Publications by authors named "Adhemar Longatto-Filho"

228 Publications

Frequency of Human Papillomavirus Detection in Chagasic Megaesophagus Associated or Not with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Pathobiology 2021 Oct 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil.

Background: Chagasic megaesophagus (CM) as well as the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been reported as etiological factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Objective: We assessed the prevalence of HPV DNA in a series of ESCCs associated or not with CM. Data obtained were further correlated to the pathological and clinical data of affected individuals.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 92 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues collected from patients referred to 3 different hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil: Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo; Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Minas Gerais; and São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo. Cases were divided into 3 groups: (i) 24 patients with CM associated with ESCC (CM/ESCC); (ii) 37 patients with ESCC without CM (ESCC); and (iii) 31 patients with CM without ESCC (CM). Detection of HPV DNA was assessed in all samples by a genotyping assay combining multiplex polymerase chain reaction and bead-based Luminex technology.

Results: We identified a high prevalence of high-risk HPV in patients in the CM group (12/31, 38.8%) and CM/ESCC (8/24, 33.3%), compared to individuals in the ESCC group (6/37, 16.3%). The individuals in the groups with cancer (ESCC and CM/ESCC) had a higher frequency of HPV-16 (4/9, 44.5% and 2/8, 25.0%). The other types of high-risk HPVs detected were HPV-31, 45, 51, 53, 56, 66, and 73. We also observed in some samples HPV coinfection by more than one viral type. Despite the high incidence of HPV, it did not show any association with the patient's clinical-pathological and molecular (TP53 mutation status) characteristics.

Conclusion: This is the first report of the presence of HPV DNA in CM associated with ESCC. HPV infection was more presence in megaesophagus lesions. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand the role of persistent HPV infection in patients with CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518697DOI Listing
October 2021

Profile of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma mutations in Brazilian patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 18;11(1):20596. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Antenor Duarte Villela, 1331, Barretos, São Paulo, 14784 400, Brazil.

Esophageal cancer is an aggressive tumor that has a high rate of incidence and mortality worldwide. It is the 10th most frequent type in Brazil, being squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) the predominant subtype. There is currently an incessant search to identify the frequently altered genes associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma biology that could be druggable. This study aimed to analyze the somatic mutation profile of a large panel of cancer-related genes in Brazilian ESCC. In a series of 46 ESCC diagnoses at Barretos Cancer Hospital, DNA isolated from paired fresh-frozen and blood tissue, a panel of 150 cancer-related genes was analyzed by next-generation sequencing. The genes with the highest frequency of mutations were TP53 (39/46, 84.8%), followed by NOTCH1 (7/46, 15.2%), NFE2L2 (5/46, 10.8%), RB1 (3/46, 6.5%), PTEN (3/46, 6.5%), CDKN2A (3/46, 6.5%), PTCH1 (2/46, 4.3%) and PIK3CA (2/46, 4.3%). There was no significant association between molecular and patients' clinicopathological features. Applying an evolutionary action score of p53 (EAp53), we observed that 14 (35.9%) TP53 mutations were classified as high-risk, yet no association with overall survival was observed. Concluding, this the largest mutation profile of Brazilian ESCC patients, which helps in the elucidation of the major cancer-related genes in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00208-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523676PMC
October 2021

Increased CD3, CD8, or FoxP3 T Lymphocyte Infiltrations Are Associated with the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer but Not with the Overall Survival of Patients.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Aug 20;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes include heterogeneous populations of T lymphocytes that play crucial roles in the tumor immune response; importantly, their presence in the tumor tissue may predict clinical outcomes. Therefore, we herein studied the prognostic significance of the presence and location of CD3, CD8, and FoxP3 T lymphocytes in colorectal cancer samples. In the intratumor analysis, our data did not reveal any association between lymphocyte infiltrations with clinical or pathological data. However, in the tumor margins, we found that the presence of high infiltrations of CD3, CD8, or FoxP3 T lymphocytes were associated with TNM stages I-II ( = 0.021, = 0.022, and = 0.012, respectively) and absence of lymph node metastases ( = 0.010, = 0.003, and = 0.004, respectively). Despite these associations with good prognostic indicators, we were not able to find any statistically significant alterations in the overall survival of the patients, even though high infiltrations of FoxP3 T lymphocytes in the tumor margins resulted in an increased overall survival of 14 months. Taken together, these data show that the presence of CD3, CD8, or FoxP3T lymphocyte infiltrates in the tumor margins are associated with the pathogenesis of CRC, but only high Foxp3 T lymphocyte infiltrations in the tumor invasive margins are inclined to indicate favorable prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10080808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389643PMC
August 2021

A positive HPV test with positive p16/Ki-67 double staining in self-sampled vaginal material is an accurate tool to detect women at risk for cervical cancer.

Cancer Cytopathol 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Disciplina de Ginecologia, Departamento de Obstetricia e Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The development of efficient strategies for managing high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-positive women is a major challenge when human papillomavirus-based primary screening is being performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of HR-HPV testing based on self-collection (SC) and HR-HPV testing based on collection by a health professional (HP) and to assess the potential usefulness of HR-HPV testing combined with testing with the biomarkers p16/Ki-67, α-mannosidase, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 232 women admitted for colposcopy because of an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. The collected material underwent liquid-based cytology, HR-HPV detection, and immunocytochemical testing (p16/Ki-67, α-mannosidase, and SOD2). The gold standard was the histopathological result; the positive reference was CIN2+.

