Prof Dr Adel  A Guirgis, PhD -  University of Sadat City, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute. Currently at Iowa State University, Ames , Iowa, USA  - Professor of Genetics and Molecular Biology

Prof Dr Adel A Guirgis

PhD

University of Sadat City, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute. Currently at Iowa State University, Ames , Iowa, USA

Professor of Genetics and Molecular Biology

Zaqaziq , Al Sharqia | Egypt

Main Specialties: Biochemical Genetics

Additional Specialties: Molecular Biology, cDNA. Cloning, Molecular Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics

Prof Dr Adel  A Guirgis, PhD -  University of Sadat City, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute. Currently at Iowa State University, Ames , Iowa, USA  - Professor of Genetics and Molecular Biology

Prof Dr Adel A Guirgis

PhD

Introduction

Primary Affiliation: University of Sadat City, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute. Currently at Iowa State University, Ames , Iowa, USA - Zaqaziq , Al Sharqia , Egypt

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Prof Dr Adel A Guirgis’s Resume / CV

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Number of Publications

100

Publications

Number of Profile Views

575

Profile Views

Number of Article Reads

24

Reads

Number of Citations

45

Citations

Top co-authors

Gang Ren
Gang Ren

Stanford University

2
Robert W Thornburg
Robert W Thornburg

Iowa State University

2
Chris Kafer
Chris Kafer

Iowa State University

1
William S York
William S York

University of Georgia

1
Lan Zhou
Lan Zhou

Chongqing Medical University

1
Djoko Santoso
Djoko Santoso

Iowa State University

1
Robert Thornburg
Robert Thornburg

Iowa State University

1
Sanggyu Park
Sanggyu Park

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

1
Clay Carter
Clay Carter

University of California

1

Publications

100Publications

24Reads

45PubMed Central Citations

Heat shock regulates ribosomal L22-depnedent Alu non-coding RNA during hepatitis C virus infection

Hepatoma Res 2018;4:41.

Hepatoma Research

AbstractOther Section Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem that affects more than 180 million people worldwide. HCV is associated with several hepatic and other hepatic disorders including malignancies. HCV is a small enveloped positive-single strand RNA virus that belongs to Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Here we aim to provide a new therapeutic strategy via treatment of infected HepG2 cells with heat shock (HS). Methods: The potential inhibitory effect of HS on HCV replication was assessed by the relative gene expression of NS5A and its corresponding protein by flowcytometry which has been additionally used to monitor other cellular factors. Results: HS treatment of infected HepG2 cells has the ability to disturb HCV replication possibly via stimulation of the Alu non-coding element which inhibits gene expression of ribosomal L22. Ribosomal protein L22 (RPl22) is one of the abundant RNA-binding proteins that are known to facilitate synthesis and translation of viral RNA and to participate in balancing the protein components of the ribosome itself. Conclusion: HS treatment of infected cells leads to up-regulation of long RNA-Alu molecule that regulates the expression of RPL22 and subsequently reduces HCV replication in HepG2 cells. Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, Alu non-coding gene, heat shock treatment

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August 2018
1 Read

Nectar Analysis Throughout the Genus Nicotiana Suggests Conserved Mechanisms of Nectar Production and Biochemical Action

Front. Plant Sci., 30 July 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01100

Frontiers in Plant Science

We have evaluated the floral nectars of nine species from different sections of thegenusNicotiana. These nine species effectively cover the genus. We found that thenectary glands from these different species showed similar developmental regulationwith swelling of nectaries during the first half of development and a distinct colorchange in the nectary gland as development approaches anthesis. When we examinedthe composition of the nectar from these nine different species we found that theywere similar in content. Carbohydrate compositions of these various nectars variedbetween these species withN. bonariensisshowing the highest andN. sylvestrislowest level of sugars. Based upon the amount of carbohydrates, the nectars fellinto two groups. We found that hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the nectars ofeach of these species. While all species showed the presence of hydrogen peroxidein nectar, the quantitative amounts of hydrogen peroxide which was very high inN. rusticaandN. bonariensis,suggesting be a common characteristic in short flowerNicotianaspecies. We further found that the antioxidant ascorbate accumulated innectar andβ-carotene accumulated in nectaries.β-carotene was most high in nectariesofN. bonariensis. We also examined the presence of proteins in the nectars of thesespecies. The protein profile and quantities varied significantly between species, althoughall species have showed the presence of proteins in their nectars. We performed alimited proteomic analysis of several proteins from these nectars and determined thateach of the five abundant proteins examined were identified as Nectarin 1, Nectarin 3, orNectarin 5. Thus, based upon the results found in numerous species across the genusNicotiana, we conclude that the mechanisms identified are similar to those mechanismsfound in previous studies on ornamental tobacco nectars. Further, these similarities areremarkably conserved, throughout the genusNicotiana.Keywords:Nicotiana, floral nectar, nectaries, carbohydrate in nectar, nectary carotenoids, hydrogen peroxide,proteins in nectarAbbreviations:EST, expressed sequence tagged mRNA; Floral Nectary stages: S6, Stage 6 (immature; beginning of metabolicswitch); S9, Stage 9 (immature; pre-secretory, S12, Stage 12 (mature; anthesis); PF, post-fertilization; LxS8, an interspecificcross ofNicotiana langsdorffii×N. sanderaelong studied for nectar/nectary research.Frontiers in Plant Science | www.frontiersin.org1July 2018 | Volume 9 | Article 1100 (10) Nectar Analysis Throughout the Genus Nicotiana Suggests Conserved Mechanisms of Nectar Production and Biochemical Action | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326688646_Nectar_Analysis_Throughout_the_Genus_Nicotiana_Suggests_Conserved_Mechanisms_of_Nectar_Production_and_Biochemical_Action [accessed Sep 11 2018].

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July 2018
1 Read

Amino Acids Regulation of Autophagy as a Sufficient Method to Disturb HCV Replication

Ijsrm.Human, 2018; Vol. 9 (2): 76-89.

International Journal of Science and Research Methodology, Human Ijsrm.Human, 2018; Vol. 9 (2): 76-89.

.humanjournals.com Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, Autophagy, Apoptosis, Amino acids ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a growing clinical problem, being the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Inflammation of the liver is known as hepatitis and that can be caused by alcohol, drugs, and infection with bacteria or viruses. There are so many hepatitis viruses, so named because of the similar symptoms they have, however they are very different in structure and replication. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood borne virus which contains positive sense, single-stranded RNA and belongs to the Flaviviridae family. HCV infection induces a variety of cellular pathways that are either suppressing viral replication or maintaining viral infection. Interferon signaling is the most common pathway that prevents HCV infection while cellular autophagy has been found to ensure viral replication. Autophagy is a cellular process that responsible for degradation event via delivering the unnecessary proteins to lysosomes. In the current work, the effect of some individual amino acids, including glycine, glutamine, lysine and proline have been investigated for its possible influence on HCV replication using HepG2 cell lines. Additionally, the possible regulation of cellular autophagy was assessed in response to each amino acids treatment. Interestingly, our results indicated that glycine and glutamine pre-treatment showed competitive inhibition of HCV replication indicated by the expression of viral NS5A at both RNA and protein levels. Likely, both amino acids regulate autophagosome formation indicated by LC3 expression; however glycine treatment activated apoptotic signaling pathway and subsequently cell death program. Collectively, the current data suggest that treatment with either glycine or glutamine have the ability to prevent HCV replication may via disturbance of cellular autophagy.

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April 2018

Regulation of Lysosomes Dependent Autophagy That Modulates Cell Proliferation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 186-201

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 186-201, Special volume for the first International Conference of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sharm el Shiekh, Egypt. 26-29

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal tumors, recently. Its aggression is owing to late diagnosis so poor prognosis and higher mortality rate are reported. HCC becomes a thorny research region that requires more examination in cellular pathways involved in its emergency. Here we aim to investigate the possible cross talking between programmed cell death and autophagy and how to induce apoptosis from autophagic pathway in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, here we identified autophagy-dependent lysosome activity as crucial cellular machinery that controls HCC evaluation. Notably, both pathways have differences but their regulation is intimately connected. The current study elucidates the dual role of autophagy in HCC during its biological function in tumor genesis and tumor suppression. Accordingly, treatment of HepG2 cells with different concentrations of glycerol increased lysosome activity indicated by expression level of lysosomal biomarker LAMP-1. Thus, activation of lysosomes on treated cells regulates autophagosome formation and subsequently reduces cancer cell division. Meanwhile, starvation induced-autophagy on HepG2 cells has been found to reduce lysosomes activity and increased apoptotic signaling. Collectively, our results demonstrate that controlling of lysosome activity via glycerol treatment or starvation condition regulates autophagic machinery and cell proliferation in HCC. Keywords: Lysosomes, Autophagy, hepatocellular carcinoma

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April 2016
5 Reads

Gene Expression of Atg5 and LC3 in Relation to Ischemic Heart Diseases

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 175-185

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 175-185, Special volume for the first International Conference of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sharm el Shiekh, Egypt 26-29 Apri

Heart disease, like so many other diseases, is known to run in families. A link between genes expression and heart disease may prompt the chance to heart disease and increase risk for heart attacks. Further, heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs when a blockage to the coronary artery interrupts the blood supply to the heart. A significant number of heart attacks are related to heart disease such as ischemic heart disease. However, unlike other diseases that run in families, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, there is not one single gene or one single cause of heart attacks or heart disease. On the other hand, Autophagy is commonly regarded as a host defense mechanism against microbial invaders; however, the autophagic machinery can also be harnessed by pathogens for their own benefit. Here, we aim to highlight the role of autophagy in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and the possible link between autophagosome formation and related gene expression. Total number of 50 samples which obtained from IHD patients in addition to 20 samples that served as healthy control were used to investigate the autophagosome formation and the expression profile of apolipoprotein B (ApoB). Our result indicated that, autophagy LC3B and Atg5 genes expression were strongly down-regulated in patient samples suffering ischemic heart disease. Meanwhile, the expression profile of ApoB gene, which plays the major role in lipoprotein metabolism, was reduced in IHD patients. These results indicate in one hand the role of autophagy in intracellular degradation, which is accomplished by proteasomal and nonproteasomal pathways at multiple levels. On the other hand, the results also demonstrate the possible connection of autophagy and ApoB gene expression. Keywords: Ischemic heart disease, Autophagy, ApoB expression.

