparticles were prepared through chemical reduction method as the efficient photocatalysts for the decontamination of toxic dyes through photocatalysis. Photocatalyst's synthesis was confirmed with the help of FTIR spectroscopy. XRD indicated the hexagonal crystal structure of the CS-ZnSe with a crystallite size of 12 nm. SEM micrographs showed the average nano photocatalyst size as 25 nm. EDX analysis was employed to determine the elemental composition of the CS-ZnSe. An excellent photocatalytic degradation efficiency for tartrazine and sunset yellow dyes was obtained using CS-ZnSe. The results showed a 98% and 97% degradation efficiency for tartrazine dye and sunset yellow (SY) dye at optimized conditions of time (3 h), pH (5), dye concentration (30 ppm), catalyst dosage (0.09 g and 0.01 g) , and at a temperature of 35 °C. Findings of the photocatalytic degradation process fitted well with first-order kinetics for both the dyes. Rate constant, 'K' value was found to be 0.001362 min and 0.001257 min for tartrazine and SY dyes, respectively. While value for (correlation coefficient, R) was 0.99307 and 0.99277 for tartrazine and sunset yellow dyes, respectively. Recyclability of the photocatalyst was confirmed using it for consecutive cycles to degrade organic dyes. Results showed that the CH-ZnS possesses excellent efficiency in decontaminating organic dyes from industrial wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113722DOI Listing
June 2022

Analytical perspective and environmental remediation potentials of magnetic composite nanosorbents.

Chemosphere 2022 Oct 13;304:135312. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai'an, 223003, China. Electronic address:

The synthesis and application of magnetic nanosorbents to remove emerging pollutants have been considered the best environmental remediation and sustainability option. Incorporating magnetism shortens the treatment time and allows the sorbent to be recovered quickly using external magnetic with many cycles. The implementation of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) using magnetic materials of different shapes, sizes, and surface morphology can be a valuable tool in applying materials to prepare analytical samples. In MSPE applications, materials with strong magnetic domain can be used as precursors for constructing magnetic composite as a promising sorbent. This article focuses on the most recent and exceptional applications of magnetic adsorbents for preconcentration and removal purposes. Magnetic adsorbents, such as nanoparticles (NPs), foam, sponges, nanocomposites, hydrogels, and beads with multifunctional attributes have been comprehensively studied in terms of preparation procedures, limitations, advantages, and interactions between pollutants and magnetic composites. The role of magnetic sorbents in sample preparation methods, such as simple solid-phase extraction and microextraction, as well as sorptive extraction using a stir bar, was also examined. The use of magnetic adsorbents with analytical techniques, such as solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction improves the method for preparing samples concerning the influential role of magnetic adsorbents. Towards the end, promising features and future outlook are also directed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135312DOI Listing
October 2022

Suppression of NF-κB signaling by ECN in an arthritic model of inflammation.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 Jun 13;22(1):158. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Pharmacological Sciences Research Lab, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: The 7β-(3-ethyl-cis-crotonoyloxy)-1α-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-3,14-dehydro-Z-notonipetranone (ECN), a sesquiterpenoid isolated from the Tussilago farfara Linneaus (Asteraceae), was evaluated against acute Carrageenan and chronic complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in mice.

Methods: Acute and chronic arthritis were induced by administering Carrageenan and CFA to the intraplantar surface of the mouse paw. Edema, mechanical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia, and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed in the paw. Similarly, histological and immunohistological parameters were assessed following arthritis induced by CFA. Antioxidants, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress markers were also studied in all the treated groups.

Results: The ECN treatment significantly attenuated edema in the paw and elevated the nocifensive threshold following induction of this inflammatory model. Furthermore, ECN treatment markedly improved the arthritis index and distress symptoms, while attenuating the CFA-induced edema in the paw. ECN treatment also improved the histological parameters in the paw tissue compared to the control. At the same time, there was a significant reduction in edema and erosion in the ECN-treated group, as measured by radiographic analysis. Using the Comet's assay, we showed that ECN treatment protected the DNA from chronic CFA-induced arthritis. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed a marked decrease in the expression level of p-JNK (phosphorylated C-Jun N-terminal kinase), NF-κB (Nuclear factor-kappa B), COX-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2), and TNF-α (Tumour necrosis factor-alpha) compared to the CFA-treated group. Biophysical analysis involving molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energies of ECN were performed to explore the underlying mechanism.

Conclusion: ECN exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity against Carrageenan and CFA-induced models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-022-03629-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Supervised Machine Learning Empowered Multifactorial Genetic Inheritance Disorder Prediction.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 31;2022:1051388. Epub 2022 May 31.

Center for Cyber Physical Systems, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, 127788, UAE.