Results: The overall accuracy of HR-HPV testing was 76.6%; the results for the SC group (78.1%) and the HP group (75.2%) were similar. The positive predictive values (HP, 76.5%; SC, 80.0%), the negative predictive values (HP, 66.7%; SC, 64.3%), the positive likelihood values (HP, 1.35; SC, 1.36), and the negative likelihood values (HP, 0.21; SC, 0.19) were also similar. p16/Ki-67 showed higher sensitivity than the other 2 biomarkers: 78.1% versus 45.8% for α-mannosidase and 44.5% for SOD2. The specificities of the biomarkers were equivalent: 71.4% for p16/Ki-67, 77.8% for α-mannosidase, and 71.2% for SOD2. In the HP group, accuracy also leaned more heavily toward the final score (using α-mannosidase and SOD2) without statistical significance (80.8% vs 77.9%). The contrast with the SC group yielded the same level of accuracy.

Conclusions: SC, when associated with testing with biomarkers, is as accurate as collection by HPs in the detection of women at risk for cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22498DOI Listing
August 2021

Expression of Glycolysis-Related Proteins in Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:682665. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil.

Introduction: Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is defined as metastatic cancer without identification of the primary site. Considering that only 15-20% of patients with CUP show a favorable outcome, identifying biomarkers may help improve the clinical management of patients who do not respond well to conventional therapies. In this context, the study of the metabolic profile of CUP may pave the way to establish new biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets; therefore, this study aimed to characterize the expression of metabolism-related proteins in CUP.

Materials And Methods: The expression of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4, their chaperone CD147, the glucose transporter GLUT1 and the pH regulator CAIX was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 118 CUP patients, and the results were associated with the available clinicopathological information.

Results: The metabolism-related proteins MCT1, MCT4, CD147, GLUT1 and CAIX were expressed in a critical portion of the CUP (approximately 20 to 70%). MCT1 and CD147 were both more frequently expressed in cases with lymph nodes as metastasis dominant sites ( = 0.001) as well as in samples from lymph nodes (0.001 and = 0.002, respectively), while MCT1 expression was more frequently expressed in squamous cell carcinomas ( = 0.045). A higher overall survival was observed in patients with tumors positive for GLUT1 and CAIX expression ( = 0.011 and = 0.041, respectively), but none of the proteins was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in multivariable analysis.

Conclusion: The results suggest that a portion of CUPs present a hyperglycolytic phenotype, which is associated with higher overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.682665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264765PMC
June 2021

Breast cancer screening adherence rates and barriers of implementation in ethnic, cultural and religious minorities: A systematic review.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 19;15(1):139. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Minho 4710-057, Portugal.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines is frequently lower in racial, ethnic and cultural minority populations and is affected by potential inequities or barriers to screening that these minorities face. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to collect information from different minority groups worldwide, assess adherence to breast cancer screening and evaluate barriers or limitations causing non-adherence, which should facilitate the development of effective interventions. A search was conducted through PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were considered as eligible if they met the following criteria: i) Female patients; ii) breast cancer screening program implemented in the country; iii) minority groups; iv) asymptomatic; v) report written in Portuguese or English; vi) study published from 2015 onwards. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist was used for qualitative studies and the Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist for cross-sectional studies. From the 348 initial articles, 86 were removed due to duplication and 19 were selected, analyzed and summarized, accordingly. Of the 19 studies included, 5.3% were classified as high quality, 52.6% as moderate to high and 42.1% as moderate. A total of 15 studies were cross-sectional and 4 were qualitative, collectively including 250,733 women. The rate of adherence to mammogram in different minorities was evaluated, obtaining a mean value of 49.7% in the last 2 years, and statistically significant barriers were selected and divided into sociodemographic; personal; ethnic, cultural and religious; and external factors. The characteristics of each population play a major role in the population's breast health practices. If the population, adherence rates, barriers and inequities are carefully studied, screening models may be customized and participation to breast cancer screening can be optimized, thereby reducing the high breast cancer-associated mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145341PMC
July 2021

Intracellular Autofluorescence as a New Biomarker for Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 16;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, Campus Gualtar, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

The identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are implicated in tumor initiation, progression, therapy resistance, and relapse, is of great biological and clinical relevance. In glioblastoma (GBM), this is still a challenge, as no single marker is able to universally identify populations of GBM cancer stem cells (GSCs). Indeed, there is still controversy on whether biomarker-expressing cells fulfill the functional criteria of bona fide GSCs, despite being widely used. Here, we describe a novel subpopulation of autofluorescent (Fluo) cells in GBM that bear all the functional characteristics of GSCs, including higher capacity to grow as neurospheres, long-term self-renewal ability, increased expression of stem cell markers, and enhanced in vivo tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, the autofluorescent phenotype is largely due to the intracellular accumulation of riboflavin, mediated by the ABC transporter ABCG2. In summary, our work identifies an intrinsic cellular autofluorescent phenotype enriched in GBM cells with functional stem cells features that can be used as a novel, simple and reliable biomarker to target these highly malignant tumors, with implications for GBM biological and clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920313PMC
February 2021

Microbiota in Cancer Development.