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April 2016
5 Reads

Identification and Molecular Characterization of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Liver Cancer Cells

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 163-174

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 163-174, Special volume for the first International Conference of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sharm el Shiekh, Egypt. 26-29 Apr

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC ) is the second cause of death due to malignancies worldwide. Notably, the principal risk factors of this disease include aflatoxin, alcoholism, intoxication and hepatitis viruses infection which can cause upset of cell division and liver inflammation . For instance, hepatitis c virus infection disturbs the expression level of the tumor suppressor gene P53, which protects cells from overgrowth. likely deleted in liver cancer 1 gene (DCL1) is one of the tumor suppressor gene which has been interrupted in HCC upon infection. Accordingly, here we aim to investigate the real expression profile of indicated tumor suppressor with possible connection with HCC evaluation. Total number of 50 blood samples were collected from HCC infected patients with HCV in addition to 30 samples were obtained from healthy individuals whom serve as control. The expression level of P53 ,DCL1 and IRF-1 genes was detected at RNA level using quantitative real time PCR. Additionally, secretion level of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as possible indicator for HCC evaluation was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Interestingly, our results reveal and confirm the low expression level of P53 and DLC-1 genes, while the expression level of tumor suppressor gene IRF 1 has been upregulated. Further, up-regulation of IRF-1 was associated with high secretion level of IL-6. Collectively, the findings here demonstrate a positive connection between IRF-1as transcriptional factor and HCC evaluation accompanied with high expression level of IL-6 resulted in liver inflammation. Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma , Interleukins, Hepatitis C virus ,Tumor suppressor gene.

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April 2016
5 Reads

Green Tea Effect on Allele-Specific Expression Patterns of Beclin1 ‎Against Organophosphate Insecticide in Male Albino Rats

Research Journal of ApplieBiotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 150-162

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 150-162., Special volume for the first International Conference of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sharm el Shiekh, Egypt. 26-29 Ap

In the present study, the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea (GT) against kidney functions and oxidative damage induced by chloropyrifos (CPF) in male albino rats was undertaken. Six groups containing five rats each were selected. Experimental groups were organized into 12 groups including 10 animals per each. Contain ‎control group, pesticide group and the rest of groups were pesticide + protective. ‎Blood samples were collected form rats before and after occupational exposure to pesticides for liver and kidney enzymes biochemical analysis, Data statistical analysis for mitochondrial enzymes in our study showed a very highly significant (P>0.001) difference in the mean value of serum enzymes isolated from treatments groups with pesticides before and after Green tea treatments. Using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach, we have analyzed the Beclin1 gene. Beclin1 is biallelically transcribed in pesticide and pesticide plus green tea treated and monoallelically transcribed in others, raising interesting questions regarding beclin1 gene regulation about the effect of green tea in gene transcription. The results revealed the biallelic expression of the Beclin1 gene in rat treated with the pesticide and high concentration of green tea 6%. This indicates that high concentration may lead to the opposite result. These results provide direct evidence for green tea effects of Beclin1 gene allele’s expression. Keyword; green tea, allele, expression, beclin1, o‎ rganophosphate, rats.

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April 2016
5 Reads

Royal Jelly Effect on Allele-Specific Expression Patterns of TNF-α Against Carbamate Insecticide in Male Albino Rats

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB) 2016, 2 (2): 139-149

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB), 2 (2): 139-149. Special volume for the first International Conference of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sharm el Shiekh, Egypt. 26-29 April, 2

In the present study, the defensive impact of a fluid concentrate of Royal jelly against kidney ‎functions and oxidative harm prompted by Methomyl (MET) in Male Albino Rats were ‎undertaken. Six groups containing five rats each were selected. Experimental groups were organized into 12 ‎groups including 10 animals per each. Contain ‎control group, pesticide group and the rest of ‎groups were pesticide + protective‎.‎ Blood tests were gathered structure rats ‎before and after word related presentation to pesticides for liver and kidney, biochemical ‎analysis data measurable examination for mitochondrial compounds in our study confirmed a strongly ‎significant (P‏>‏‎0.001) difference in the mean estimation of serum catalysts separated from medications ‎groups with pesticides prior and then afterward royal jelly medicines. Utilizing a reverse translation ‎polymerase chain response (RT-PCR) approach, we have examined the TNF gene. TNF is ‎biallelically transcribed in pesticide treated rats and monoallelically ‎transcribed in others, bringing up intriguing issues with respect to TNF gene regulation about the ‎effect of Royal jelly in gene transcription. The outcomes uncovered the biallelic expression of the ‎TNF gene in rodent treated with the pesticide. These outcomes give direct ‎evidence to royal jelly impacts of TNF gene alleles which may be impact on the movement ‎of autophagy framework. KEYWORDS. Royal jelly, Allele, TNF-α, Carbamate, Rats.

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April 2016
5 Reads

Association between polymorphisms of the cyp11a1 gene and polycystic ovary syndrome in Egyptian female .

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB), 19-28

Research Journal of Applied Biotechnology (RJAB), 19-28., Special volume for the first International Conference of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sharm el Shiekh, Egypt. 26-29 April, 2016

Several studies have reported the association of the SNP rs4077582 in the CYP11 gene with hyperandrogenism, which is one of the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). These studies suggest that SNP rs4077582 may be involved in the etiopathogenisis of PCOS. To investigate whether the CYP11 gene SNP rs4077582 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to PCOS, we designed a case-controlled association study including 104 individuals. A case-controlled association study including 106 individuals (53 PCOS patients and 53 controls) was performed to assess the association of SNP rs4077582 with PCOS. Genotyping of SNP rs4077582 was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method that was performed on genomic DNA isolated from blood leucocytes. Results were analyzed in respect to clinical test results. The genotypic distributions of rs4077582 (CC, CT, TT) in the CYP11 gene in women with PCOS (CC, 29 (55.8%); CT, 20 (33.5%); and TT, 3 (5.8%). respectively) were significantly different from that in controls (CC, 44 (84.6%); CT, 6 (11.6%); and TT, 2 (3.8%) respectively) (P = 0.001). The allele frequencies in the PCOs women were: C, 78 (75%); and T, 26 (25%). This also was significantly different from the distribution in non-PCOs women: C, 94 (90.4%); and T, 10 (9.6%) (Table 2). In addition, rs4077582 C > T showed a association with PCOs by logistic regression analysis controlling for confounding factors. Our data suggest that SNP rs4077582 in the CYP11 gene is associated with susceptibility to PCOS. Key words: CYP11A1, polycystic ovary, Egyptian

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April 2016
5 Reads

The activity of pathogenesis related proteins in smut resistant and susceptible sugarcane (GT54-9) mutants induced by gamma radiation

Adv Plants Agric Res 1(4): 00024

Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research, 1 (4), 00024, DOI: 10.15406/apar.2014.01.00024

The activity of six pathogenesis related (PR) proteins (polyphenole oxides, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, esterase, chitinase and β 1,3 glucanase) in sugarcane were used to detect the variation between smut susceptible and resistant sugarcane clones generated from the moderately resistant sugarcane cultivar GT 54-9 using gamma radiation. Activity of PR proteins was monitored in healthy and artificially infected plants. A dramatic increase in the tested enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, esterase and chitinase) was noticed in the resistant infected (RI) plants compared to the susceptible infected (SI) plants and to the control. Generally, the levels of the tested enzymes in the (SNI) plants were lower than those recorded in the (RNI) or the moderately resistant (GT 54-9 cultivar) control plants. Keywords Sugarcane smut; Ustilago scitaminea; Pathogenesis related proteins; Polyphenole oxidase; Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; Peroxidase; Esterase; Chitinase; β1,3 Glucanase

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October 2014
5 Reads

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308G/A polymorphism and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-infected patients

Chin. J Cancer, Jan 2012; 31(1): 29–35.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

Tumor necrosis factor鄄al pha (TNF鄄琢) is an important cytokine in generating an immune response against infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The functions of TNF鄄琢 may be altered by single鄄nu cleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its gene structure. We hypothesized that SNPs in TNF鄄琢 may be important in determining the outcome of an HCV infection. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of the polymorphism 鄄30 8G/A, which is located in the promoter region of the TNF鄄琢 gene, in the progression of HCV infection in Egyptian patients using a quantitative real鄄tim e polymerase chain reaction (qRT鄄P CR). The distribution of this polymorphism and its impact on the serum level of TNF鄄琢 was compared between 90 HCV鄄in fected patients [45 with HCV鄄in duced cirrhosis and 45 with HCV鄄re lated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] and 45 healthy Egyptian volunteers without any history of liver disease. Our results showed that at the TNF鄄琢 鄄30 8 position, the G/G allele was most common (78.5% ) in the study population, with the G/A and A/A alleles occurring less frequently (13.3% and 8.1% , respectively). Frequencies of G/G, G/A, and A/A genotypes were 87%, 7%, and 6% in patients with liver cirrhosis and were 94%, 4%, and 2% in patients with HCC, respectively. Serum levels of TNF鄄琢 were significantly higher in HCV鄄in fected patients than in healthy controls, indicating that the TNF鄄琢 鄄30 8 polymorphism does not influence the production of TNF鄄琢. The serum level of TNF鄄琢 was positively correlated with HCV infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the TNF鄄琢 鄄30 8 polymorphism may not be a host genetic factor associated with the severity of HCV infection, but may be an independent risk factor for HCC. Key words Tumor necrosis factor, polymorphism, hepatitis C virus, liver neoplasm

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January 2012
6 Reads

GENETIC VARIANCE BETWEEN SOME EGYPTIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS USING PCR-BASED MARKERS WITH EMPHASIS ON THE PREVALENCE OF AL WIJAM DISEASE

Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Vol. 44(8), 732-742.

Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, *Department of Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBR), Minufiya Univ., Egypt **Botany Department, Faculty o

ABSTRACT Date Palm is one of the most important crops in Egypt. At present, Egypt ranked the second in world date production. The objectives of this study are the identification the genetic variance between some local varieties of Date Palm, in line with the establishment of a molecular diagnosis method to study the etiology and the prevalence of Al Wijam disease. Data palm plantation have been suffering from number of pests and diseases infestation, mainly due to Dubas Bug, Red Palm Weevil, Lesser Date month, and Al Wijam disease. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 18 Date Palm cultivars collected from Date Palm Research Institute, ARC using three different extraction methods. Nine common cultivars (Zaghlool, Hayani, Oraibi, Samani, Sultan, Bent-Aisha, Amrey, Aglani, and Barhee) and nine Siwi cultivars (Siwi, Fryhee, Taktakt, Quaipe, Karama Ghazally, Helw Ghanem, Gorm Agazal, and Oshbeigel,) were used in this study. In order to determine the genetic polymorphism and discriminate between each of these cultivars, RAPD and ISSR analysis were conducted on the isolated DNA samples from each cultivar. DNA fingerprints of the studied cultivars were conducted using 10 RAPD and eight ISSR primers. Dendrograms representing genetic relationships as well as genetic similarity matrices were performed for the studied cultivars using the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average). Furthermore, 40 data palm trees representing the studied cultivars were collected from El-Marazik, El-Badrasheen, El-Wahat, and Demiate Governorates to study the prevalence of Al-Wijam disease using the DNA hybridization technique. Symptoms including retardation in terminal bud growth, whole crown of leaves (resetting symptoms), and yellow longitudinal lines on the midribs were observed. Non-radioactive Dig-labeled probes specific for 16s rDNA region of virus like agents were used to detect the infected trees. Key words: Al-Wijam disease, Date palm varieties, Dendrogram, DNA hybridization, Genetic variance, ISSR, PCR-based markers, Polymorphism, RAPD.