Fatal diseases like cancer, dementia, and diabetes are very dangerous. This leads to fear of death if these are not diagnosed at early stages. Computer science uses biomedical studies to diagnose cancer, dementia, and diabetes. With the advancement of machine learning, there are various techniques which are accessible to predict and prognosis these diseases based on different datasets. These datasets varied (image datasets and CSV datasets) around the world. So, there is a need for some machine learning classifiers to predict cancer, dementia, and diabetes in a human. In this paper, we used a multifactorial genetic inheritance disorder dataset to predict cancer, dementia, and diabetes. Several studies used different machine learning classifiers to predict cancer, dementia, and diabetes separately with the help of different types of datasets. So, in this paper, multiclass classification proposed methodology used support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) machine learning techniques to predict three diseases and compared these techniques based on accuracy. Simulation results have shown that the proposed model of SVM and KNN for prediction of dementia, cancer, and diabetes from multifactorial genetic inheritance disorder achieved 92.8% and 92.5%, 92.8% and 91.2% accuracy during training and testing, respectively. So, it is observed that proposed SVM-based dementia, cancer, and diabetes from multifactorial genetic inheritance disorder prediction (MGIDP) give attractive results as compared with the proposed model of KNN. The application of the proposed model helps to prognosis and prediction of cancer, dementia, and diabetes before time and plays a vital role to minimize the death ratio around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1051388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9173933PMC
June 2022

Pharmacological mechanism of xanthoangelol underlying Nrf-2/TRPV1 and anti-apoptotic pathway against scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jun 10;150:113073. Epub 2022 May 10.

Pharmacological Sciences Research Lab, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known type of age-related dementia. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of xanthoangelol against memory deficit and neurodegeneration associated with AD. Preliminarily, xanthoangelol produced neuroprotective effect against HO-induced HT-22 cells. Furthermore, effect of xanthoangelol against scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice was determined by intraperitoneally (i.p.) administering xanthoangelol (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg), 30 min prior to induction. Mice were administered scopolamine at a concentration of 1 mg/kg; i.p. for the induction of amnesia associated with AD. Xanthoangelol dose dependently reduced the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease as observed by the results obtained from the behavioral analysis performed using Morris water maze and Y-maze test. The immunohistochemical analysis suggested that xanthoangelol significantly improved Keap-1/Nrf-2 signaling pathway. It greatly reduced the effects of oxidative stress and showed improvement in the anti-oxidant enzyme such as GSH, GST, SOD and catalase. Additionally, xanthoangelol decreased the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1), a nonselective cation channel, involved in synaptic plasticity and memory. It activated the anti-oxidants and attenuated the apoptotic (Bax/Bcl-2) pathway. Xanthoangelol also significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced neuroinflammation by the inhibition of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. The histological analysis, showed a significant reduction in amyloid plaques by xanthoangelol. Therefore, the present study indicated that xanthoangelol has the ability to ameliorate the AD symptoms by attenuating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration induced by scopolamine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113073DOI Listing
June 2022

Progressive loss of corneal nerve fibers is associated with physical inactivity and glucose lowering medication associated with weight gain in type 2 diabetes.

J Diabetes Investig 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Bahrain, Adliya, Bahrain.

Aims/introduction: Limited studies have identified risk factors linked to the progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes. This study examined the association of risk factors with change in neuropathy measures over 2 years.

Materials And Methods: Participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 78) and controls (n = 26) underwent assessment of clinical and metabolic parameters and neuropathy using corneal confocal microscopy (CCM), vibration perception threshold (VPT), and the DN4 questionnaire at baseline and 2 year follow-up.

Results: Participants with type 2 diabetes had a lower corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), branch density (CNBD), and fiber length (CNFL) (P ≤ 0.0001) and a higher VPT (P ≤ 0.01) compared with controls. Over 2 years, despite a modest reduction in HbA1c (P ≤ 0.001), body weight (P ≤ 0.05), and LDL (P ≤ 0.05) the prevalence of DPN (P = 0.28) and painful DPN (P = 0.21) did not change, but there was a significant further reduction in CNBD (P ≤ 0.0001) and CNFL (P ≤ 0.05). CNFD, CNBD, and CNFL decreased significantly in physically inactive subjects (P < 0.05-0.0001), whilst there was no change in CNFD (P = 0.07) or CNFL (P = 0.85) in physically active subjects. Furthermore, there was no change in CNFD (P = 0.82), CNBD (P = 0.08), or CNFL (P = 0.66) in patients treated with glucose lowering medication associated with weight loss, whilst CNBD (P = 0.001) decreased in patients on glucose lowering medication associated with weight gain.

Conclusions: In participants with type 2 diabetes, despite a modest improvement in HbA1c, body weight, and LDL there was a progressive loss of corneal nerve fibers; except in those who were physically active or on glucose lowering medication associated with weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13864DOI Listing
June 2022

Effectiveness of compost inoculated with phosphate solubilizing bacteria.

J Appl Microbiol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Aims: The present study was carried out to design a phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB)-based biofertilizer using locally produced fruit waste.

Method And Results: Two PSB strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMG4 and AAC1 were inoculated into compost. Six compost piles were prepared with carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio 30:1. Four piles were inoculated with PSB and two piles served as a control. After 125 days, composts were considered mature at 29-31°C in the pH range of 7.1-7.3 and 32%-35% moisture content (MC). Accessible calcium (Ca) content increased up to 50 g kg . Microbial analysis showed the survival of P. aeruginosa species in the maturing compost even at higher temperature (~53°C). Native bacterial load was retrieved in the range of 10 -10  CFUg . Heavy metal concentrations including copper (Cu), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were found to occur below critical thresholds. Seed germination index for compost toxicity was found to be >80%, significantly higher than animal manure and chemical fertilizer, that is, 78% and 31%, respectively, suggesting non-toxicity.

Conclusions: The evaluation of prepared compost by physicochemical parameters revealed that inoculation of P. aeruginosa does not affect the temperature, MC, carbon to nitrogen ratio, organic matter and Mg content but significantly increased the accessible Ca content, suggesting the solubilization of inorganic Ca bound phosphate. Compost was safe in terms of heavy metal concentration and seed germination.