Pathobiology 2021 10;88(2):115. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512577DOI Listing
February 2021

Sarcopenia as a Prognostic Factor in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Descriptive Review.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Jul 5;74:460-474. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Life and Health Science Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; ICVS/3B's-PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal.

Background: Determine the influence of sarcopenia on the prognosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Methods: A systematic search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases was performed with the keywords and medical subject heading (MesH): "muscle, skeletal", "sarcopenia", "prognosis", "duration of stay", "death", "mortality", "patient readmission", "length of stay", "peripheral arterial disease", "intermittent claudication" and "critical limb ischemia". Papers published from January 2010 to October 2020 in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes included post-operative complications, amputation, length of hospital stay and hospital readmission.

Results: Of 1071 papers, 8 articles and 1511 patients were included (68.96% male, mean age 71.83 years). Five papers found an inverse relationship between SM area and mortality. Matsubara (2015) found that the 5-year overall survival rates were lower for patients with sarcopenia (23.5% ± 0.18% vs 77.5% ± 0.09% P = 0.001). Matsubara (2016) registered 3-year cardiovascular event-free survival rates of 43.1% and 91.2% for patients with and without sarcopenia (P < 0.01). Juszczak (2018) found that survival was lower in patients with reduced total psoas area. Taniguchi (2019) found that 3-year overall survival rate was 60% for patients with sarcopenia and 87% for patients without sarcopenia (P < 0.05). Shimazoe (2019) concluded sarcopenia was a significant predictor of overall survival. Distinctly, Nyers (2017) concluded that higher ratio bilateral psoas area to L4 vertebral body was associated with an increased risk of death. Two other studies analyzed other characteristics of the SM (density and strength). McDermott (2012) and found that lower calf muscle density and strength were associated with an increase in mortality. Sugai (2019) concluded that patients with major cardiovascular and limb events had a lower SM density.

Conclusions: Lower SM area and mass seem to be associated with a higher mortality in PAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.01.076DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of Elafin Immunohistochemical Expression as Marker of Cervical Cancer Severity.

Acta Cytol 2021 3;65(2):165-174. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Centro de Investigação Translacional em Oncologia, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil,

Introduction: The main risk factor for the development of cervical cancer (CC) is persistent infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenic types. In order to persist, HPV exhibits a plethora of immune evasion mechanisms. PI3/Elafin (Peptidase Inhibitor 3) is an endogenous serine protease inhibitor involved in epithelial protection against pathogens. PI3/Elafin's role in CC is still poorly understood.

Materials And Methods: In the present study, we addressed PI3/Elafin protein detection in 123 CC samples by immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression in several datasets available at Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas platforms.

Results: We observed that PI3/Elafin is consistently downregulated in CC samples when compared to normal tissue. Most of PI3/Elafin-positive samples exhibited this protein at the plasma membrane. Besides, high PI3/Elafin expression at the cellular membrane was more frequent in in situ stages I + II than in invasive cervical tumor stages III + IV. This indicates that PI3/Elafin expression is gradually lost during the CC progression. Of note, advanced stages of CC were more frequently associated with a more intense PI3/Elafin reaction in the nuclei and cytoplasm.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that PI3/Elafin levels and subcellular localization may be used as a biomarker for CC severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512010DOI Listing
March 2021

Human papillomavirus genotyping as a tool for cervical cancer prevention: from commercially available human papillomavirus DNA test to next-generation sequencing.

Future Sci OA 2020 Jul 30;6(9):FSO603. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil.

The biological importance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the field of medicine - related to cervical carcinogenesis - has been extensively reported in the last decades. For the first time, a direct correlation between cause and effect to explain a cancer development was completely achieved in medical research. Consequently, the Nobel Prize was awarded to HZ Hausen in 2008 for his efforts to understand the effects of persistent infection of oncogenic types of HPV and malignancy transformation. The aim of the present review was to summarize the principal elements of HPV characteristics and their importance in oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/fsoa-2019-0159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668120PMC
July 2020

Attendance for diagnostic colposcopy among high-risk human papillomavirus positive women in a Brazilian feasibility study.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jan 7;152(1):72-77. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To investigate factors associated with colposcopy attendance in HPV-positive women in São Paulo, Brazil.

Methods: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of women positive for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) undergoing cervical cancer screening in primary care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Non-pregnant women attending routine screening between December 2014 and March 2016 were offered an hr-HPV test, and those testing positive and aged 25 years or older were invited for colposcopy. Sociodemographic information was recorded at study enrollment. We compared variables between women who did and did not attend colposcopy within a logistic regression framework.

Results: Of 1537 hr-HPV-positive women, 1235 (80.4%) attended for colposcopy, with a median time from primary test to colposcopy of 132 days. Younger age (P<0.001) and concurrent negative cytology results (P=0.025) were associated with lower attendance. Women registered at units providing both the primary test and colposcopy were more likely to attend than those at units making external referrals (788/862 [91.4%] versus 447/675 [66.2%], P<0.001).