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August 2011
6 Reads

Effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs on the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression.

Int Immunopharmacol 2010 Jul 9;10(7):806-11. Epub 2010 May 9.

Department of Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Menoufiya University, Egypt.

View Article
July 2010
6 Reads
1 Citation
2.470 Impact Factor

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF CINNAMON EXTRACT ON DIABETIC RATS

Tanta Medical Sciences Journal Vol.(5), No.(1), 42-49.

Tanta Medical Sciences Journal Vol.(5), No.(1): 42-49.

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF CINNAMON EXTRACT ON DIABETIC RATS Tarek A. Salem, Ayman Elkenawy, Mostafa Elbassuony & A.A. Guirgis Department of Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBR), Minufiya University, Egypt ABSTRACT Background/Aim: Cinnamon is an important spice and aromatic crop used in folk medicine. The objective of this study was determine the antioxidative stress capacity of cinnamon in diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: A total of 60 male Wistar rats, weighing 100-120g were divided into four groups. Control group received orally 0.5 ml of 0.9% NaCl for 2 months. Cinnamon treated group received orally freshly prepared cinnamon extract at dose of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 months. Diabetic group injected (i.p) with a single dose of freshly prepared alloxan solution at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. Diabetic and cinnamon treated group: This group was injected (i.p) with a single dose of freshly prepared alloxan solution at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight and divided into 2 subgroups, one received orally freshly prepared cinnamon extract at dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 months and the second received orally freshly prepared cinnamon extract at dose of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 months. Specimens of liver were homogenized and analyzed for lipid peroxidation levels and total antioxidant power by standard methods. Results: The results indicated a decrease in lipid peroxidation levels but an increase in total antioxidant power in diabetic and cinnamon treated groups compared with diabetic group in a dose-dependent manner (with the greatest effects found in the 200 mg/kg group). Conclusion: The present study showed that cinnamon has the ability to protect the liver from oxidative damage-induced by diabetes. This antioxidative effect was clearly indicated by the measured biochemical parameters. Key words: Antioxidant, Cinnamon extract, Diabetes, Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress.

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January 2010
8 Reads

INDUCTION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS AND OIL CONTENT IN PEANUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) BY USING GAMMA RAYS AND ACRIFLAVIN MUTAGENS

Agricultural Research Journal, Suez Canal University, Vol.9 (2), 99-106.

Agricultural Research Journal, Suez Canal University. ISSN, 1687-1049.

INDUCTION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS AND OIL CONTENT IN PEANUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) BY USING GAMMA RAYS AND ACRIFLAVIN MUTAGENS Manal Eid*, S. Greish*, A.A. Guirgis**, and Aml Abdel-Mageed* *Botany Department Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt **Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya University, Sadat-City, Egypt ABSTRACT The present study aimed to induction of genetic variability for important characters in peanut. Different doses of gamma rays (200, 400 & 600 Gy) and different concentration of acriflavin solution (0.2%, 0.4% & 0.6%) were applied. Four varieties of Peanut (Archis hypogaea L.) namely; Giza4, Giza5, Giza6 and Giza7 were used in this present study. The studied characters including: plant height, number of branches per plant, dry weight of pods per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, yield of plant, weight 100-seed shelling percentage and oil percentage. Increase and decrease in mean value were recorded as a result of the irradiation and chemical treatments. Mutagenic effectiveness was found to be dependent upon dose and genotype concerned. Increases in genetic parameters of variation, heritability and genetic advance under mutagenic treatment indicated the possibility of evolving higher yield variants through proper crop selection. Thus, economic traits like plant height, number of pods per plant, dry weight of pods, and number of seeds per plant and 100-seed weight with high heritability and genetic advance in M2 and M3 generation offer good scope for the possibility of inducting desirable mutations for polygenic traits accompanied with effective selection and improvement. Key words: Acriflavin, Archis hypogaea L., Gamma rays, Genetic variability, Genotype, Mutagens, Oil content, Peanut, Polygenic traits, yield characters.

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December 2009
6 Reads

GENETIC SIGNATURES OF SOME EGYPTIAN Clarias gariepinus POPULATIONS

. Global Veterinaria 3(6), 503-508.

. Global Veterinaria 3(6), 503-508.

GENETIC SIGNATURES OF SOME EGYPTIAN Clarias gariepinus POPULATIONS Y.M. Saad*, M. Shaden Hanafi, *M.A. Essa**, A.A. Guirgis, and *S. Fawzia Ali *National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo, Egypt **Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, El-Monofiya University, Egypt ABSTRACT Molecular (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA- Polymerase Chain Reaction; RAPD-PCR) and biochemical (Sodium dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis; SDS-PAGE) genetic markers of six Clarias gariepimus populations collected from different Egyptian locations (Zefta (El-Gharbia), El-Quanater, Mariut, El-Menia, El-Serw and El-Giza) were used to infer the genetic signature of each studied fish population. The protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE) from skeletal muscle soluble proteins indicated that each population had a unique profile. The molecular data revealed from these genetic markers were used to reconstruct the dendrogram and calculate the genetic distance among the applied fish populations. The Unweighted Pair-Group Method of Analysis (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the similarity matrix based on RAPD analysis separated the studied populations into two clusters, the first formed by El-Menia, el-Serw and Mariut populations and the other by Zefta, El-Quanater and El-Giza populations. Some specific genetic markers were detected for each studied fish population. In conclusion, this investigation will be useful, especially in Clarias gariepinus breeding programs which use genetic markers as a marker assisted selection to improve the fish performance. Key words: Clarias gariepinus, Cluster analysis, Dendrogram, Electrophoresis, Fish population, Genetic distance, Genetic markers, Genetic similarity, SDS- PAGE, Similarity matrix, RAPD-PCR, UPGMA.

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November 2009
8 Reads

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STREPTOKINASE PRODUCED BY S. PYOGENS AND S. EQUISIMILIS

Sci. J. Fac. Sci. Minufia Univ., Vol.(23), 105-121.

Scientific Journal of Faculty of Science , Minufia University.

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STREPTOKINASE PRODUCED BY S. PYOGENS AND S. EQUISIMILIS K.A. Elhalafawy1, A.A. Guirgis1, S.M. Elkousy2, N.M. Rizk3, and A.S. Eldourghamy3 (1)Molecular Biology Department, GEBRI, Sadat City, Minufiya University (2)Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minufiya University (3)Environmental Biotechnology Department, GEBRI, Sadat City, Minufiya University ABSTRACT In an attempt to purify streptokinase produced by S. pyogenes and S. equisimilis, it was first purified by 45% and 50% ammonium sulfate precipitation respectively followed by dialysis over night. Partially purified enzyme samples were applied to Sephadex G-100 column. Gel filtration step resulted in 30 and 32 fold increase in specific activity of streptokinase produced by S. pyogenes and S. equisimilis respectively. Further purification was obtained by Sephacryl S-200 column which increased S. pyogenes and S. equisimilis enzymes specific activity to more than 60% and 47 respectively. Purification of both enzymes with the ion-exchange DEAE Sephadex A-50 column resulted in more than 160% and 164% increase in the specific activity of the purified enzyme. The highest residual activity of both S. pyogenes and S. equisimilis purified streptokinase was obtained at pH 8. However, purified enzymes retained almost all of their activity at pH 7. The specific activity was significantly increased at alkaline pH values. Both S. pyogenes and S. equisimilis purified enzymes showed a maximum activity at 37oC. Moreover, S. pyogenes streptokinase kept more than 90% of its activity at 45oC. Residual activity decreased significantly when temperature was elevated to 60C. S. equisimilis streptokinase lost almost 60% of its activity at 60oC, but the residual activity remained over 80% at 45oC. S. pyogens purified enzyme kept more than 86% of its activity after incubation at 50oC for 60 minutes. Half the enzymatic activity was obtained after exposure to 60oC minutes. Half the enzymatic activity was obtained after exposure to 60oC for 30 minutes. In case of S. equisimilis purified streptokinase, almost all the enzyme activity survived incubation at 50oC for the entire 60 minutes. However, the enzyme kept only 40% of its activity at 60oC for 50 minutes. Higher degrees of temperature significantly decreased the enzyme activity. The degree of thermostability for both purified enzyme decreased directly with either the increase of temperature or the increase of the exposure time. Kinetics study for substrate activation with purified S. pyogenes streptokinase showed a maximum velocity (Vmax) of the reaction was 1.183 M/min, and a km value of 0.285 M/ml when N-p-tosyl-glycyl-prolyllysing-p-nitroanilide acetate was used as the substrate for liberated plasmin. Similar results for plasminogen activation were obtained after incubating human plasminogen with purified S. equisimilis streptokinase. Reaction rate for substrate hydrolysis by liberated plasmin has a maximum velocity of 1.176 M/min. Km of the reaction was 0.287 M/ml. Keywords: Enzyme Kinetics, Gel Filtration, Ion Exchange DEAE Sephadex A-50, Plasminogen activation, S. equisimilis, S. pyogens, Streptokinase.

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October 2009
7 Reads

Monitoring Streptokinase and some Factors that Affect its Production during Growth Curve of Two Streptococcal Strains

Sci. J. Fac. Sci. Minufia Univ., Vol.23, 85-103

Scientific Journal of Faculty of Science, Minufia University

MONITORING STREPTOKINASE AND SOME FACTORS THAT AFFECT ITS PRODUCTION DURING GROWTH CURVE OF TWO STREPTOCOCCAL STRAINS K.A. Elhalafawy1, A.A. Guirgis1, S.M. Elkousy2, N.M. Rizk3, and A.S. Eldourghamy3 (1)Molecular Biology Department, GEBRI, Sadat City, Minufiya University (2)Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minufiya University (3)Environmental Biotechnology Department, GEBRI, Sadat City, Minufiya University ABSTRACT Streptokinase enzyme is one of the most important drugs used in the treatment of strokes and myocardial infarction. Enzyme production was monitored during the growth curve of both S.pyogenes and S.equismilis grown on different media. Adjustment of the medium pH for cultures of S.pyogenes and S. equisimilis every 12 hours on incubation-when both microbes were grown on Step-base medium-significantly increased the enzyme production level. Streptokinase production was almost doubled in the pH-adjusted cultures after three days of incubation. Glucose at 0.5g% was found to be the best source of carbon that supports the streptokinase production by both S.pyogenes and S.equismilis. on the other hand, both mannitol and sorbitol were found to be improper carbon sources for the enzyme production by both microbes. Tryptone, yeast extract, and casein could be used as the primary source of organic nitrogen to produce streptokinase from S.pyogenes when the microbe is allosed to grow on Step-base medium. The higher level of the enzyme production by S.equisimilis was obtained when 1.5 g% Tryptone was used as the organic nitrogen source. Streptokinase produced by S.pyogenes and S.equisimilis was assayed upon growing both bacterial strains on different media by the common casein digestion method and the more sensitive Chromozym substrate digestion method. Moreover, the enzyme was monitored electrochemically during microbial growth of both microbes using the protamine-sensitive electrode to compare between different method of detection. Results obtained from electrochemical method were so close to that obtained from the spectrophotometric method when both S.pyogenes and S.equisimilis were tested for their streptokinase activity during bacterial growth curve. These results offer an alternative and reliable method for streptokinase detection during microbial growth. Moreover, electrochemical method provide a faster and less expensive technique for streptokinase determination especially when there is a need to detect the enzyme in turbid media like bacterial cultures. Keywords: Colorimertic Assay, Electrochemical Assay, Myocardial infarction, Protamine-sensitive electrode, S.equismilis, S.pyogenes, Streptokinase.