Significance And Impact Of Study: This study encourages that the PSB-rich tailored compost can be utilized as a phosphatic biofertilizer to fulfil the demand for phosphorus which would improve and sustain soil fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.15633DOI Listing
May 2022

Coagulansin-A improves spatial memory in 5xFAD Tg mice by targeting Nrf-2/NF-κB and Bcl-2 pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Aug 19;109:108860. Epub 2022 May 19.

Pharmacological Sciences Research Lab, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular signaling of Coagulansin-A (Coag-A) as a therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Preliminarily, it exhibited a neuroprotective effect against HO-induced oxidative stress in HT-22 cells. The in vivo studies were performed by administering Coag-A (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to 5xFAD transgenic (Tg) mouse model. Coag-A (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the cognitive decline compared to Tg mice group in the shallow water maze (SWM) and Y-maze test paradigms. The anti-aggregation potential of Coag-A was determined by performing Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal (HC) regions of mice brain. The FT-IR spectra demonstrated the inhibition of amyloid beta (Aβ) through a decrease in β-sheet aggregation, along with the inhibition of changes in the lipids, proteins, and phospholipids. The DSC analysis displayed a low-temperature exotherm associated with the reversible process of aggregation of soluble protein fractions prior to denaturation. Furthermore, Coag-A treatment displayed a regular density of granule cells in H&E stained sections, along with a reduced amyloid load and PAS-positive granules in all the regions of interest in mice brain. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effect of Coag-A by enhancing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf-2) and reducing nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Bax protein expression. In addition, Coag-A significantly increased the antioxidant enzymes and proteins level, along with a reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.108860DOI Listing
August 2022

Retinal vessel multifractals predict pial collateral status in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

PLoS One 2022 5;17(5):e0267837. Epub 2022 May 5.

Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.

Objectives: Pial collateral blood flow is a major determinant of the outcomes of acute ischemic stroke. This study was undertaken to determine whether retinal vessel metrics can predict the pial collateral status and stroke outcomes in patients.

Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute stroke secondary to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion underwent grading of their pial collateral status from computed tomography angiography and retinal vessel analysis from retinal fundus images.

Results: The NIHSS (14.7 ± 5.5 vs 10.1 ± 5.8, p = 0.026) and mRS (2.9 ± 1.6 vs 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.048) scores were higher at admission in patients with poor compared to good pial collaterals. Retinal vessel multifractals: D0 (1.673±0.028vs1.652±0.025, p = 0.028), D1 (1.609±0.027vs1.590±0.025, p = 0.044) and f(α)max (1.674±0.027vs1.652±0.024, p = 0.019) were higher in patients with poor compared to good pial collaterals. Furthermore, support vector machine learning achieved a fair sensitivity (0.743) and specificity (0.707) for differentiating patients with poor from good pial collaterals. Age (p = 0.702), BMI (p = 0.422), total cholesterol (p = 0.842), triglycerides (p = 0.673), LDL (p = 0.952), HDL (p = 0.366), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.727), HbA1c (p = 0.261) and standard retinal metrics including CRAE (p = 0.084), CRVE (p = 0.946), AVR (p = 0.148), tortuosity index (p = 0.790), monofractal Df (p = 0.576), lacunarity (p = 0.531), curve asymmetry (p = 0.679) and singularity length (p = 0.937) did not differ between patients with poor compared to good pial collaterals.

Conclusions: This is the first translational study to show increased retinal vessel multifractal dimensions in patients with acute ischemic stroke and poor pial collaterals. A retinal vessel classifier was developed to differentiate between patients with poor and good pial collaterals and may allow rapid non-invasive identification of patients with poor pial collaterals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0267837PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9070887PMC
May 2022

Synergic effects between boron and nitrogen atoms in BN-codoped C BN fullerenes ( = 1-3) for metal-free reduction of greenhouse NO gas.

RSC Adv 2021 Jun 28;11(37):22598-22610. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Maragheh P. O. Box 55136-553 Maragheh Iran

The geometries, electronic structures, and catalytic properties of BN-codoped fullerenes C BN ( = 1-3) are studied using first-principles computations. The results showed that BN-codoping can significantly modify the properties of C fullerene by breaking local charge neutrality and creating active sites. The codoping of B and N enhances the formation energy of fullerenes, indicating that the synergistic effects of these atoms helps to stabilize the C BN structures. The stepwise addition of N atoms around the B atom improves catalytic activities of C BN in NO reduction. The reduction of NO over CBN and CBN begins with its chemisorption on the B-C bond of the fullerene, followed by the concerted interaction of CO with NO and the release of N. The resulting OCO intermediate is subsequently transformed into a CO molecule, which is weakly adsorbed on the B atom of the fullerene. On the contrary, nitrogen-rich CBN fullerene is found to decompose NO into N and O* species without the requirement for activation energy. The CO molecule then removes the O* species with a low activation barrier. The activation barrier of the NO reduction on CBN fullerene is just 0.28 eV, which is lower than that of noble metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra04046dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9034274PMC
June 2021

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed in Liver Cirrhosis; Less May Be More.

Dig Dis Sci 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, USA.

