Publications by authors named "Adi Doron"

6 Publications

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Features of hippocampal astrocytic domains and their spatial relation to excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

Glia 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

The mounting evidence for the involvement of astrocytes in neuronal circuits function and behavior stands in stark contrast to the lack of detailed anatomical description of these cells and the neurons in their domains. To fill this void, we imaged >30,000 astrocytes in hippocampi made transparent by CLARITY, and determined the elaborate structure, distribution, and neuronal content of astrocytic domains. First, we characterized the spatial distribution of >19,000 astrocytes across CA1 lamina, and analyzed the morphology of thousands of reconstructed domains. We then determined the excitatory somatic content of CA1 astrocytes, and measured the distance between inhibitory neuronal somata to the nearest astrocyte soma. We find that on average, there are almost 14 pyramidal neurons per domain in the CA1, increasing toward the pyramidal layer midline, compared to only five excitatory neurons per domain in the amygdala. Finally, we discovered that somatostatin neurons are found in close proximity to astrocytes, compared to parvalbumin and VIP inhibitory neurons. This work provides a comprehensive large-scale quantitative foundation for studying neuron-astrocyte interactions. MAIN POINTS: Large scale detection of 3D astrocytic domains following CLARITY. Different distributions of neuronal content in CA1 and BLA astrocytic domains. SST neurons are located in close proximity to neighboring astrocytes, relative to PV, and VIP neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.24044DOI Listing
June 2021

Glia: The Glue Holding Memories Together.

Neuron 2020 01;105(1):9-11

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. Electronic address:

Adult oligodendrogenesis is regulated by neuronal activity and learning. Can it affect memory processes? In this issue of Neuron, Steadman et al. (2020) found that newly generated oligodendrocytes are crucial for memory acquisition and consolidation and required for the neuronal coupling between brain regions known to be involved in memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.12.016DOI Listing
January 2020

Astrocytic Activation Generates De Novo Neuronal Potentiation and Memory Enhancement.

Cell 2018 06 24;174(1):59-71.e14. Epub 2018 May 24.

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. Electronic address:

Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and were shown to be necessary for plasticity and memory. To test whether astrocytic activity is also sufficient to generate synaptic potentiation and enhance memory, we expressed the Gq-coupled receptor hM3Dq in CA1 astrocytes, allowing their activation by a designer drug. We discovered that astrocytic activation is not only necessary for synaptic plasticity, but also sufficient to induce NMDA-dependent de novo long-term potentiation in the hippocampus that persisted after astrocytic activation ceased. In vivo, astrocytic activation enhanced memory allocation; i.e., it increased neuronal activity in a task-specific way only when coupled with learning, but not in home-caged mice. Furthermore, astrocytic activation using either a chemogenetic or an optogenetic tool during acquisition resulted in memory recall enhancement on the following day. Conversely, directly increasing neuronal activity resulted in dramatic memory impairment. Our findings that astrocytes induce plasticity and enhance memory may have important clinical implications for cognitive augmentation treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.05.002DOI Listing
June 2018

Investigating the transition from recent to remote memory using advanced tools.

Brain Res Bull 2018 07 20;141:35-43. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University, Givat Ram, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel. Electronic address:

Remote memories, weeks to decades long, are usually the ones most important to the organism, as the longevity of a memory is tightly connected to its significance. Retrograde amnesia studies in human patients as well as lesions and immediate early gene expression investigation in animal models, suggested that the hippocampus has a time dependent role in memory consolidation. Namely, that as a memory matures it becomes independent of the hippocampus and instead depends on extra-hippocampal areas. However, accumulating evidence implies that this temporal segregation is not as rigid as originally proposed. In this review we will focus on the integration of new methods, such as chemogenetics, optogenetics and calcium imaging, which enable genetic specificity as well as high temporal and spatial resolution. Using these methods, recent studies have started to resolve the inconsistencies of past findings by observing and manipulating neural ensembles in different brain regions. We then discuss how these techniques can be applied to investigate the cellular underpinnings of memory across multiple time points, and employed to study the contribution of various cell types to remote memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.09.005DOI Listing
July 2018

Intact crowding and temporal masking in dyslexia.

J Vis 2015 ;15(14):13

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are well documented. However, there is an ongoing discussion about whether visual deficits limit the reading skills of people with dyslexia. Here, we investigated visual crowding and backward masking. We presented a Vernier (i.e., two vertical bars slightly offset to the left or right) and asked observers to indicate the offset direction. Vernier stimuli are visually similar to letters and are strongly affected by crowding, even in the fovea. To increase task difficulty, Verniers are often followed by a mask (i.e., backward masking). We measured Vernier offset discrimination thresholds for the basic Vernier task, under crowding, and under backward masking, in students with dyslexia (n = 19) and age and intelligence matched students (n = 27). We found no group differences in any of these conditions. Controls with fast visual processing (good backward masking performance), were faster readers. By contrast, no such correlation was found among the students with dyslexia, suggesting that backward masking does not limit their reading efficiency. These findings indicate that neither elevated crowding nor elevated backward masking pose a bottleneck to reading skills of people with dyslexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/15.14.13DOI Listing
January 2016

Apoptosis-like programmed cell death in the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea: genes and their role in pathogenicity.

Biochem Soc Trans 2011 Oct;39(5):1493-8

Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

A considerable number of fungal homologues of human apoptotic genes have been identified in recent years. Nevertheless, we are far from being able to connect the different pieces and construct a primary structure of the fungal apoptotic regulatory network. To get a better picture of the available fungal components, we generated an automatic search protocol that is based on protein sequences together with a domain-centred approach. We used this protocol to search all the available fungal databases for domains and homologues of human apoptotic proteins. Among all known apoptotic domains, only the BIR [baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein) repeat] domain was found in fungi. A single protein with one or two BIR domains is present in most (but not all) fungal species. We isolated the BIR-containing protein from the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea and determined its role in apoptosis and pathogenicity. We also isolated and analysed BcNMA, a homologue of the yeast NMA11 gene. Partial knockout or overexpression strains of BcBIR1 confirmed that BcBir1 is anti-apoptotic and this activity was assigned to the N'-terminal part of the protein. Plant infection assays showed that the fungus undergoes massive PCD (programmed cell death) during early stages of infection. Further studies showed that fungal virulence was fully correlated with the ability of the fungus to cope with plant-induced PCD. Together, our result show that BcBir1 is a major regulator of PCD in B. cinerea and that proper regulation of the host-induced PCD is essential for pathogenesis in this and other similar fungal pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST0391493DOI Listing
October 2011
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