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October 2009
6 Reads

PROTECTIVE ROLE OF GREEN TEA ON CARBONTETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED ACUTE HEPATOTOXICITY

Sci., J. Fac. Sci. Minufiya Univ., Vol. 23, 55-67.

Scientific Journal of Faculty of Science, Minufiya University

ABSTRACT Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is largely used as solvent in chemical industries. CCl4 is also well known for hepatic and renal toxic actions. The in vivo metabolism of carbon tetrachloride to trichloromethyl (CCl3) and peroxy trichloromethyl (CCl3O2) radicals has been extensively reported to cause acute liver damage like cirrhosis, steatosis and necrosis. Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse, or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Green tea polyphenols have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have evaluated protective action of green tea extract on CCL-induced acute hepatictoxicity in male rats. Fifty male Albino rats were divided into five groups, 10 rats each: normal control, green tea extract group, green tea-protected for 15 days and then received an acute dose of CCI4 (i.p.), CCl4-intoxicated and the last 10 rats was the sham group (corn oil). Results demonstrated that protection with green tea amelicorates CCl4-toxicity by significantly decreasing (P<0.001) liver weight, aminotransferases concentrations, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase with rise in total protein and albumin. Liver homogenate showed a significant decline (P<0.001) in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) with rise in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. At the same time, green tea-protected animals augmented the level of immunoglobulin, total lymphocytes and neutrophils phagocytic activity. The results of DNA electrophoresis demonstrated that DNA damage observed in animals intoxicated with CCl4 has been recovered with green tea protection. Overall results indicate that the aqueous extract of green tea possesses hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Key Words: Alkaline phosphatase, Aminotransferases, Antioxidants, Bilirubin, Carbon tetrachloride, Catalase, Glutathione S-transferase (GST), Green tea, Hepatoprotective, Hepatotoxicity, Phytochemicals, Polyphenols, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD).

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October 2009
6 Reads

The MYB305 transcription factor regulates expression of nectarin genes in the ornamental tobacco floral nectary.

Plant Cell 2009 Sep 25;21(9):2672-87. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.

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September 2009
5 Reads
18 Citations
9.340 Impact Factor

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) CULTIVARS

Minufiya J. Agric. Res. Vol. 34, (4) : 1587-1600

(1)Molecular Biology Dept.,(2)Bioinformatics Dept.,(3)Plant Biotechnology Dept., Geenetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute, Minufiya University,

ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of twelve Egyptian hexaploid wheat (Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Sids1, Giza 168, Gemmiza 10, Giza 170, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sakha 61, Sakha 69, Gemmiza 3 Gemmiza 5) cultivars was investigated based on eleven morphological characters and molecular (RAPD-PCR) markers. The two-way hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological traits revealed that the wheat cultivars were clustered in two main clusters. The first cluster consists of Gemmiza 7 and Gemmiza 9 cultivars and the second cluster contains Sids1, Giza 168, Gemmiza 10, Giza 170, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sakha 61, Sakha 69, Gemmiza 3 and Gemmiza 5 cultivars. The most related cultivars are Gemmiza 3 and Gemmiza 5. 115 RAPD-PCR markers were resulted from fingerprinting the 12 wheat cultivars under study using 11 arbitrary primers, 88 bands out of them were polymorphic and the other 27 were common. The resulted data were analyzed using NTSYS-PC2 program in order to address the intercultivars relationships. According to the RAPD cluster analysis, Sakha 93 was separated alone distant from all studied wheat germplasms. The other samples were clustered in two main groups. In the first group, Sids 1 was separated alone distant from the other members of this group that were divided in two clusters, the first clusters consisted of Giza 168, Giza 170, Sakha 61 and Sakha 69; Giza 168 and Giza 170 were highly related to each other and Sakha 61 and Sakha 69 were also relatively related to each other. The second cluster consists of Gemmiza 3, Gemmiza 5 and Gemmiza 7. Gemmiza 3 and Gemmiza 5 were highly related to each other than Gemmiza 7. The second group consisted of Sakha 94, Gemmiza 10 and Gemmiza 9. The latter germplasm appeared distant from Sakha 94 and Gemmiza 10. The results of this study showed that, morphological traits and molecular markers are relatively consistent with each other. Thus, it can be concluded that both morphological and molecular markers (RAPD) could be used in determination of genetic diversity and intercultivars relationships for wheat genotypes under study. Key words: Cluster analysis, Cladogram, Genetic diversity, Morphological characters, RAPD-PCR, Wheat.

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August 2009
6 Reads

Genetic characterization of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) genotypes tolerant to heavy metals.

Pak. J. Biotechnol 6 (1-2), 1-9

Pak. J. Biotechnol 6 (1-2), 1-9

ABSTRACT In the present research work, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) agent was applied to select highly tolerant Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants to some heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, nickel, and molybdenum). Four hyper-accumulator lines were selected, that proved to be more tolerant to the corresponding heavy metal when compared to the wild-type control, for genetic analysis in an attempt to elucidate the genetic bases of heavy metal tolerance in higher plants. Total soluble protein electrophoretic profiles indicated that metallothioneins (5-8 kDa) were expressed in Cd, Mo, Ni, and Zn hyperaccumulator lines when compared with their corresponding wild-type plants. Peroxidase and super oxide dismutase isozyme patterns were not conclusive. The expression of glutathione synthetase (GSH) gene(s) was monitored in the four genotypes lines and the wild-type control, using RT-PCR technologies. Increases ranging between 5 to 2 folds were encountered in the genotypes lines relative to the controls. According to the present findings, it seems that B. juncea hyperaccumulator genotypes have evolved a number of mechanisms to cope with heavy metal stress such as the expression of several metallothioneins and the over expression ofGSH gene(s). However, the results of oxygen radical scavengers were not conclusive, and need further justifications.

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June 2009
6 Reads

HYPOMETHYLATION AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED BY ORAL GAVAGES IN CORN OIL TO MICE

Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3 (3): 1569-1576.

Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3 (3): 1569-1576.

HYPOMETHYLATION AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED BY ORAL GAVAGES IN CORN OIL TO MICE *Ahmed Abdel-Zaher M. Mostafa; **Faten Mohamed Zahran, ***A.A. Guirgis, and *Nabila Zein *King Saud University- College of Science and arts in Shagra- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia **Zagazig University-Faculty of Science – Department of Chemistry – Biochemistry Division, Egypt *** Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute - Menofiya University – Egypt ABSTRACT 5-Methylcytosine (5-Mec) is a natural modification of DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase), S-adenosyl- methionine (SAM) uses as the methyl donor and yields S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH). The effects of chloroform on DNA methylation and histopathological alterations occurs in the liver were studied. Male and female Swiss albino mice were treated by chloroform through oral gavage. Different concentrations 130, 238, 277 and 447mg chloroform/kg mice dissolved in corn oil (10ml/kg mice), for 19,33 and 54 days. Whereas, treatment with chloroform with high concentration for the longest period led to progressive hypomethylation of liver DNA as determined by gel electrophoresis to Hpa II and Msp Idigested DNA and likewise. Moreover, light microscope appeared malignant cells with polymorphic nuclei, and sever displasia appeared with necrosis in moderate dose. ALT and albumin serum levels were also measured as a biomarker for liver dysfunction were ALT level showed significant elevation and albumin level showed significant depression. Our data concluded that high doses of chloroform produce regenerative cell proliferation, and hypomethylation of DNA which are a common feature of non-genotoxic carcinogens. Elevation of ALT level and decrease of albumin level confirmed liver disorder using high doses of chloroform. Key words: Chloroform, Dysplasia, DNA MTase, DNA methylation, Electrophoresis, Histological alterations, Hypomethylation, Polymorphic nuclei, Restriction enzymes.

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March 2009
6 Reads

MOLECULAR AND GENETIC STUDIES ON TOMATO MOSAIC VIRUS RESISTANCE GENES Tm-1, Tm-2 and Tm-22 IN SOME LOCAL AND EXOTIC TOMATO ACCESSIONS

Egypt, J. Genet. Cytol., 37: 323-333.

Egyptian Journal of Genetics and Cytology

ABSTRACT Three genes Tm-1, Tm-2 and Tm-22 are known to confer resistance to tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based codominant marker was developed to be linked to these genes (Tm-1, Tm-2 and Tm-22) using sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. The polymorphic markers co-segregated with susceptibility or resistance, as determined by biological assays for ToMV resistance. Accordingly, the homozygous genotype will show the intact fragment (950 bp) alone the heterozygous; will show the intact fragment in addition to several smaller fragments (150-800bp) and the homozygous recessive will show only the smaller fragments. This method enables the distinction of homozygous and heterozygous individual plants in segregating populations for Tm-22, and provides a convenient and rapid assay for mosaic virus resistance to be used in tomato breeding programs and hybrid seed production. Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum, Homozygous recessive, Polymorphic marker, Segregating populations, Susceptibility, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato mosaic virus resistance genes, Tm-1, Tm-2 and Tm-22 genes. "*Molecular Biology Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biochnology Research Institute, (GEBRI), Sadat City, Minufiya University, Egypt **Plant Pathology Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

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July 2008
9 Reads

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR HEMICELLULASE ENZYME FROM LOCALLY ISOLATED BACTERIUM Bacillus subtilus STRAIN GB1

Proc. 5th Int. Con. Biol. Sci., I.C.B.S., Tanta, Egypt, (Botany): 5: 48-55.

Proc. 5th Int. Con. Biol. Sci., I.C.B.S., Tanta, Egypt, (Botany): 5: 48-55.