Conclusion: Non-attendance for colposcopy may limit the success of future screening programs based on hr-HPV testing in Brazil. Transfer of colposcopy services to primary care is a simple and effective facilitator of attendance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13362DOI Listing
January 2021

Universal cervical cancer control through a right to health lens: refocusing national policy and programmes on underserved women.

BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2020 07 31;20(1):21. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Public Health & Primary Care, Ghent University, C. Heymanslaan 10 UZ/ICRH, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Cervical cancer claims 311,000 lives annually, and 90% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Cervical cancer is a highly preventable and treatable disease, if detected through screening at an early stage. Governments have a responsibility to screen women for precancerous cervical lesions. Yet, national screening programmes overlook many poor women and those marginalised in society. Under-screened women (called hard-to-reach) experience a higher incidence of cervical cancer and elevated mortality rates compared to regularly-screened women. Such inequalities deprive hard-to-reach women of the full enjoyment of their right to sexual and reproductive health, as laid out in Article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and General Comment No. 22.

Discussion: This article argues first for tailored and innovative national cervical cancer screening programmes (NCSP) grounded in human rights law, to close the disparity between women who are afforded screening and those who are not. Second, acknowledging socioeconomic disparities requires governments to adopt and refine universal cancer control through NCSPs aligned with human rights duties, including to reach all eligible women. Commonly reported- and chronically under-addressed- screening disparities relate to the availability of sufficient health facilities and human resources (example from Kenya), the physical accessibility of health services for rural and remote populations (example from Brazil), and the accessibility of information sensitive to cultural, ethnic, and linguistic barriers (example from Ecuador). Third, governments can adopt new technologies to overcome individual and structural barriers to cervical cancer screening. National cervical cancer screening programmes should tailor screening methods to under-screened women, bearing in mind that eliminating systemic discrimination may require committing greater resources to traditionally neglected groups.

Conclusion: Governments have human rights obligations to refocus screening policies and programmes on women who are disproportionately affected by discrimination that impairs their full enjoyment of the right to sexual and reproductive health. National cervical cancer screening programmes that keep the right to health principles (above) central will be able to expand screening among low-income, isolated and other marginalised populations, but also women in general, who, for a variety of reasons, do not visit healthcare providers for regular screenings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12914-020-00237-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393343PMC
July 2020

Evaluation of human papillomavirus self-collection offered by community health workers at home visits among under-screened women in Brazil.

J Med Screen 2021 06 23;28(2):163-168. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Research and Teaching Institute, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil.

Objective: To explore the acceptability of high-risk human papillomavirus self-testing, involving community health workers, for never/under-screened Brazilian women. Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death among adult women in a large number of low-income and lower-middle-income countries, where it remains a major public health problem. High-risk human papillomavirus persistence is required for the development of cervical neoplasia.

Methods: The target population was all women aged 30+ from the list of families available in healthcare centre data, who had never been screened or were not screened in the previous 3 years (under-screened women), and who were living in the 17 cities included in this study.

Results: Of the 377 women included, 16.9% ( = 64) had never had a pap smear. Of all samples included in the study, 97.1% ( = 366) were considered adequate for evaluation, as 2.9% ( = 11) were considered invalid for all high-risk human papillomavirus types. Analysing these 366 samples, 9.6% ( = 35) of the women were infected by at least one high-risk human papillomavirus type and 90.4% ( = 331) had no infection with any high-risk type of the virus.

Conclusions: Vaginal self-sampling is an adequate strategy to improve the effectiveness of the cervical cancer program by increasing screening in a high-risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969141320941056DOI Listing
June 2021

Detection of HPV E6 oncoprotein from urine via a novel immunochromatographic assay.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(4):e0232105. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Teaching and Research Institute-Barretos Cancer Hospital, Brazil.

Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries, where women have little access to cervical cancer screening; consequently 80% of cervical cancer related mortality occurs in these regions. The development of screening methods that need less infrastructure thus represents an urgent medical need. The study aims to compare the detection rates of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 and 18 E6 oncoprotein in urine, vaginal self-collected, and cervical scrapes of women using the OncoE6™ Cervical Test and compare the HPV16 and/or HPV18 E6 detection rates with the HPV DNA testing. Paired urine, vaginal self-collected and cervical specimens were collected from 124 women who participated in cervical cancer screening or treatment in this proof-of-concept study and underwent to HPV16/18-E6 testing and high-risk HPV DNA testing prior to treatment of cervical neoplasia or cancer. Concordance between urinary, vaginal and cervical HPV16/18-E6 and HPV-DNA testing was evaluated for patients classified as negative group (
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232105PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176116PMC
July 2020

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection is not detected in rectal carcinoma.

Infect Agent Cancer 2020 5;15:17. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

1Life and Health Science Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

Introduction: Persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections is associated with squamous cell carcinomas of different human anatomic sites. Several studies have suggested a potential role for HPV infection, particularly HPV16 genotype, in rectal cancer carcinogenesis.. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of oncogenic HPV 16 viral DNA sequences in rectal carcinomas cases retrieved from the pathology archive of Braga Hospital, North Portuga.

Methods: TaqMan-based type-specific real-time PCR for HPV 16 was performed using primers and probe targeting HPV16 E7 region.