Introduction: Administration of antibiotics in patients with cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding has been shown to improve outcomes. Little is known regarding optimum duration of prophylactic antibiotics. Seven days of antibiotics are generally recommended but very few studies have compared antibiotic duration to clinical outcomes in current available scientific literature. The goal of our study was to study the effect of shorter antibiotic duration on patient outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis presenting with upper GI bleeding at our institute from 2010 to 2018. Patients were divided into three cohorts based on duration of antibiotic administration for prophylaxis: 1-3 days of antibiotics, 4-6 days of antibiotics and 7 days or more of antibiotics. Rates of infection diagnosis within 30 days, rebleeding, and mortality were compared between the three groups with Chi square, Fisher Exact and Kruskall-Wallace tests. Multivariable analysis was conducted to evaluate independent risk factors for infection.

Results: Medical charts of 980 patients with cirrhosis and upper GI bleeding during the study period were reviewed. A total of 303 with upper gastrointestinal bleeding were included in the final sample, of these 243 patients received antibiotics for prophylaxis and were included for analysis. Seventy-seven patients received antibiotic therapy for 3 days or less, 69 patients for 4-6 days, and 97 patients longer than 6 days. The three groups were well matched in demographic and clinical variables. Twenty-seven patients developed infections within 30 days of bleeding. MELD-Na score at presentation and presence of ascites were associated with infection within 30 days. Rates of infection were not statistically different between the three antibiotic groups (p = 0.78). In the thirty days following the GI bleed, pneumonia was the most diagnosed infection (eleven patients) followed by urinary tract infections (eight patients). Four patients developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and three were diagnosed with bacteremia. There was no difference in time to infection (Kruskall Wallace test p = 0.75), early re-bleeding (p = 0.81), late re-bleeding (p = 0.37) and in-hospital mortality (p = 0.94) in the three groups. Six patients in the cohort developed C. Difficile infection; no patient in the short antibiotic group developed C. Difficile infection.

Conclusion: Short course of antibiotics for prophylaxis (3 days) appears safe and adequate for prophylaxis in patients with cirrhosis with upper gastrointestinal bleeding if there is no active infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-022-07481-0DOI Listing
April 2022

Role of Selenium and Vitamins E and B9 in the Alleviation of Bovine Mastitis during the Periparturient Period.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Mar 29;11(4). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of Raw Milk Quality and Safety Control, State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Mastitis (inflammation of the mammary gland) commonly occurs in dairy cattle during the periparturient period (transition period), in which dairy cattle experience physiological and hormonal changes and severe negative energy balance, followed by oxidative stress. To maintain successful lactation and combat negative energy balance (NEB), excessive fat mobilization occurs, leading to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive fat mobilization also increases the concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) during the periparturient period. In addition, the excessive utilization of oxygen by cellular respiration in the mammary causes abnormal production of oxidative stress (OS). OS impairs the immunity and anti-inflammatory efficiency of periparturient dairy cattle, increasing their susceptibility to mastitis. To alleviate oxidative stress and subsequent mastitis, antioxidants are supplemented to dairy cattle from an external source. Extensive studies have been conducted on the supplementation of selenium (Se) and vitamins E and B9 to mitigate mastitis during the transition period in dairy cattle. Altogether, in the current review, we discuss the research development on bovine mastitis and its major causes, with special emphasis on oxidative stress during the transition period. Moreover, we discuss the antioxidant, immunoregulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties of Se and vitamins E and B9 and their role in the control of bovine mastitis in periparturient dairy cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9032172PMC
March 2022

Long-lasting effects of lipopolysaccharide on the reproduction and splenic transcriptome of hens and their offspring.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 19;237:113527. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100094, China. Electronic address:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is ubiquitous in the environment and is released after the death of gram-negative bacteria, which may be related to inflammation and immunosuppression. However, its impact on the reproduction of animals and their offspring, especially the underlying mechanism need further elucidation. Here, we used laying hens as a model organism to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to LPS (LPS maternal stimulation) on animal and their offspring's immunity and reproductive performance, as well as the regulatory role of the transcriptome. We found that the LPS maternal stimulation could reduce the egg-laying rate of hens and their offspring, especially during the early and late laying stages. The transcriptome study of the spleen in F0, F1 and F2 generations showed that the maternal stimulation of the LPS affects the patterns of gene expression in laying hens, and this change has a long-lasting effect. Further analysis of DEGs and their enrichment pathways found that the LPS maternal stimulation mainly affects the reproduction and immunity of laying hens and their offspring. The DEGs such as AVD, HPS5, CATHL2, S100A12, EXFABP, RSFR, LY86, PKD4, XCL1, FOS, TREM2 and MST1 may play an essential role in the regulation of the immunity and egg-laying rate of hens. Furthermore, the MMR1L3, C3, F13A1, LY86 and GDPD2 genes with heritable effects are highly correlated with the egg-laying rate, may have an important reference value for further research. Our study reveals the profound implications of LPS exposure on immunity and reproduction of offspring, elaborating the impact of immune alteration on the egg-laying rate, emphasizing the regulatory role of intergenerational transmission of the transcriptome, implying that the environment parents being exposed to has an important impact on offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113527DOI Listing
June 2022

Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain and foot ulceration in the Arabian Gulf region.

J Diabetes Investig 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar.

Aims/introduction: This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), painful DPN and diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in patients with type 2 diabetes in secondary healthcare in Qatar, Kuwait and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Materials And Methods: Adults aged 18-85 years with type 2 diabetes were randomly enrolled from secondary healthcare, and underwent clinical and metabolic assessment. DPN was evaluated using vibration perception threshold and neuropathic symptoms and painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy was evaluated using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire.