ABSTRACT Classical method of microorganism's identification was followed to identify a hemicellulose degrading bacterium Bacillus subtilus strain GB1, aerobic, gram positive, spore forming bacterium, can hydrolyze cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Iocust bean gum (LBG), starch and gelatin. A mannanase from B.subtilus strain GB1 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatographic procedures including gel filtration (sephadex G-150). Q-sepharose ionexchange chromatography and ultrafiltration. The active fractions were concentrated and applied on both native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This purified enzyme protein has a molecular mass of 36.58 KDa by (SDS-PAGE). The mannanase enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH7.0 and 50oC. The Km and Vmax were (1.07) ug ml-1 and (15.93) Uml-1 for LBG. This enzyme hydrolyzes LBG and date palm seed powder whereas can't hydrolyze CMC and avicel. Some metals such as Co2+, Pb2+, Mg+ and Ni+ increased mannanase activity whereas inhibited by Hg2+, Cd2+ and SDS. Key words: Bacillus subtilis, Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMC), Extracellular, Gel filtration, Hemicellulase, Mannanase, Microorganism's identification, Purification, PCR, RAPD, SDS-PAGE.

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May 2008
6 Reads

MOLECULAR AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSES IN WHEAT

Minufiya J. Agric. Res. Vol. 32, No.6: 1705-1717.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Sadat City, Minufiya University, Egypt

ABSTRACT The response of ten wheat cultivars from different origins to heat stress was investigated using physiological tests [the cell viability assay (TTC) and the cell membrane thermo-stability assay (CMS)], biochemical analysis (SDS-PAGE) and RAPD markers. The results of both CMS and TTC assays revealed that both "Elneilien" and "Sohag 3" have consistent valuesfor both bioassays, whereas "Gemmeiza 9" has the lowest values for the two bioassays. Meanwhile, other cultivars showed different values for both assays such as "Benesuef 3" which showed high CMS value (64.37%) and low TTC value (42.97%). "Elneilien" was selected as a tolerant cultivar and "H.D. 2501" as a susceptible to carry out the protein analysis using SDS-PAGE. High molecular weight HSPs proteins were observed in the tolerant cultivar (26.6, 40 and 60 kD). Two cultivars representing the tolerant cultivars ("Sohag 3" and "Elneilain") and two representing the susceptible ("Benesuef 3" and "H.D. 2501") were selected to assign positive and/or negative RAPD markers associated with the heat stress. According to RAPD analysis, the tolerant cultivars to the heat stress ("Sohag 3" and "Elineilein") were separated distinctly from the susceptible ("Benesuef 3" and "H.D. 2501"). It can be concluded that the physiological test TTC is reliable test to distinguish tolerant wheat cultivars to heat stress. Key words: Cell Membrane Stability (CMS) Test, Heat-Shock Protein, Heat stress, RAPD markers, SDS-PAGE, 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride (TTC), Triticum, Wheat.

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December 2007
6 Reads

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE MEASUREMENTS AND COUNTS ON LEAF OF SOME CULTIVARS OF DATE PALM

Egypt J. Agric. Res. 85(1B): 607-619.

*Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University **Central Laboratory of Data Palm Research and Development, ARC, Giza, Egypt

ABSTRACT The current investigation was carried out in the Central Laboratory of Date Palm Research and Development, ARC, Egypt and the tissue culture Laboratory, in the Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Monofiya Univ., during 2004-2005 seasons. Measurements and counts of the upper leaf surface of the three studied date palm cultivars as affected by the used growth regulators, ancymidol 0.2 mg/L, paclobutrazol 0.2 mg/L as well as 2,4,D 10.0 mg/L+ 3mg 2ip supplement in the MS basic media. It is worthy to mention that, no comparisons could be held between the mean average of each growth regulator treatment and the control. Since, control plants were grew by direct sown of seeds in open fields. Though control plants will be used to show only the main features of palm date leaf surface. Generally it is obvious that, cultivars and used growth regulator treatments affected the leaf ultra surface features by different extents. Key words: 2,4,D , 2ip, Ancymidol, Cultivars, Date palm, Growth regulators, Leaf surface, Measurements counts, Paclobutrazol, Scanning electron microscope.

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November 2007
6 Reads

Sequential Usage of Bacterial Supernatants in Micropropagation of Date Palm.

Egypt J. Agric. Res., 85(1B): 559-571.

*Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development, ARC, Giza **Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture Ain Shams University ***Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Re

ABSTRACT The present investigation was aimed to use phytophormones produced by some bacterial strains like Azospinillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae instead artificial hormones as a protocol in data palm micropropagation through somatic embryogenesis induced from shoot tip or leaf primordial explants, which was isolated from offshoot apex. In order totest the possibility to use supernatant o the strains, which are auxin over producers and/or cytokinin over producers in culture medium composition according to development stages for maximizing yield and to study the effect on each stage, i.e., callus initiation, embryo formation, shooting and rooting stages. In general, results showed that Klebsiella and Azotobacter have an auxin effect but Azospinillum and Bacillus were more related to cytokinin nature. Key words: Auxin, Azospinillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium, Bacterial supernatants, Date palm, Klebsiella pneumonia, Micropropagation, Phytophormones.

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November 2007
5 Reads

STUDIES ON SOME PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING PHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA AND ITS RELATION TO MICROPROPAGATION OF DATE PALM

Egypt J. Agric. Res., 85(1B): 463-476.

Egyptian Journal of Agriculture Research, 85(1B): 463-476.

ABSTRACT Many phytohormones like auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) or their derivatives can be produced by microorganisms. Numerous studies have shown the synthesis of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by bacteria in culture medium but the resulted extractions are complicated and need sophisticated analytical detection. Therefore, this study carried out bioassay techniques coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and colorimetric assay to evaluate PGRs which formed by the selected strains (Azotobacter chroococcum, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus megaterium) as a producer to PGRs. Determining types and quantities of PGRs can be used to our advantage for regulating the synthesis to obtain optimum production that require for plant growth and development. SDS-PAGE of soluble protein fraction was used to determine the differences in the molecular weights of protein subunits among the strains either in the presence or absence of tryptophan. The electrophoregrams illustrated that a number of polypeptides increased or decreased in intensity and others disappeared, or newly synthesized which reflect the considerable effect of tryptophan on the genes expressions and biosynthesis operations in the strains cells. Key words: Abscisic acid (ABA), Auxins, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium, Cytokinins, Date palm, Gibberellins (GA3), HPLC, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micropropagation, Phytohormones, SDS-PAGE. "*Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Menofyia University **Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture Ain Shams University ***Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development, ARC."

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November 2007
5 Reads

PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF β-MANNANASE FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER

Egypt, J. Biotechnol. Vol.27, October (96-108).

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Sadat City. Egypt

ABSTRACT Aspergillus niger secretes β-mannanase into the growth medium when cultivated in the presence of locust bean gum as an inducer. β –mannanase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by means of Ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ultrafiltration. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 26.3 kDa. The pH and temperature optima 4.0 and 60oC respectively. Key words: Ammonium sulfate precipitation, Aspergillus niger, β-mannanase, Electrophoretic homogeneity, Gel filtration, Locust bean gum, Purification.

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October 2007
7 Reads

Nematotoxic Effect of Some Aqueous Leaves Extracts Against Root-Knot Nematode, (Meloidogyne incognitata) on Banana Plant, Under Greenhouse Conditions.

Minufiya J. Agric. Res. Vol. 32, No.4: 959-968.

*Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt **Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

ABSTRACT Aqueous leaves extracts of (Jatropha curcas, Lantana camara and Cymbopogon citrates) significantly reduced root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita and improved growth of banana plant as compared with control. Aqueous leaves extract of J. curcas at level "3/4S" and "S" concentrations as well as aqueous leaves extract of C.citratus at level "S" concentration surpassed the other tested materials in reducing final population comparatively, "Nemacur 10% G." was best among other tested materials. C.citratus aqueous leaf extract at "S" concentration showed maximum shoot length, shoot fresh weight and root length. Key words: Aqueous leaves extracts, Banana, Cymbopogon citrates, Jatropha curcas, Lantana camara , Nematotoxic effect, Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

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August 2007
5 Reads

Efficacy of Aqueous Leaves Extracts on Juveniles Mortality of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incogenita at Different Exposure Times Under Laboratory Conditions, In Vitro.

Minufiya J. Agric. Res. Vol. 32, No.4: 969-977.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt

ABSTRACT Aqueous extract of three plant viz., jatropha (Jatropha curcas), lantana (Lantana camara) and lemon-grass (Cymobopogon citrates) @ "1/2S"= 50%, "3/4S" = 75% and "S" = 100% were found toxic to viability of second stage (juvenille2) of Meloidogyne incognita root-knot mematode at different exposre time (12, 24, 48 and 72 hrs.). The toxicity of extracts increased with an increase in concentration which gave maximum mortality (100%) at "S" conc. of J.curcas at 48hrs., except with those of L.camara and C.citratus. At 12 hrs. exposure leave extracts of these previously plants gave maximum juveniles mortality C. citrates, J. curcas and L. camara in "S" conc., where 68%, 54.1% and 51.3% and 51.3%, respectively. Vydate L. 24% gave 100% mortality in both medium (1.2%) and high concentration (2.4%) at 72hrs exposure. In general, the extracts showed highly toxicity at the different exposure times. Key words: Aqueous extracts, Cymobopogon citrates, in vitro, Jatropha curcas, Lantana camara, Meloidogyne incognita, Mortality, Root-knot nematode.

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August 2007
5 Reads

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF Rhizoctonia solani, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF FABA BEAN ROOT-ROT AND STEM CANKER DISEASE

Minufiya J. Agric. Res. Vol. 32 (3) : 669-682.

*Molecular Bbiology Dept., ***Bioenformatics Dept. and ****Environmental biotech. Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Sadat City, Minoufiya Univ., EGYPT ** Plant Pathol

ABSTRACT Under green house conditions; Rhizoctonia solani caused damping-off and death of all Giza 3 Mohassan cv. Faba bean seelings. However, the tested biocontrol agents resulted good biocontrol of the pathogenic fungus and Trichoderma harzianum was the best one. Application of T. harzianum and Rhizoblium leguminosarum to the soil infested with R. solani showed significant increase in leaves number of faba bean plants compared with the untreated plants or which treated with. Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum after 40 days from sowing. Plant height and length were affected with the presence of the pathogenic fungus (R. solani) although the presence of the biocontrol agents. Application of T. harzianum and R. leguminosarum var. fabae gave the best result of plant growth while B.megaterium resulted the lowest plant height. The presence of the pathogenic fungus showed significant decrease in faba bean plants fresh and dry weight and also decreased the number of bacterial nodules on the roots. Application of R. leguminosarum resulted significant increase in the shoot and root total nitrogen content. Trichoderma harzianum increased the plant total nitrogen content by 4.7% while B. megaterium resulted total nitrogen content equal to that in the control. Combination of the three microorganisms increased the total nitrogen content by 23.7%. From the results of total protein analysis. It be concluded that R. solani + B. megaterium treatment gave the best result and showed 10 protein bands. R. solani + R. leguminosarum + B. megaterium+ T. harzianum treatment gave the worst result and showed 7 bands. Control, R. solani + R. leguminosarum and R. solani + T. harzianum showed 9,8 and 8 bands, respectively. Key words: Bacillus megaterium, Biological control, Damping-off, Faba bean, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizoctonia solani, Root-rot, Stem canker disease, SDS-PAGE, Trichoderma harzianum.