Results: Most of the rectal cancer patients (88.5%,  = 206 patients), were symptomatic at diagnosis. The majority of the lesions (55.3%,  = 129) presented malignancies of polypoid/vegetant phenotype. 26.8% ( = 63) had synchronic metastasis at diagnosis. 26.2% ( = 61) patients had clinical indication for neoadjuvant therapy. Most patients with rectal cancer were stage IV (19.7% patients), followed by stage IIA (19.3%) and stage I (18.5%). All cases of the present series tested negative for HPV16.

Conclusion: The total of negative tests for HPV 16 infection is a robust argument to support the assumption that HPV 16 infection, despite of previous evidences, is not involved in rectal cancer carcinogenesis and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-020-00281-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059378PMC
March 2020

Identification of human papillomavirus in oral rinse specimens from women with and without cervical intraepithelial lesions.

Sex Transm Infect 2020 09 11;96(6):408-410. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the oral cavity of women with and without abnormal cervical cytology and to determine whether there is an association of oral HPV infection with infection of the cervix or with cervical cancer precursor lesions.

Methods: The present study was conducted among 406 women, aged 18-82 years, who attended the Prevention Department of Barretos Cancer Hospital (HCB), Brazil due to a previous altered cervical cytology result. Oral rinse, cervical cytology and biopsy were collected at the same day. The participants also answered a questionnaire about socioeconomic characteristics and risk factors for cervical cancer. Molecular screening for HPV16, HPV18 and 12 other high-risk HPV types was performed on cervical and oral rinse specimens using Cobas 4800 (Roche Molecular Systems, USA).

Results: HPV was detected in the oral rinse of 3.9% of participants. Infection of the oral cavity with a non-HPV16 or 18 type was most frequent (81.2%), followed by HPV16 (18.7%). Infection with HPV in the cervix and oral cavity was present in 11 (2.7%) of participants. There were no differences observed in the smoking status (p value 0.62), mean age of first sexual intercourse (p value 0.25), mean age of the first oral sex (p value 0.90) or mean lifetime number of sexual partners (p value 0.08) between the participants with oral HPV infection or not.

Conclusion: The presence of HPV infection in the oral cavity was low in the group of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening findings and a high rate of cervical HPV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2019-054359DOI Listing
September 2020

Self-Sampling as a Plausible Alternative to Screen Cervical Cancer Precursor Lesions in a Population with Low Adherence to Screening: A Systematic Review.

Acta Cytol 2020 20;64(4):332-343. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal,

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world. A raised incidence and mortality parallel a low participation rate in screening, namely screening in poor countries and among specific populations of developed countries. Cervical or vaginal self-sampling may increase adherence to screening due to its low costs and elevated sensibility and specificity. Our main goal was to compare self-sampling with physician sampling and to evaluate the participation rate of women formerly non-adherent to cervical cancer screening.

Study Design: We identified relevant studies from PubMed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they fulfilled the following criteria: women aged between 16 and 80 years, poor and developed countries that use self-sampling, women with a low participation rate in screening and studies published since 2013. After fully reading the articles, data were extracted to an Excel sheet to -display all relevant information in an organized manner. -Results: We identified 18 studies, which altogether enrolled 22,118 women. Self-sampling and physician sampling are quite similar regarding the HPV detection rate. Women have a low participation rate mainly because of limited access to health services, religious and culture beliefs, and lack of time due to several demanding tasks in daily life. Self-sampling shows a significant increase in acceptability and preference compared to physician sampling.

Conclusion: Self-sampling is a reliable method to involve women in opportunistic or organized screening programs for cervical cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505121DOI Listing
July 2020

Competitive glucose metabolism as a target to boost bladder cancer immunotherapy.

Nat Rev Urol 2020 02 17;17(2):77-106. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Bladder cancer - the tenth most frequent cancer worldwide - has a heterogeneous natural history and clinical behaviour. The predominant histological subtype, urothelial bladder carcinoma, is characterized by high recurrence rates, progression and both primary and acquired resistance to platinum-based therapy, which impose a considerable economic burden on health-care systems and have substantial effects on the quality of life and the overall outcomes of patients with bladder cancer. The incidence of urothelial tumours is increasing owing to population growth and ageing, so novel therapeutic options are vital. Based on work by The Cancer Genome Atlas project, which has identified targetable vulnerabilities in bladder cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have arisen as an effective alternative for managing advanced disease. However, although ICIs have shown durable responses in a subset of patients with bladder cancer, the overall response rate is only ~15-25%, which increases the demand for biomarkers of response and therapeutic strategies that can overcome resistance to ICIs. In ICI non-responders, cancer cells use effective mechanisms to evade immune cell antitumour activity; the overlapping Warburg effect machinery of cancer and immune cells is a putative determinant of the immunosuppressive phenotype in bladder cancer. This energetic interplay between tumour and immune cells leads to metabolic competition in the tumour ecosystem, limiting nutrient availability and leading to microenvironmental acidosis, which hinders immune cell function. Thus, molecular hallmarks of cancer cell metabolism are potential therapeutic targets, not only to eliminate malignant cells but also to boost the efficacy of immunotherapy. In this sense, integrating the targeting of tumour metabolism into immunotherapy design seems a rational approach to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41585-019-0263-6DOI Listing
February 2020

Hepatocellular carcinoma in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - pathological evidence for a predominance of steatohepatitic inflammatory non-proliferative subtype.