Results: A total of 3,021 individuals were recruited between June 2017 and May 2019. The prevalence of DPN was 33.3%, of whom 52.2% were at risk of DFU and 53.6% were undiagnosed. The prevalence of painful DPN was 43.3%, of whom 54.3% were undiagnosed. DFU was present in 2.9%. The adjusted odds ratios for DPN and painful DPN were higher with increasing diabetes duration, obesity, poor glycemic control and hyperlipidemia, and lower with greater physical activity. The adjusted odds ratio for DFU was higher with the presence of DPN, severe loss of vibration perception, hypertension and vitamin D deficiency.

Conclusions: This is the largest study to date from the Middle East showing a high prevalence of undiagnosed DPN, painful DPN and those at risk of DFU in patients with type 2 diabetes, and identifies their respective risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13815DOI Listing
April 2022

Water quality and health risk assessment of trace elements in surface water at Punjnad Headworks, Punjab, Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India.

Pollution of the aquatic ecosystem due to different trace elements has become a global concern which has raised health-related issues for both aquatic and human life. Industrial and agricultural water run-off drained into the rivers and deposit trace elements in water, sediments and planktons. This study was designed to calculate the burden of trace elements such as aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb) in the river water of Punjnad Headworks, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Samples were collected from surface water, bed sediments and planktons during autumn, winter and spring seasons (September 2018 to May 2019). The results showed that the concentration of Pb was highest in surface water (453.87 mg L), while that of Al was highest in sediments (370.24 µg g) and plankton (315.05 µg g). A significant difference was found in metal concentrations among surface water, bed sediments and plankton at different sampling stations during various seasons. Importantly, the Exp (0.71, 1.23, 0.34, 0.02 for Pb, As, Al, and Ba, respectively) and Exp (7.09, 1.23, 3.42, and 2.48 for Pb, As, Al, and Ba, respectively) for trace elements were below 1.0 suggesting non-significant adverse effects of trace elements on human health. This study provided better understanding of various pollutants and their concentrations in water sources at the studied location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20210-4DOI Listing
April 2022

Acute Neurological Manifestations of COVID-19 Patients From Three Tertiary Care Hospitals in Qatar.

Cureus 2022 Mar 14;14(3):e23150. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Neurosciences, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Introduction Worldwide, there are more than 424 million confirmed cases of COVID-19. Most of the hospitalized critical COVID-19 patients manifested neurological signs and symptoms and higher mortality. The majority of COVID-19 fatalities occurred mostly in patients with advanced age and underlying medical comorbidities. This is the first local retrospective study in Qatar, which reported neurologic manifestations (48.5%) of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate acute neurological manifestations in COVID-19 hospitalized patients in the country. Methods This is a retrospective, observational study of 413 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. They were admitted to three different COVID-19 designated hospitals (Hazm Mebaireek, Ras Laffan, and Cuban tertiary care Hospitals) under the Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar from 1st January 2020, to 31 January 2021. We evaluated electronic medical records of these patients and data were collected while their neurological manifestations were confirmed by two trained neurologists. These neurologic manifestations were categorized into three major groups: central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and neuromuscular system. Results Of 413 patients, 94% (389) were male and 6% (24) were female; the mean age was 52 years. Among all different nationalities of COVID-19 patients, 20.3% (84) were Indian, 12.5% (52) were Bangladeshi, 10.1% (42) were Qatari and 9.2% (38) were Nepali. The most common symptoms at the onset of COVID-19 illness were as follows: 77.5% (321) had a fever, 67.4% (279) experienced cough, 58.7% (243) experienced shortness of breath and 26.1% (108) developed a sore throat. Overall 48.5% (201) patients developed different neurologic manifestations. The most common neurologic symptoms were myalgia (28%; 116), headache (10.4%; 43), dizziness (5.8%; 24) and hemiparesis due to strokes (5.3%; 22). In this study, the most common risk factors were hypertension (47.6%), diabetes (46.9%), obesity (21%), chronic kidney disease (10%), ischemic heart disease (9.7%), and smoking (6.8%). About 45.2% (187) patients were admitted to MICU and 8.5% (35) died due to COVID-19 complications. Significant other extrapulmonary multiorgan system involvement were skeletal muscle injury (39.4%), kidney injury (36.7%), liver injury (27.5%), myocardial injury (23.9%), rhabdomyolysis (15.7%) heart failure (11.4%) and acute pancreatitis (11.1%). Discussion The most common neurologic signs and symptoms were myalgia, headache, dizziness, and strokes, mainly due to large vessel thrombosis, lacunar, and posterior circulation strokes. Conclusions Patients with COVID-19 are at high risk of developing neurological manifestations. The most common COVID-19-related acute neurological manifestations were myalgia, headache, dizziness, and acute ischemic stroke. Prompt recognition, early diagnosis, and appropriate management of these manifestations could potentially lead to better patient outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.23150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9007182PMC
March 2022

Alkali metal decorated C fullerenes as promising materials for delivery of the 5-fluorouracil anticancer drug: a DFT approach.

RSC Adv 2022 Jan 1;12(7):3948-3956. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Centre for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand Chakdara Pakistan.