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June 2007
5 Reads

ROLE OF SOME PHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS ON THE GROWTH AND NITROGEN CONTENT OF FABA BEAN CULTIVARS

Minufiya J. Agric. Res. Vol. 32 (3) : 643-667.

*Molecular Biology Dept., ***Bioinformatics Dept. and ****Environmental biotech. Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Sadat City, Minoufiya Univ., EGYPT ** Plant Patholog

ABSTRACT Under green house conditions; Rhizobium leguminosarum var. viciae. Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Trichoderma harzianum were applied to non-sterilized soil; individually or in combination; at the rate of 3% of soil weight. Surface sterilized seeds of faba bean cultivars; Sakha 1, Giza 3 Mohassan and Giza 716 were planted. Tested treatments minimized the required time for seed germination and increased the percentage both of germinated seeds and survived plants. Growth characters; i.e., plant height, number of leaves, plant length plant fresh and dry weight of all tested cultivars were increased in response to the soil microorganisms application. Number of emerged flowers and formed bacterial nodules were positively responded by variable biofertilizer treatments. Significant increase of total nitrogen was observed in faba bean plants sown in treated pots in comparison with control. From the results of total protein analysis of Sakha 1 cv. Showed that R. leguminosarum + T. harzianum treatment gave the best result which showed 13 bands whereas B. megaterium gave the worst result which showed 8 bands. Giza 3 Mohassan showed that R. leguminosarum + B. megaterium + T. harizanum gave the best result and showed 12 bands whereas B. megaterium + T. harzianum gave the worst result and gave 7 bands. Giza 716 R. leguminosarum gave the best result and showed 11 bands whereas B. megaterium, R. leguminosarum + B. megaterium + T. harzianum and control gave the worst result and showed 7 bands for each of them. Key words: Bacillus megaterium, Biofertilizer, Faba bean, Growth characters, Nitrogen content, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Trichoderma harzianum, Biocontrol agents.

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June 2007
5 Reads

HIGH ROSMARINIC ACID CONTENT IN INDUCED MUTANTS AND IN in vitro ELICITED SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum L.) CALLUS

Asian Journal of Plant Science 6(7): 1058-1064.

Asian Journal of Plant Science

Seeds of Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and several mutants were selected upon morphological aberration. The spectrophotometric measurements showed that some mutants have 1.5 fold increase in the rosmarinic acid content comparing to the wild type. The in vitro shoot culture of mutants was established with fastest callus growth on MS media supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of 2,4-D and 0.25 mg L-1 of KIN. Addition of 5 g L-1 of yeast extract to the culture media led to increase the rosmarinic and content with 3.4 fold further. The soluble and insoluble leaf protein fraction of mutants were screened on SDS PAGE. The protein patterns demonstrate that the soluble proteins have a more stable pattern than the insoluble proteins. Key words: Callus, Gamma mutants, Induced mutants, In vitro elicitation, Ocimum basilicum L., Rosmarinic acid, SDS PAGE, Sweet basil.

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June 2007
5 Reads

ALTERNATION USING BACTERIAL SUPERNATANTS IN DATE PALM MICROPROPAGATION

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 32(3): 2195-2205.

***Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute , Menofyia University. **Dept of Agric Microbiol, Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ. *Central Lab. for Date Palm Res. and Development, Agric. Re

ABSTRACT The present investigation aimed to use phytophormones produced by some bacterial strains like Azospinillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae instead artificial hormones as a protocol in data palm micropropagation through somatic embryogenesis induced from shoot tip or leaf primordial explants, which was isolated from offshoot apex. In order totest the possibility to use supermatant o the strains, which are auxin over producers and/or cytokinin over producers in culture medium composition according to development stages for maximizing yield and to study the effect on each stage, i.e., callus initiation, embryo formation, shooting and rooting stages. In general, results showed that Klebsiella and Azotobacter have an auxin effect but Azospinillum and Bacillus were more related to cytokinin nature. Key words: Azospinillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium, Bacterial supernatants, Callus, Date palm, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micropropagation, Phytophormones, Shoot tip, somatic embryogenesis.

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March 2007
6 Reads

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF PALM PLANTLETS INDUCED IN VITRO

Egypt, J. Agric. Res., 84(4): 1265-1279.

*Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University **Central Laboratory of Date Palm Research and Development, ARC, Egypt

ABSTRACT The current investigation was carried out at the tissue culture Laboratory, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Sadat branch, Monofia Univ., during 2004-2005 seasons, aiming to explore the anatomical features of root and leaflets of 24 weeks old plantlets belong to three palm regulators cultivars namely, Gondila, Sewi and Zaghloul. The main obtained results were, all used growth regulators affected the internal structure of the studied anatomical traits to various extents. Average root damater was relatively differed according to the type of growth regulators. Ansymidol treatments seemed to be the most effective one. Such treatments scored the highest average of root diameter followed by Paclobutrazol, IBA and (NAA+BA) treatments. These increments in root diameter mainly referred to the appreciably increased in all tissues shared in root structure, specially cortex thickness and diameter of the vascular bundles. Cortex was relatively the thickest with Ansymidol treatment as compared with the other three growth regulators. While, no remarkable differences were found between IBA and NAA treatments. The three investigated cultivars showed the same response towards different growth regulators treatments with different extents. However, Gondila, showed the highest microscopic measurements and counts as compared with the other two cultivars. Leaf mesophyll thickness was greatly affected by growth regulators. Gondola leaflets always showed thicker sheath of vascular bundle as well as a considerable number of both large and small vascular bundles. Growth regulators in general affected the mean values of all anatomical features. These growth regulators could be ranked due to their reduction effects on the anatomical features of the three used date palm cultivars as, Ansymidol followed by Paciobutrazol and finally 2,4-D treatments. Key words: , Anatomical features, Ansymidol, BA, Date palm, Growth regulators, IBA, In vitro, Microscopic measurements, NAA, Plantlets, Paclobutrazol.

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November 2006
5 Reads

TOMATO RESPONSE TO STRESS AND ACTIVATION OF RESISTANCE GENES

Minufiya J. Agric., Res., Vol. 31, No. (5), 1119-1133.

Department of Plant Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Researches Institute (GEBRI), Sadat City, Menofiya University, Egypt, Minufiya J. Agric., Res., Vol. 31, No. (5), 1119-11

ABSTRACT Stresses like salicylic acid (SA) treatment or wounding were found to trigger defense machinery in Lycopersicon esculantum, Bonner besta cultivar, stresses induce the gene expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) and its accumulative proteins. The activation of AOX gene was detected after 45 min of wounding. 1-day after salicylic acid treatment and also in combination between the two treatments. Induction of AOX gene expression was found to be systemic since they detected in both wounded lower and unwounded upper leaves of tomato plants. Accumulation of AOX proteins was detected at about 30-31 KDa upon wound induction, salicylic acid treatment or the combination between them. However, AOX gene was found to contain no introns since the product of their genomic DNA amplification was the same that produced from RT-PCR of their isolated RNA, using the same set of specific primers. Tomato response to stress was accompanied with elevation of peroxidase level. Key words: Alternative oxidase (AOX), Gene activation, Genomic DNA, Lycopersicon esculantum, Peroxidase, RT-PCR , Salicylic acid ( SA), Stress, Tomato, Wounding.

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October 2006
6 Reads

PATHOGENESIS RELATED PROTEINS AS A MOLECULAR MARKER FOR SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN TOMATO

Minufiya J. Agric., Res., Vol. 31, No. (5), 1135-1149.

Department of Plant Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Researches Institute (GEBRI), Sadat City, Menofiya University, Egypt , Minufiya J. Agric., Res., Vol. 31, No. (5), 1135-

ABSTRACT Lycopersicon esculantum, Bonner besta cultivar is found to express pathogenesis related proteins (PRs) in response to wound through octadecanoids pathway. Since wounding of lower leaves induced a proteinase inhibitors (PIs) of 17 KDa after approximately one hour. Immunoblotting analysis points that PI induction is systematic, since PIs were detected in both wounded lower and unwounded upper leaves. Calmodulin gene (CaM) expression level is correlated to PIs expression and was found to be expressed after 0.45 min. CaM transcript was detected in both wounded lower and unwounded upper leaves on the same plant, suggesting incidence of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). CaM expression upon wounding was completely suppressed by exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment. In addition, SAR was correlated with the increment of hydrogen peroxide level and induction of new peroxidase isoforms. Key words: Calmodulin gene (CaM), Immunoblotting, Lycopersicon esculantum, Octadecanoids pathway, Pathogenesis related protein (PRs), Peroxidase isoforms, Proteinase inhibitors (PIs), Salicylic acid ( SA), Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), Wound.

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October 2006
5 Reads

Differential Displayed Tomf216 and LeExp2 genes Involved in Earliness and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants.

3rd International Symposium Horizon in Molecular Biology, Gottingen, Germany, 161-173.

3rd International Symposium Horizon in Molecular Biology, Gottingen, Germany, 161-173.

ABSTRACT A 740bp cDNA fragment isolated from tomato tissues with a molecular weight which might be related to auxin regulated gene "LeExp2" was induced by either indole-acetic acid (IAA) or drought treatment which stimulated both the growth rate and protein concentration in the three tomato genotypes; late flowering. Lycopersicon lycopersicum "Brandywine", early flowering Lycopersicon lycopersicum "Sweetie" and the wild type Lycopersicon esculentum "PI176631". PCR amplified genomic DNA fragment of 1000bp suggested that the tomato varieties Castle Rock and Super Strain B could be considered as growth nimiety varieties, while the other screened varieties could be considered as growth unanimity varieties. Drought treatment promoted the flowering in the three tomato genotypes. The cDNA fragment with about 750bp was PCR hunted with specific primers for the flower gene "Tomf216". Fragment with molecular weight of about 850bp which may related to Tomf216 gene was PCR amplified form the three tomato varieties, Castle Rock, peto 86 and Floradid compared with the same fragment which was isolated from tomato Lycopersicon esculentum "PI176631". This suggested that these tomato varieties are early flowering varieties, while Super Strain B and Edcawy are late flowering varieties. Key words: Auxin, cDNA, Differential display, Earliness, Early flowering, Genes, Growth enhancement, Indole-acetic acid (IAA), Late flowering, LeExp2, Lycopersicon lycopersicum, PCR, Tomato, tomf216,

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September 2006
6 Reads

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE PRODUCTION OF SOMATIC EMBRYOGENSIS AND SYNTHETIC SEEDS OF DATE PALM PART I: FEATURES OF LEAVES AND THEIR ULTRASTRUCTURAL SURFACE VARIATIONS

Bull. Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ. Vol.57(1): 97-106.