Histol Histopathol 2020 Jul 20;35(7):729-740. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Objectives: This study evaluated clinical and pathological aspects of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) secondary to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and related these factors to immunohistochemical markers representative of the proliferative class.

Methods: We evaluated 35 HCC nodules from 21 patients diagnosed with NAFLD undergoing liver resection (n=12) or liver transplantation (n=8) or both (n=1). Demographic, clinical and biochemical data were compared to histological features and to immunohistochemical reactivity for K19 and Ki-67.

Results: Cirrhosis was present in 58% of patients. Ages ranged from 50 to 77 years. Sixteen patients (76%) were male and had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 81% had arterial hypertension, and 90% had BMI above 25 kg/m². Alpha-fetoprotein levels were normal in 62% of patients. Twenty-five (70%) nodules were diagnosed as "steatohepatitic HCC". Only 32% of the nodules presented high levels of Ki-67 (>10%) and/or K19 (>5%), although 63% were poorly differentiated (G.3/G.4) according to Edmondson & Steiner grading system. K19 positivity (>5%) was associated with higher degree of intratumoral inflammation (G.2/G.3), and with fibrosis, both at the center of the tumor and at the tumor front, whereas Ki-67 positivity (>10%) was associated with ballooning of neoplastic cells and occurred in more than 70% in non-cirrhotic patients.

Conclusion: NAFLD-related HCC was found in non-cirrhotic patients in 42% of cases, alpha-fetoprotein level was normal in 63% and "steatohepatitic HCC" was the predominant histological type. Immunoexpression of K19 and/or Ki-67 occurred in 32% of the nodules and were associated with intratumoral inflammation and ballooning, suggesting that HCC in MtS may be preferentially "an inflammatory, non-proliferative subtype of HCC".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-194DOI Listing
July 2020

The Quality of Pap Smears from the Brazilian Cervical Cancer Screening Program According to the Human Development Index.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 03 13;13(3):299-308. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Research and Teaching Institute, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Brazil is a country with strong socioeconomic disparities, which may explain the different rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality and influence the quality of cervical cancer screening tests. The aim of this study was to perform a trend analysis of some quality indicators of Pap smears according to the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI). Information about cytopathological exams (approximately 65,000,000) performed from 2006 to 2014 in women ages 25 to 64 years was obtained from the Cervical Cancer Information System (SISCOLO). The average annual percentage change (AAPC) for each indicator was calculated using the Joinpoint Regression Program, according to MHDI levels. Very low frequencies of unsatisfactory cases (<5%) were observed at different MHDI levels. Although the positivity index in the low- and medium-MHDI groups has increased, the values remained below international recommendations (3%-10%). The HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) percentage remained stationary at all levels of the MHDI. In the low- and medium-MHDI groups, most quality indicators were below the recommendations by Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA, with no improvement trend; in the high-MHDI group, the majority of the indicators also presented no improvement, although they show slightly better quality indicators. The MHDI should be considered in the definition of the policies of the screening program for cervical cancer in Brazil, and the current program may require adjustments to achieve improved efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0306DOI Listing
March 2020

Diversity of human papillomavirus typing among women population living in rural and remote areas of Brazilian territory.

Papillomavirus Res 2019 12 17;8:100186. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Teaching and Research Institute, Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Pio XII Foundation, Brazil; Medical Laboratory of Medical Investigation (LIM) 14. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; Research Institute of Life and Health Sciences (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; ICVS / 3B's - Associated Laboratory to the Government of Portugal, Braga, Guimarães, Portugal. Electronic address: http://www.icvs.uminho.pt.

Objectives: Genotyping HPV from samples tested positive to careHPV™ assay in rural and remote areas of Brazilian territory.

Methods: A total of 5079 women were enrolled in an opportunistic screening from the Barretos Cancer Hospital, through mobile units or ambulatory unit. All careHPV™ hr-HPV positive samples were tested by a Luminex-based protocol in order to evaluate the HPV infecting types.

Results: Positive hr-HPV results were obtained in 10.6% (536/5068) of women. Among these cases, HPV-56 and HPV-51 were the most common types detected in 32.3% and 31.4%, respectively. HPV-53 (20.5%), HPV-18 (18.5%), HPV-58 (17.6%), HPV-52 (16.0%) and HPV-16.6%) were the other most frequent types detected. These frequencies represent prevalences of 2.35%, 2.12%, 2.02%, 1.84% and 1.80% respectively, within the population studied. Regarding low-risk HPVs, HPV-6 was detected in 12.9% of the samples. The less frequent types (<3%) were: HPV-70, HPV-11 and HPV-26.

Conclusions: The most frequent types detected were: HPV-56, HPV-51, HPV-53, HPV-18, HPV-58, HPV-52 and HPV-16 according to decreasing rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pvr.2019.100186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804508PMC
December 2019

Human papillomavirus is not associated to non-small cell lung cancer: data from a prospective cross-sectional study.

Infect Agent Cancer 2019 2;14:18. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

1Teaching and Research Institute, Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital - Pio XII Foundation, Barretos, Brazil.