The development of effective drug delivery vehicles is essential for the targeted administration and/or controlled release of drugs. Using first-principles calculations, the potential of alkali metal (AM = Li, Na, and K) decorated C fullerenes for delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is explored. The adsorption energies of the 5FU on a single AM atom decorated C are -19.33, -16.58, and -14.07 kcal mol for AM = Li, Na, and K, respectively. The results, on the other hand, show that up to 12 Li and 6 Na or K atoms can be anchored on the exterior surface of the C fullerene simultaneously, each of which can interact with a 5FU molecule. Because of the moderate adsorption energies and charge-transfer values, the 5FU can be simply separated from the fullerene at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the results show that the 5FU may be easily protonated in the target cancerous tissues, which facilitates the release of the drug from the fullerene. The inclusion of solvent effects tends to decrease the 5FU adsorption energies in all 5FU-fullerene complexes. This is the first report on the high capability of AM decorated fullerenes for delivery of multiple 5FU molecules utilizing a C host molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra09153kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8981040PMC
January 2022

Loss of corneal nerves and brain volume in mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2022 5;8(1):e12269. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Medicine Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar Qatar Foundation Doha Qatar.

Introduction: This study compared the capability of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain volumetry for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants with no cognitive impairment (NCI), MCI, and dementia underwent assessment of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), MRI brain volumetry, and CCM.

Results: Two hundred eight participants with NCI (n = 42), MCI (n = 98), and dementia (n = 68) of comparable age and gender were studied. For MCI, the area under the curve (AUC) of CCM (76% to 81%), was higher than brain volumetry (52% to 70%). For dementia, the AUC of CCM (77% to 85%), was comparable to brain volumetry (69% to 93%). Corneal nerve fiber density, length, branch density, whole brain, hippocampus, cortical gray matter, thalamus, amygdala, and ventricle volumes were associated with cognitive impairment after adjustment for confounders (All 's < .01).

Discussion: The diagnostic capability of CCM compared to brain volumetry is higher for identifying MCI and comparable for dementia, and abnormalities in both modalities are associated with cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/trc2.12269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8983001PMC
April 2022

The great imposter: A case report of IgG4-RD hypertrophic pachymeningitis with skull lytic lesion and pulmonary nodules.

Clin Case Rep 2022 Apr 4;10(4):e05470. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Neurology Section Al Khor Hospital Hamad Medical Corporation Doha Qatar.

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (Ig4RD) is an inflammatory condition with unique clinical, serological, and pathological features. In this study, we report a challenging diagnostic clinical case of Ig4RD diagnosed based on histopathology. This unique imitating nature reinforces that it is crucial to consider the diagnosis of IgG4-RD in those presenting with pachymeningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.5470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8978985PMC
April 2022

Sensor Fault-Tolerant Control of Microgrid Using Robust Sliding-Mode Observer.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Management and Technology Lahore, Sialkot Campus, Sialkot 51310, Pakistan.

This work investigates sensor fault diagnostics and fault-tolerant control for a voltage source converter based microgrid (model) using a sliding-mode observer. It aims to provide a diagnosis of multiple faults (i.e., magnitude, phase, and harmonics) occurring simultaneously or individually in current/potential transformers. A modified algorithm based on convex optimization is used to determine the gains of the sliding-mode observer, which utilizes the feasibility optimization or trace minimization of a Ricatti equation-based modification of H-Infinity (H∞) constrained linear matrix inequalities. The fault and disturbance estimation method is modified and improved with some corrections in previous works. The stability and finite-time reachability of the observers are also presented for the considered faulty and perturbed microgrid system. A proportional-integral (PI) based control is utilized for the conventional regulations required for frequency and voltage sags occurring in a microgrid. However, the same control block features fault-tolerant control (FTC) functionality. It is attained by incorporating a sliding-mode observer to reconstruct the faults of sensors (transformers), which are fed to the control block after correction. Simulation-based analysis is performed by presenting the results of state/output estimation, state/output estimation errors, fault reconstruction, estimated disturbances, and fault-tolerant control performance. Simulations are performed for sinusoidal, constant, linearly increasing, intermittent, sawtooth, and random sort of often occurring sensor faults. However, this paper includes results for the sinusoidal nature voltage/current sensor (transformer) fault and a linearly increasing type of fault, whereas the remaining results are part of the supplementary data file. The comparison analysis is performed in terms of observer gains being estimated by previously used techniques as compared to the proposed modified approach. It also includes the comparison of the voltage-frequency control implemented with and without the incorporation of the used observer based fault estimation and corrections, in the control block. The faults here are considered for voltage/current sensor transformers, but the approach works for a wide range of sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22072524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9003115PMC
March 2022

Ileal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor as a Rare Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleed: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature.

Authors:
Adnan S Khan

Cureus 2022 Mar 4;14(3):e22856. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Internal Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, USA.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare, slowly growing submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. Due to its indolent nature, GIST can go undetected for a long period of time. Symptomatic patients will typically develop abdominal pain, abdominal fullness, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. However, most commonly and recognizable, patients will have blood in their stool due to rapid bleeding from the tumor. We report a case of a late diagnosis of GIST in the ileum with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.22856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8977124PMC
March 2022

Ethnobotanical study of Mandi Ahmad Abad, District Okara, Pakistan.