Bull. Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ. Vol.57(1): 97-106.

ABSTRACT Morphological leaf characters and its structural surface variations using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) on some cultivars of date palm were studied. SEM was mainly used to clarify the stomata variation patterns among the studied cultivars. These cultivars are; Gondeila, Sewi and Zaghloul. The study carried out on leaves obtained from in vitro plants that represent these cultivars. The morphological and SEM results indicated that Gondeila cultivar is more close to Sewi than to Zaghloul. Both earlier cultivars are similar to each other in most of the studied morphological characters. In addition, the similarity between both cultivars are also observed in most SEM features; e.g., stomatal pore length, stomatal system length, subsidiary (adjacent) cell length and width, distance between stomata at each row, distance between rows, number of cells between rows and epidermal cell length. The only obvious exception of SEM results was the stomata type, which was anisocytic in Gondeila and Sewi, while it was paracytic in Zaghloul. Key words: Date palm, SEM, Somatic embryogenesis, Synthetic seeds.

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January 2006
5 Reads

Nectarin IV, a potent endoglucanase inhibitor secreted into the nectar of ornamental tobacco plants. Isolation, cloning, and characterization.

Plant Physiol 2005 Nov 21;139(3):1389-400. Epub 2005 Oct 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IW 50011, USA.

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November 2005
5 Reads
18 Citations
6.840 Impact Factor

IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL DISPLAYED MOLECULES INVOLVED IN EARLINESS AND GROWTH ENHANCEMENT IN TOMATO PLANTS

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(11): 6585-6602.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(11): 6585-6602.

ABSTRACT Three tomato genotypes; late flowering Lycopersicon lycopersicum "Brandywine", early flowering Lycopersicon lycopersicum "Sweetie" and the wild type Lycopersicon esculentum "PI 176631", were used to study the effects of both indole acetic acid (IAA) and drought treatment on some morphological and biochemical characters. The results showed that, IAA treatment increased both the growth rate and protein concentration in the three tomato genotypes and stimulated a fragment of cDNA isolated from tomato leaf and stem tissues with a molecular weight of about 740 bp which might be related to auxin regulated gene "LeExp2". PCR amplified genomic DNA fragment of 1000bp suggested that the tomato varieties Castle Rock and Super Strain B could be considered as growth nimiety varieties, while the varieties Peto 86, Floradid and Edcawy could be considered as growth unanimity varieties. Drought treatment caused an increment in protein concentration promoted the flowering in the three tomato genotypes and stimulated the induction of mRNA isolated from tomato flowers on which a cDNA fragment of about 750bp was PCR hunted with specific primers for the flower gene "Tomf 216". Fragment with molecular weight of about 850bp which may be related to Tomf216 gene was PCR amplified from the three tomato varieties, Castle Rock, peto 86 and Floradid compared with the same fragment which was isolated from tomato Lycopersicon esculentum "PI176631". These results suggested that these tomato varieties could be considered as an early flowering varieties, while the tomato varieties Super Strain B and Edcawy could be considered as late flowering varieties. Key words: cDNA, Differential display, Drought, Earliness, Indole acetic acid (IAA), Genomic DNA, Genotypes, Growth, Lycopersicon esculentum, mRNA, PCR, Specific primers, Tomato.

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November 2005
5 Reads

Tobacco Nectarin IV is a specific inhibitor of fungal xylosidases secreted into the nectar of ornamental tobacco plants

Plant Physiol 139, 1389-1400

Plant Physiol 139, 1389-1400

We have isolated and characterized the Nectarin IV (NEC4) protein that accumulates in the nectar of ornamental tobacco plants (Nicotiana langsdorffii × Nicotiana sanderae var LxS8). This 60-kD protein has a blocked N terminus. Three tryptic peptides of the protein were isolated and sequenced using tandem mass spectroscopy. These unique peptides were found to be similar to the xyloglucan-specific fungal endoglucanase inhibitor protein (XEGIP) precursor in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and its homolog in potato (Solanum tuberosum). A pair of oligonucleotide primers was designed based on the potato and tomato sequences that were used to clone a 1,018-bp internal piece of nec4 cDNA from a stage 6 nectary cDNA library. The remaining portions of the cDNA were subsequently captured by 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Complete sequencing of the nec4 cDNA demonstrated that it belonged to a large family of homologous proteins from a wide variety of angiosperms. Related proteins include foliage proteins and seed storage proteins. Based upon conserved identity with the wheat (Triticum aestivum) xylanase inhibitor TAXI-1, we were able to develop a protein model that showed that NEC4 contains additional amino acid loops that are not found in TAXI-1 and that glycosylation sites are surface exposed. Both these loops and sites of glycosylation are on the opposite face of the NEC4 molecule from the site that interacts with fungal hemicellulases, as indicated by homology to TAXI-I. NEC4 also contains a region homologous to the TAXI-1 knottin domain; however, a deletion in this domain restructures the disulfide bridges of this domain, resulting in a pseudoknottin domain. Inhibition assays were performed to determine whether purified NEC4 was able to inhibit fungal endoglucanases and xylanases. These studies showed that NEC4 was a very effective inhibitor of a family GH12 xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase with a Ki of 0.35 nM. However, no inhibitory activity was observed against other family GH10 or GH11 xylanases. The patterns of expression of the NEC4 protein indicate that, while expressed in nectar at anthesis, it is most strongly expressed in the nectary gland after fertilization, indicating that inhibition of fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes may be more important after fertilization than before.

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October 2005
5 Reads

THE ASSOCIATION OF BOTANICAL TRAITS WITH MOLECULAR MARKERS USING INDUCED MUTANTS OF FABA BEAN

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(9): 5209-5229.

*Molecular Biology Department and ***Bioinformatics Dept.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menofiya University **Agric. Botany Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Minufiya Universi

ABSTRACT Twenty-four faba bean mutants were selected and treated with gamma rays doses of 30 and 60 Gy and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at conc.of 0.15 and 0.30%. The effect of mutagens was studied using a number of parameters, such as morphological growth characters, physiological parameters, flowering yield attributes and the genetic characterization of all protein and DNA molecular markers based on SDS-PAGE RAPD analysis. The data showed that the induced mutants by either gamma rays of EMS tended to have higher values in most growth characters and the maximum increase was achieved by the mutant lines No.7, 14, 24, 25, 18, 19 and 26. Mutant lines which were produced by (EMS) were more effective in increasing the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, Chl. B, carotenoids and total chlorophylls than that produced by gamma ray. Transpiration rate (TR) exceeded the control in all mutants produced by gamma radiation except for mutant line No.18. On the other hand, mutants No.5, 12, 20, 23, 24 and 25 which were produced by EMS also exceeded the control. Mutant lines produced by gamma rays were more effective than that produced by (EMS). As for shelling percentages, the mutant lines No.7, 8, 9, 21, 23 and 18 showed a significant increase while the mutant lines No.1, 4, 19, and 26 showed considerable lower values than the control. The increase in yield and yield components using physical and chemical mutagens was noticed. It was possible to associate the specific polymorphic DNA fragments of about 3000 bp and 200 bp in size which were generated by the random primers (A1, A5 and A3) for Gy or EMS mutants markers might be of great importance in future programs of Vicia faba plants breeding and selection for mutants, with both high yield and early flowering. Key words: Association, Botanical traits, carotenoids, EMS, Faba bean, Gamma rays, Growth characters, Induced mutants, Molecular markers, Photosynthetic pigments, RAPD, SDS-PAGE, Vicia faba, Yield.

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September 2005
5 Reads

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP, HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY IN SOME MAIZE LINES

. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3809-3826.

. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3809-3826.

ABSTRACT A half set of crosses among eight S4 inbred lines of yellow maize were evaluated in 2002 and 2003 seasons at the Agricultural Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Minufiya University to estimate, a) the relative magnitude of general and specific combining ability and their interactions with years, b) the heterotic effects and the economic heterosis relative to the check variety (S.c156). c) The genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationship among these lines and their hybrids. d) The correlation coefficients between genetic distance and each of heterosis, specific combining ability (S.C.A) and mean performance. The crosses (1x4), (6x7), (6x9), (1x3) and (3x4) were the best for grain yield and its components, and earliness; while crosses (7x9) and (8x9) were the best for plant height (towards shortness) and ear height (towards low ear placement). Significant differences for general combining ability (G.C.A.) mean squares were detected for grain yield/plot, ear length, and number of kernels/row. Meanwhile, non-significant differences were found for ear diameter, number of rows/ear, 100-kernel-weight, plant and ear heights, days to tasseling and days to silking. Specific combining ability mean squares exhibited significant differences for most studied traits except for plant and ear heights. Rations of k2 G.c.A/k2 S.C.A were less than unity for all the studied traits except plant and ear heights exhibited prevalent dominance gene effects. Generally, for grain yield/plot and some of its components, most sources of variations were highly significant including their interaction with years. Generally, the most desirable values of general combining ability effects (gi) were obtained from Pop59-4 for grain yield/plot, number of rows/ear and number of kernels/row, Pop59-6 for ear length and ear diameter; Pop59-8 for days to silking (towards lateness); and Pop59-3 (towards earliness). Crosses (1x4), (1x3), (1x5), (3x4), (3x5), (3x7), (4x9), (6x7) and (6x8) showed mean performances. (S.C.A.) and heterotic effects which may be of prime importance for breeding programs. The correlation coefficients between genetic distance between parents and heterosis, and per se hybrids performance exhibited positive significant correlation coefficients (0.43) and (0.41) for grain yield per plot and significant negative correlation coefficients (-0.41) and (-0.41) for days to tasseling. However, of the ten characters only ear length showed positive significant correlation coefficient (0.38) between the genetic distances between the parental genotypes of 28 hybrids and their SCA values. Generally, from these results it appeared that heterosis could not be considered as a function of genetic divergence and it is impossible to predict hybrid performance from genetic distance. Key words: Comblining bility, Dendrogram, Heterosis, Genetic distance, Maize, Yield characters, Phylogenetic.

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July 2005
5 Reads

EVALUATION OF COWPEA AND HYBRID GENOTYPES FOR HETEROSIS AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3773-3782.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3773-3782.