Background: The pathogenesis of lung cancer is triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, being the tobacco smoke the most important risk factor. Nevertheless, the incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is gradually increasing, which demands the search for different other etiological factors such as occupational exposure, previous lung disease, diet among others. In the early 80's a theory linked specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) to lung cancer due to morphological similarities of a subset of bronchial squamous cell carcinomas with other HPV-induced cancers. Since then, several studies revealed variable rates of HPV DNA detection. The current study aimed to provide accurate information on the prevalence of HPV DNA in lung cancer.

Methods: Biopsies were collected from 77 newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated at the Thoracic Oncology Department at Barretos Cancer Hospital. The samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE), histologic analysis was performed by an experienced pathologist. DNA was extracted from FFPE material using a commercial extraction kit and HPV DNA detection was evaluated by multiplex PCR and HPV16 specific real-time PCR.

Results: HPV was not identified in any of the samples analysed (69).

Conclusions: Our data demonstrated a lack of HPV DNA in a series of NSCL cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-019-0235-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679449PMC
August 2019

Cervical, Ovarian and Endometrial Tumor Markers: Potential Clinical Value.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2019 Aug 5;40(4):350-357. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Pathology, Laboratory of Medical Investigation (LIM), University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine Nces, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; ICVS/3B's - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal; Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Pio XII Foundation, Barretos, Brazil. Electronic address:

Tumors markers can be described as molecular products expressed by neoplasia tissues (immunohistochemistry), or metabolized and secreted by tumor and characterized biochemically in body fluids such as blood and urine. They may have utility as indicators of tumor stage and grade as well useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence, progression, development of metastases, or even patient survival. Unfortunately, in some cases they may have no identified clinical potential. Several investigations have been carried out, especially in the last decade, using biotechnological methods, in order to identify new potential tumor markers. By translating these findings into clinical use one may facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction, and contribute to individualized treatment. The objective of this review is to describe some biomarkers with potential use in clinical settings of uterine cervix, ovary, and endometrium carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2019.03.003DOI Listing
August 2019

Age-related acceptability of vaginal self-sampling in cervical cancer screening at two university hospitals: a pilot cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jul 18;19(1):963. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Disciplina de Ginecologia, Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: To determine whether age is a barrier against acceptability of cervicovaginal self-sampling in screening for cervical cancer at two gynecology outpatient clinics.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 116 women over 21 years of age with an abnormal Pap smear. Clinical and laboratorial data were recorded in electronic files. Women received detailed self-collection instructions. After the self-sampling procedure (Evalyn Brush®), women were instructed to answer a questionnaire about vaginal self-sampling acceptability that consisted of seven multiple-choice items. The participants were divided into three age brackets: 21 to 29 years, 30 to 49 years, and 50 years and over. Chi-square, Fischer exact, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used.

Results: The analysis of the participants' perception of the procedure stratified according to age groups showed a decline in the fear of hurting oneself during the procedure as age increased. Most participants reported that it was very easy to understand how to use the self-sampling brush and that it was easy to use it. Most of them were neither embarrassed nor afraid of getting hurt during the procedure. The majority preferred self-sampling to collection by a healthcare professional. The main reason was practicality: the possibility of choosing the place and time for sampling.

Conclusions: The participating women found self-collection simple to understand and easy to accept regardless of age. The younger women indicated more fear and discomfort in self-sampling, which points to the need for attraction strategies that are more appealing to the younger generations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7292-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637504PMC
July 2019

The burden of 14 hr-HPV genotypes in women attending routine cervical cancer screening in 20 states of Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

Sci Rep 2019 07 12;9(1):10094. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Innovation and Research Department, Salud Digna, Culiacan, 80000, Sinaloa, Mexico.

In Mexico, HPV vaccines available immunize against genotypes 16/18 and 16/18/6/11; however, there is limited surveillance about carcinogenic subtypes in different states of the country that allow evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination and cervical cancer screening programs. Here, we report the regional and age-specific prevalence of 14 hr-HPV genotypes as well as their prevalence in abnormal cytology (from ASCUS to cervical cancer) among Mexican women which were undergoing from cervical cancer screening in the Salud Digna clinics in 20 states of the country. This study includes women with social security from the majority of public health institutions (IMSS, ISSSTE, SEMAR, and PEMEX), and women without social security. For cervical cancer screening, we used the SurePath liquid-based cytology and the BD Onclarity HPV Assay. From December 1, 2016, to August 2, 2018, the hr-HPV prevalence among 60,135 women was 24.78%, the most prevalent types were HPV 16 (4.13%), HPV 31 (4.12%) and HPV 51 (3.39%), while HPV 18 (1.70%) was less prevalent among infected women. Interestingly, the genotypes not covered by current vaccines in Mexico were commonly found in precancerous lesions, evidencing their carcinogenic potential, so it is necessary to increase their surveillance and inclusion in cervical cancer screening triage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46543-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626130PMC
July 2019

Cervical determinants of anal HPV infection and high-grade anal lesions in women: a collaborative pooled analysis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 08 13;19(8):880-891. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Cervical cancer screening might contribute to the prevention of anal cancer in women. We aimed to investigate if routine cervical cancer screening results-namely high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytohistopathology-predict anal HPV16 infection, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and, hence, anal cancer.