PLoS One 2022 7;17(4):e0265125. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Botany, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

This study hypothesized that native people have unique traditional knowledge of plant resources in the rural areas and basic objective was the documentation of this valuable inheritance. Ethnobotanical data was collected from a remote rural area of Mandi Ahmad Abad, Union council number NA-144 Tehsil Depalpur District Okara, Pakistan. A total of 94 informants were randomly interviewed to collect data about local names of plant species, mode of administration, recipes and ailments, and ethnobotanical uses through semi-structured questionnaire, interviews and group discussion methods. The collected data was statistically analyzed by calculating use value (UV), frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), factor of informant consensus (FIC), family importance value, and relative importance (RI). This study is also compared with ethnobotanical literature by using Jaccard's index (JI) for similarity analysis. A total of 126 species belonging to 52 families were documented. The Poaceae (13spp.), Leguminosae (12spp.), Solanaceae (10spp.) and Cucurbitaceae (10spp.) were dominant families. Highest used value (UV = 0.22) was obtained for Azadirachta indica. The minimum used value (UV) was showed by Alhagi maurorum, Eclipta prostrata, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Solanum virginianum and Trianthema potulacastrum (UV = 0.01). Hepatitis, stomach ulcer, bowel disorders, urinary problems, psoriasis, cancer, and leucoderma were the most treated ailments with ICF value of 1, followed by leucorrhea (ICF: 0.89), and vomiting (ICF: 0.86). The highest Jaccard's similarity index value (JI = 0.329) showed that plant species reported in our study was more similar with Arid regions of Northern Punjab, Pakistan. This novel ethnobotanical report concluded that traditional knowledge about use of medicinal plants is decreasing due to allopathic medicines. Immediate steps should be taken for conservation and documentation of traditional knowledge of plants especially those having medicinal properties.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0265125PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8989321PMC
April 2022

Frequency and Severity of Thrombocytopenia in Neonatal Sepsis.

Cureus 2022 Feb 27;14(2):e22665. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Department of Physiology, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, PAK.

Background Neonatal sepsis includes numerous systemic illnesses such as septicemia, meningitis, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia. In developing countries, the major reason for neonatal mortality is septicemia, which accounts for almost 50% of overall deaths. Thrombocytopenia is one of the most common hematological problems during the neonatal period, affecting the majority of sufferers admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of our study was to find the frequency of thrombocytopenia and its severity in neonates with sepsis. Methods The study was conducted at the Department of Hematology at Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 170 neonates with an age of fewer than 28 days, both genders, and positive blood cultures were included in the study using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Data was recorded in predesigned questionnaires after taking informed consent. Data were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version 26 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Of the 170 neonates, 104 (61.2%) were males, with a mean age of 12.12±8.88 days. The majority of the babies 73 (42.9%) were in the age group of 0-7 days. Most of the neonates 72 (42.4%) were born via normal vaginal delivery (NVD). Of the neonates, 117 (68.82%) presented with fever, and 105 (61.76%) were reluctant to feed. Furthermore, 65.29% of the neonates had thrombocytopenia, of which 34 (20%) had mild, 43 (25.3%) had moderate, and 34 (20%) had severe thrombocytopenia. In neonates with positive blood culture, the platelet level was low (p<0.001). In the case of gram-negative organisms, the level of platelets was lower as compared to gram-positive organisms (p<0.001). Conclusion Sepsis is still a common cause of newborn thrombocytopenia. The fact that it is present in more than half of all culture-positive sepsis episodes indicates the severity of the condition. This condition is further defined by higher percentages of early-onset gram-negative septicemia compared to gram-positive sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.22665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8967110PMC
February 2022

Effect of Ultraviolet-A and Riboflavin treatment on the architecture of the center and periphery of normal rat cornea: 7 days post treatment.

Exp Eye Res 2022 Jun 3;219:109064. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

Cornea Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) is a treatment that is widely applied to halt the progression of ectatic diseases such as keratoconus by creating biomechanical strength in the cornea. Most of the studies assessed the effect of the CXL on the cornea without any differentiation of its effect between periphery and the center of the untreated control cornea especially after the 7 days of CXL application. We investigate the ultrastructural changes in the architecture of the center and periphery of rat corneas, 7 days after standard CXL application. Five Wistar rats (10 corneas) were used in the present study. The left eye corneas (5 mm area) were de-epithelialized and irradiated with standard CXL application using riboflavin and Ultraviolet-A (UVA) (3 mW/cm for 30 min). The right eye corneas were used as a control. The sclera-cornea button was removed and processed for electron microscopy. Digital images were captured with a bottom mounted Quemesa camera and analyzed using the iTEM software. The ultrastructure of epithelium, hemi-desmosomes, Bowman's layer and stroma were organized in both untreated control and CXL rat cornea in both untreated control and CXL rat cornea. Within the same CXL cornea, both the collagen fibril (CF) diameter and interfibrillar spacing at the center were significantly smaller compared to the peripheral diameter and spacing of the cornea. When comparing the untreated control and CXL cornea, the central interfibrillar spacing of the CXL cornea was significantly smaller than the central spacing the untreated control cornea. In the CXL cornea the peripheral spacing was significantly higher compared to the peripheral interfibrillar spacing of the untreated control cornea. Within the CXL cornea, the proteoglycans (PGs) area and density of the periphery was significantly higher compared to the area and density of the center of the cornea. It suggests that CXL was more effective at the periphery of the cornea. This could be due to the higher amount of leucine rich PG lumican and higher diffusion of oxygen and riboflavin at the periphery cornea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2022.109064DOI Listing
June 2022

Core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for selective recognition and detection of sunset yellow in aqueous environment and real samples.

