Publications by authors named "Adele Schmidt"

6 Publications

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The battle for creativity: frontiers in science and science education.

Authors:
Adele L Schmidt

Bioessays 2010 Dec 15;32(12):1016-9. Epub 2010 Oct 15.

Science Education, School of Education and Professional Studies, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201000092DOI Listing
December 2010

Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties.

Theor Appl Genet 2009 May 13;118(8):1519-37. Epub 2009 Mar 13.

CSIRO Plant Industry and the Food Futures Flagship, GPO BOX 1600, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.

While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Australian cultivars Kukri x Janz grown at sites across different Australian wheat production zones (Queensland in 2001 and 2002 and Southern and Northern New South Wales in 2003) in order to examine the genetic control of protein content, protein expression, dough rheology and sponge and dough baking performance. The study highlighted the inconsistent genetic control of protein content across the test sites, with only two loci (3A and 7A) showing QTL at three of the five sites. Dough rheology QTL were highly consistent across the 5 sites, with major effects associated with the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci. The Glu-D1 5 + 10 allele had consistent effects on S&D properties across sites; however, there was no evidence for a positive effect of the high dough strength Glu-B1-al allele at Glu-B1. A second locus on 5D had positive effects on S&D baking at three of five sites. This study demonstrated that dough rheology measurements were poor predictors of S&D quality. In the absence of robust predictive tests, high heritability values for S&D demonstrate that direct selection is the current best option for achieving genetic gain in this product category.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-009-1000-yDOI Listing
May 2009

Repetitive DNA elements as mediators of genomic change in response to environmental cues.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2006 Nov 8;81(4):531-43. Epub 2006 Aug 8.

CSIRO Plant Industry, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia.

There is no logical or theoretical barrier to the proposition that organismal and cell signaling could transduce environmental signals into specific, beneficial changes in primary structure of noncoding DNA via repetitive element movement or mutation. Repetitive DNA elements, including transposons and microsatellites, are known to influence the structure and expression of protein-coding genes, and to be responsive to environmental signals in some cases. These effects may create fodder for adaptive evolution, at rates exceeding those observed for point mutations. In many cases, the changes are no doubt random, and fitness is increased through simple natural selection. However, some transposons insert at specific sites, and certain regions of the genome exhibit selectively and beneficially high mutation rates in a range of organisms. In multicellular organisms, this could benefit individuals in situations with significant potential for clonal expansion: early life stages or regenerative tissues in animals, and most plant tissues. Transmission of the change to the next generation could occur in plants and, under some circumstances, in animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S146479310600710XDOI Listing
November 2006

Microsatellite mutation directed by an external stimulus.

Mutat Res 2004 Dec;568(2):233-43

CSIRO Plant Industry, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St. Lucia, Qld 4067, Australia.

Microsatellites are regions of DNA containing tandem repeats of a core 2-6 bp nucleotide sequence. To test the hypothesis that microsatellite mutation can be directed by exposure to specific external cues, control and treatment groups of resistant and susceptible wheat varieties were grown under controlled conditions and genotyped at a number of microsatellite loci that map to chromosomes known to contain Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance/susceptibility loci. Genotyping was undertaken both prior to and following exposure to Fusarium graminearum, the FHB pathogen. Within a month of inoculation of inflorescences, 58% of experimental plants, and no control plants, had acquired a novel allele at the locus Xgwm112.1. This allele was detected only in head blight affected tissue. Uninoculated control plants, and leaf samples from inoculated plants, showed no mutation. Cloning and sequencing of PCR products indicates that the new allele was generated by contraction of the (CT)(n) repeat motif. Observation of the same deletion-based mutation in all varieties, its absence in control plants not exposed to the head blight pathogen, and the detection of no similar mutational events in a control panel of loci not expected to show mutation, indicates that this example of microsatellite mutation is induced and/or caused by FHB infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2004.09.003DOI Listing
December 2004

Normal regulation of elevated plasma ghrelin concentrations in dialysis patients.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2004 Apr;116(7-8):235-9

Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III, University of Vienna, General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Chronic renal failure is often associated with malnutrition, and malnourished patients are subject to increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore plasma concentrations of the stomach-derived peptide hormone ghrelin, which has been shown to exert potent GH-releasing and appetite-stimulating effects, were determined and correlated with nutritional parameters.

Methods: Twenty-four patients (15 male, 9 female) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were studied. In addition, six patients were studied before and one hour after ingestion of a meal and five were studied immediately before and at the end of the dialysis session.

Results: Chronic renal insufficiency was associated with significantly elevated ghrelin levels (320.1 +/- 57 fmol/mL vs. 75.6 +/- 12.4 fmol/mL in controls; p < 0.007). Plasma ghrelin concentrations were also significantly higher in the 16 normal-weight patients than in the eight overweight or obese patients (399.6 +/- 76.3 fmol/mL vs. 161.1 +/- 41.3 fmol/mL; p < 0.03). Ingestion of food induced a decrease in five out of six patients tested (mean 242.3 +/- 66.5 fmol/mL vs. 186 +/- 30.7 fmol/mL; n.s.). HD also resulted in a significant decrease of elevated ghrelin concentrations: ghrelin was in the normal range at the end of HD in four of the five patients tested. Plasma ghrelin concentrations did not correlate with nutritional parameters except for cholinesterase which was negatively correlated to ghrelin.

Conclusion: Plasma ghrelin concentrations are elevated in HD. The fact that ghrelin concentrations are higher in normal-weight than in overweight or obese HD patients and suppressed after ingestion of a meal suggests that the regulation of ghrelin release is retained in HD patients, albeit shifted to a higher level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03041053DOI Listing
April 2004

Plasma ghrelin concentrations are not regulated by glucose or insulin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clamp study.

Diabetes 2003 Jan;52(1):16-20

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna University, Vienna, Austria.

Ghrelin plasma concentrations increase during fasting and fall rapidly after nutrient ingestion. We hypothesized that insulin or glucose could regulate ghrelin secretion by a feedback mechanism. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, three different study days were carried out in nine healthy volunteers (age 26 +/- 6 years). On each day, stepwise increasing systemic glucose concentrations of 5.0, 8.3, and 11.1 mmol/l were attained by intravenous infusion of glucose, representing fasting and postprandial conditions. Ghrelin plasma concentration was studied during concomitant exogenous hyperinsulinemia, inhibition of endogenous insulin production by somatostatin infusion, and placebo time control, respectively. Elevated glucose concentrations increased circulating insulin to 612 +/- 85 pmol/l (P < 0.01), but they did not affect ghrelin concentrations. Prolonged hyperinsulinemia by exogenous infusion resulted in circulating insulin of 1,602 +/- 261 pmol/l (P < 0.01) and suppressed plasma ghrelin to 49.6% of baseline (P < 0.01). During administration of somatostatin, insulin concentration remained constant, but an even greater decrease in ghrelin to 39.5% of baseline was noted (P < 0.01). Hyperglycemia does not decrease ghrelin, and a reduction in ghrelin is only seen at supraphysiological insulin concentrations. In contrast, systemic ghrelin concentrations are decreased by somatostatin. The meal-related suppression of ghrelin appears not directly regulated by glucose or insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.52.1.16DOI Listing
January 2003
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