Methods: We did a systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane library for studies of cervical determinants of anal HPV and HSIL published up to Aug 31, 2018. We centrally reanalysed individual-level data from 13 427 women with paired cervical and anal samples from 36 studies. We compared anal high-risk HPV prevalence by HIV status, cervical high-risk HPV, cervical cytohistopathology, age, and their combinations, using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs. Among 3255 women with anal cytohistopathology results, PRs were similarly calculated for all anal HSIL and HPV16-positive anal HSIL.

Findings: Cervical and anal HPV infections were highly correlated. In HIV-negative women, anal HPV16 prevalence was 41% (447/1097) in cervical HPV16-positive versus 2% (214/8663) in cervical HPV16-negative women (PR 16·5, 95% CI 14·2-19·2, p<0·0001); these values were 46% (125/273) versus 11% (272/2588) in HIV-positive women (4·4, 3·7-5·3, p<0·0001). Anal HPV16 was also associated with cervical cytohistopathology, with a prevalence of 44% [101/228] for cervical cancer in HIV-negative women (PR vs normal cytology 14·1, 11·1-17·9, p<0·0001). Anal HSIL was associated with cervical high-risk HPV, both in HIV-negative women (from 2% [11/527] in cervical high-risk HPV-negative women up to 24% [33/138] in cervical HPV16-positive women; PR 12·9, 95% CI 6·7-24·8, p<0·0001) and HIV-positive women (from 8% [84/1094] to 17% [31/186]; 2·3, 1·6-3·4, p<0·0001). Anal HSIL was also associated with cervical cytohistopathology, both in HIV-negative women (from 1% [5/498] in normal cytology up to 22% [59/273] in cervical HSIL; PR 23·1, 9·4-57·0, p<0·0001) and HIV-positive women (from 7% [105/1421] to 25% [25/101]; 3·6, 2·5-5·3, p<0·0001). Prevalence of HPV16-positive anal HSIL was 23-25% in cervical HPV16-positive women older than 45 years (5/20 in HIV-negative women, 12/52 in HIV-positive women).

Interpretation: HPV-based cervical cancer screening programmes might help to stratify anal cancer risk, irrespective of HIV status. For targeted secondary anal cancer prevention in high-risk groups, HIV-negative women with cervical HPV16, especially those older than 45 years, have a similar anal cancer risk profile to that of HIV-positive women.

Funding: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30164-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656696PMC
August 2019

High-Risk HPV Testing in Primary Screening for Cervical Cancer in the Public Health System, São Paulo, Brazil.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2019 08 12;12(8):539-546. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Every year there are approximately 16,000 new cases of cervical cancer in Brazil. Novel screening technologies may reduce this number by expanding the population coverage but also by improving the detection rate of precursor lesions. We aimed to evaluate human papillomaviruses (HPV)-DNA testing in the context of routine cervical cancer screening in the public health system of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Women participating in the primary screening program were invited to enroll. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected and cytology and Hr-HPV DNA testing were performed in parallel. Cytologists were blind to HPV results. Women older than 24 years with a positive high-risk HPV test and/or cytology class ≥ ASC-US were referred to colposcopy. From December 2014 to December 2016, 16,102 women joined the study. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) DNA prevalence was 14.9%, whereas cytologic abnormalities were found in 7.2% of the women. Per protocol, 1,592 Hr-HPV women, in addition to 72 patients with cytologic classification > low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) were referred. A total of 80 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2) cases were diagnosed, 79 were Hr-HPV DNA and 18 had normal cytology. Hr-HPV DNA detected a significant number of patients with premalignant lesions missed by cytology and all 16 CIN3 cases were Hr-HPV DNA HPV genotyping may be useful in the management of Hr-HPV women, reducing the burden of colposcopic referral for those harboring genotypes with a weaker association to CIN3 Use of HPV-DNA testing was shown to be feasible and advantageous over current cytologic screening in the public health system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0076DOI Listing
August 2019

Impact of Brush Cytology Analysis for the Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Quality of Liquid-Based Preparation of Cytological Slides.

Acta Cytol 2019 21;63(3):240-246. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital/Pio XII Foundation, Barretos, Brazil,

Objectives: The diagnostic performance of cytology in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is meticulously described.

Methods: Cytological and biopsy specimens were prospectively taken during esophagogastroduodenoscopy of 123 individuals in 2013 and 2014. Cytology samples were maintained in preservative fluid until processing and biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded.

Results: Based on endoscopic biopsy results, 70 cases were positive for ESCC whilst 53 were negative for cancer. In addition, brush cytology showed high sensitivity and specificity (98.57 and 96.23%, respectively) in detecting the disease, and high accuracy (97.5%) comparable to that provided by histopathology which is the accepted gold standard.

Conclusion: Brush cytology specimens preserved in liquid medium may be a good alternative for ESCC diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496567DOI Listing
June 2019

HPV: A Virus-Dinosaur Living among Us?

Acta Cytol 2019;63(2):83-84. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

SMW Consultants Ltd., Kaarina, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497814DOI Listing
May 2019
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