Environ Res 2022 Sep 1;212(Pt A):113209. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP) and National Institute of Alternative Technologies for Detection, Toxicological Evaluation and Removal of Micropollutants and Radioactives (INCT-DATREM), 14801-970, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Magnetic Molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been recently recognized as an exceptional tool for monitoring and decontamination of environmental and biological samples of diverse nature. Based on the potential applications as sorbents and biomimetic sensors, herein, a core-shell magnetic-molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) was developed as a selective material for separation and sensing of sunset yellow (SY) dye in an aqueous environment and real samples. The MMIP was synthesized via precipitation polymerization using SY as a template, MAA as a functional monomer (chosen based on simulation studies), EGDMA as a cross-linking agent, and AIBN as an initiator. To elaborate the specificity of MMIP, a comparative agent, magnetic non-imprinted polymer (MNIP) was also synthesized. The XRD results showed that the MMIP showed both crystalline and amorphous structure attributed to the presence and polymeric and non-polymeric groups. The FTIR spectra confirmed synthesis of intermediate and final MMIP product. The SEM results showed spherical morphology and porous structure of the MMIP with an average particle size of 0.636 μm in diameter. The MMIP was first employed as a sorbent for the removal of SY from the aqueous environment. The binding experiments performed at optimized operating conditions (pH 2; time 30 min; sorbent dosage 3 mg; sorbate concentration 80 ppm) showed more selectivity when compared with MNIP. The data fitted best to Langmuir's sorption isotherm (Q 359.8 mg/g) and followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized MMIP was also used as an electrochemical sensor for detection of SY dye in the aqueous environment, which exhibited a linear range of detection as (1.51 × 10 - 1.5 × 10 M). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.00413 M and 0.0137 M, respectively. While the R value was found to be 0.997 at optimized analytical conditions. These results suggested that the synthesized MMIP can be applied for the selective separation and quantification of SY dye in sample of diverse nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113209DOI Listing
September 2022

A model-based approach for detecting and identifying faults on the D.C. side of a P.V. system using electrical signatures from I-V characteristics.

PLoS One 2022 29;17(3):e0260771. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

University Research Centre, Future University in Egypt, New Cairo, Egypt.

With the development of distributed generation and the corresponding importance of the P.V. (photovoltaic) system, it is desired to operate a P.V. system efficiently and reliably. To ensure such an operation, a monitoring system is required to diagnose the health of the system. This paper aims to analyze a P.V. system under various operating conditions to identify parameters-derived from the I-V (current-voltage) characteristics of the P.V. system-that could serve as electrical signatures to various faulty operations and facilitate in devising a monitoring algorithm for the system. A model-based approach has been adopted to represent a P.V. system, using a one-diode model of a practical P.V. cell, developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The modelled system comprises two arrays, while each array has two panels in series. It was simulated for various operating conditions: healthy condition represented by STC (Standard Testing Condition), O.C. (open-circuited), soiling, P.S. (partial-shading), H.S. (panels hotspots) and P.D. (panels degradation) conditions. For the analysis of I-V curves under these conditions, six derived parameters were selected: Vte (equivalent thermal voltage), MCPF (maximum current point factor), Ri (currents ratio), S (slope), and Dv and Di (voltages and currents differences, respectively). Using these parameters, data of the actual system under various conditions were compared with its model-generated data for healthy operating conditions. Thresholds were set for each parameter's value to mark normal operation range. It was observed that almost each considered fault creates a unique combination of sensitive parameters whose values exceeds the pre-defined thresholds, creating an electrical signature that will appear only when the corresponding conditions on the system are achieved. Based on these signatures, an algorithm has been proposed in this study which aims to identify and classify the considered faults. In comparison to other such studies, this work has been focused on those sensitive parameters for faults identification which shows greater sensitivity and contribute more to creation of unique sets of sensitive parameters for considered faults.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0260771PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8963553PMC
April 2022

Magnolol prevented brain injury through the modulation of Nrf2-dependent oxidative stress and apoptosis in PLP-induced mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2022 06 29;395(6):717-733. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Pharmacological Sciences Research Lab, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of magnolol in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in female mice. Magnolol (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) was administered once daily for 21 days after immunization of mice. Magnolol post-immunization treatment significantly reversed clinical scoring, EAE-associated pain parameters, and motor dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. Magnolol treatment significantly inhibited oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) production, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity while enhancing the level of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain and spinal cord. It reduced cytokine levels in the brain and spinal cord. It suppressed CD8 T cells frequency in the spleen tissue. Magnolol remarkably reversed the EAE-associated histopathology of the brain and spinal cord tissue. Magnolol significantly intensifies the antioxidant defense system by enhancing the expression level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) while decreasing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cleaved-caspase-3 in the brain. Molecular docking results showed that magnolol possesses a better binding affinity for Nrf2, iNOS, and caspase-3 proteins. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that magnolol has significant neuroprotective properties in EAE via inhibition of oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-022-02230-6DOI Listing
June 2022

When You Cannot Go With the Flow: A Case Report of May-Thurner Syndrome.

Perm J 2021 05 26;25. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA.

Introduction: May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) is caused by extrinsic compression of the left iliac venous system, most commonly between an overlying right iliac artery and fifth lumbar vertebra, and is seen mainly in women between 20 and 50 years of age. This compression may be asymptomatic but can lead to the formation of venous thrombi causing left lower extremity pain and swelling.

Case Presentation: We report a case of MTS in a patient who initially presented with back and left lower extremity pain and swelling whose initial duplex venous ultrasound was negative for deep venous thrombus. Subsequent computed tomography (CT) revealed a venous thrombus of the left common, internal, and external iliac veins.

Discussion: In the case of unilateral lower extremity swelling with a negative initial duplex venous ultrasound, consider further investigation with CT venography to evaluate for possible MTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7812/TPP/20.326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8817923PMC
May 2021
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