ABSTRACT Five parental genotypes of cowpea (Vigan sinensis L.), four F1's and their F2's were used to study their performance, heterotic effects, inbreeding depression and degree of dominance for eleven vegetative and yield characters. The mean values of the five parental, for F1's and F2's genotypes indicated that in VR4(P4), F1 (VR4xVR3) (P4xP3) and F2 (P4xP3), the genes controlling almost all the studied characters are expressed as increasing genes for these characters either as a parental genotypic background or in combination with P3(VR3) either in the F1 and the F2 of the cross (P4xP3). Moreover, the F1 (P4xP3) had the highest heterotic values over both the mid and the better-parent for pod weight, number of pods and seed weight per plant. In addition, the F2(P4xP3) had the highest mean values for eight characters out of eleven and had also a considerable high values for the other three characters. This F2(P4xP3) also showed negative and significant inbreeding depression for seven characters out of the eleven in relation to the mid-parental values. Significant degree of dominance values in nine characters out of the eleven were observed for both the F2(P4xP3) and F2(P6xP4). Meanwhile, each of F2 (P30xP4) and F2 (P30xP4) showed significant degree of dominance values in eight out of the eleven characters. These results strongly suggest that F1(P4xP3) would have the potential to be used in cowpea breeding programs. Key words: Cowpea, Dominance, the F1 and F2 cross, Heterosis, Hybrid genotypes, Inbreeding depression, Vigan sinensis L.

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July 2005
6 Reads

GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN RELATION TO HETEROSIS, COMBINING ABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF SOME MAIZE HYBRIDS

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3787-3807.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3787-3807.

ABSTRACT To estimates the genetic parameters for a local maize population (Zea mays L.). Half diallel cross mating design was used. The data showed the best crosses (M10xM11) and (M11xM18) for grain yield/plot; and (M10xM12) for plant height and days to tasseling: (M11xM16) for 100-kernel weight; (M15xM18) for number of rows/ear, number of kernels/row and 100-kernel weight; (M12xM16), (M13xM15) and (M14xM18) for plant height (towards shortness) and ear height (towards low ear placement); and the cross (M16xM18) for days to tasseling towards earliness and grain yield/plot. Generally, most studied traits showed significant differences for G.C.A. mean squares except, number of rows/ear and plant height at the two years and combined data. Highly significant specific combining ability (S.C.A) mean squares, were found for most studied traits. For crosses x years interaction mean squares show highly significant differences for most studied traits were found while for number of rows/ear, plant height, and days to tasseling non-significant differences were observed For G.C.A x years mean squares the data showed divided between the seven traits under study. For S.C.A x years mean squares, highly significant differences for most studied traits were found. The ratio between K2G.C.A/K2S.C.A., was found to be less than unity at the combined data for most studied traits except for days to tasseling indicating that, the dominance genetic variance controlled the behavior of most studied traits rather than the additive ones. Generally the best inbred line was M18 for ear diameter at the two growing years and the combined data, for 100-kernel-weight at the second year and combined data, and plant height (toward shortness) at the first year and combined data. The best crosses were (M11xM16) for 100-kernel-weight (M13xM15) for ear height (towards low ear placement) at the two years and combined data. The percentages of economic heterosis of F1 hybrids relative to the check variety (S.c155) were ranged from (1.60% to 33.66%) positive desirable values and from (-5.78%) to (-6.40%) negative desirable values at combined data. Heterosis could not be considered as a function of genetic divergence. Morever, genetic distance based on morpho-agronomical markers was not significant correlated with specific combining ability, heterosis and the mean performance. Hence, it is impossible to predict the hybrid performance from genetic distance itself. Key words: Combining ability, Divergence, Genetic, Heterosis, Maize hybrids, Morpho-agronomical markers, Zea mays.

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July 2005
5 Reads

Identification and Screening of Tompro2 CDNA in some Tomato Genotypes and the Morphophysiological and Yield Response to Salt Stress.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3707-3721.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(7): 3707-3721.

ABSTRACT For tomato genotypes were used in this investigation. They were the tolerant genotype of Lycopersicon pennellii, the sensitive genotype Lycopersicon esculentum and two Egyptian tomato cultivars, Strain B and Floradid. They were exposed to four salt concentrations (0.0, 4000, 8000 and 15000ppm) to identify the response of the morphological, physiological and yield traits. The biochemical and molecular analyses were also screened to identify tomPRO2 gene. Plant height, plant fresh weight and root dry matter showed high response to salt, and the L.pennellii was found to be the most tolerant genotype whereas, the wild genotype Lycopersicon esculentum seemed to be the most sensitive one. The proline content of the genotype Floradid showed the highest increment. The wild type showed the least increments in proline content. For yield response, L.pennillii showed the most tolerable, meanwhile wild type L. esculentum was the most sensitive one. Protein banding patterns screened after 3 days treatment, indicated the presence of a unique dark stained band only with genotype Strain B. After 33 days of treatment, a newly synthesized protein was observed under salt concentrations of 4000 and 8000 ppm. The cathodal peroxidase isozyme band C8 at R.F. 0.36 cm was suggested to be a biochemical marker for salinity tolerance. A unique acid phosphatase isozyme band A1 was also observed at 4000ppm salt Conc. A full length (~2145pb) tomPRO2 (P5CS) cDNA was amplified using RT-PCR from total RNA isolated from leaves of treated plants. The tomPRO2 gene was also screened and amplified from different tomato genotypes to test their tolerance to salinity which was found to present in some and absent in others. These results might be of great help to the tomato breeders in Egypt, which enable them to choose the best and tolerant genotypes to be involved in their breeding programs. Key words: Acid phosphatase, Morphological responses, Peroxidase, Proline, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, tomPRO2 gene, Salt stress, Tomato, and Yield response.

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July 2005
5 Reads

Graphical analysis of variance and covariance estimates of morphological, physiological and yield characters for some tomato genotypes.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(5): 2455-2476.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 30(5): 2455-2476.

ABSTRACT Six tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes were used to study the magnitude of gene effects and the distribution of both recessive and dominant genes controlling the morphological, physiological, quality and yield characters among the six tomato. These genotypes included the two isogenic lines 83 and 80, the commercial Sherry tomato and another three varieties namely, Super Marmand, Pretchard and Money Maker. Recessive genes were found to be higher in frequency than dominant ones in the parents for number of branches, number of leaves, dry stem weight, dry leaves weight per plant, titratable acidity, number of fruits per plant, plant growth rate and leaf area. However, more dominant genes were involved in controlling the rest of characters. Plant height and total fruits weight are controlled by the largest number of dominant gene groups, (14 and 15, respectively). Meanwhile, leaf area, carotenoids content, fruit shape index, pericarp thickness and ascorbic acid content were controlled by the least number of dominant gene groups. Number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area, dry stem weight, dry leaves weight and quality and yield characters had moderate to high heritability estimates except for total soluble solids, which had the least narrow-sense heritability estimate (0.14). Association type of gene distribution was observed for average fruit weight, carotenoids content, fruit shape index, number of locules and pericarp thickness. But non-random gene distribution of the dispersion type might be mainly controlling the characters of plant height, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry stem weight per plant, dry leaves weight, chlorophyll A content and total fruits weight per plant. Complementary type of interaction was observed among genes of the parents for leaf area and chlorophyll B content. A overestimation of the degree of dominance was observed for leaf area, plant growth rate and number of branches per plant. Meanwhile, underestimation of the degree of dominance was observed for plant. Meanwhile, underestimation of the degree of dominances was observed for pericarp thickness. Key words: Association, Covariance, Degree of dominance, Dispersion, Genes, Genotypes, Graphical analysis, Recessive, Variance, Yield

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May 2005
5 Reads

DENDROGRAM ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DISTANCE BASED ON QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS IN SOME PARENTAL AND HYBRID TOMATO GENOTYPES

Annals of Agric. Sc., Moshtohor, Vol.43(1): 229-246.

*Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menofiya University, Sadat City, Egypt **Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Cairo ***Agricultural Botany Dept., Fac

ABSTRACT Six tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes were used in this study to analyze the genetic divergence in the six tomato parental genotypes and their fifteen F1 hybrids. Non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis for either nine quantitative characters or isoenzyme banding patterns, was applied for obtaining dendrograms. The actual values of Euclidean genetic distances among the twenty-one tomato genotypes showed a wide range (from 64.2 to 3002.8). On the basis of relative dissimilarity of nine physiological, morphological, quality and yield characters, the twenty-one genotypes wee grouped into six clusters. The native discontinuous non-dissociating PAGE for three tissues of the twenty-one genotypes showed a total of 29 and 12 molecular forms for esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozymes, respectively. On the basis of esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme banding patterns from root, stem and leaves tissues, the Euclidean distances showed a range from (14) to (51). Based on the relative dissimilarity among the twenty-one genotypes they were grouped into four clusters. No parallelism was observed between the two clustering patterns, in spite of finding that most parents occupied only one cluster according to the variations in either isozymes molecular forms, or the quantitative characters. The study suggests that the most divergent genotype of the hybrid Pritchard x Mony Maker which occupied a separate cluster colud be considered a promising gene combination since it is characterized with the highest values of total fruit weight per plant, number of fruits per plan, plant height and stem and leaf dry weight. Key words: Biochemical markers, Dendrogram, Euclidean cluster analysis, Genetic distance, Genotypes, Isozyme, Lycopersicon esculentum, Malate dehydrogenase, Molecular forms, Native PAGE, Quantitative characters, Tomato.

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March 2005
5 Reads

EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE AND GENE ACTION OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS IN SOME LOCAL AND EXOTIC TOMATO GENOTYPES II. YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 32, No. (1), 109-124.

** Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo – Egypt * Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University *** Genetic Engineering and Biote

ABSTRACT Six tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes and their F1 hybrids, were used in the present work to study the genetic behavior of quality and yield characters and to obtain information about the relative magnitude of gene effects involved in the inheritance of these characters. This study was carried out in the Experimental Farm and the Biotechnology Lab., El-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station, during the winter seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003. Significant variances among all genotypes for all characters, indicated the presence of either additive or non-additive genetic variations among these genotypes. Aconsiderable portion of non additive genetic variation which due to allelic interaction are present in all genotypes for number of locules per fruit, fruit shape index total soluble solids and average fruit weight. Rest of the characters is characterized with minimum portion of variation due to dominance gene effects in relation to the whole non-additive genetic variation. However, considerable portion of non-allelic interaction was suggested to be involved in the non-additive gene effects controlling number of fruits per plant. Additive gene effects is important in controlling the fruit shape index, number of locules, pericarp thickness, ascorbic acid, average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant. Both additive and dominance gene effects are involved in controlling almost all characters. However, titratable acidity, total fruits weight, suggested to be mainly controlled by dominance gene effects. The presence of dominance with asymmetrical gene distribution in the parental genotypes, were observed for all quality and yield characters even for fruit shape index and average fruit weight. Estimates, of h2 indicate the existence of more positive genes controlling five out of the nine characters. Partial dominance due to dominance gene effects was assigned for fruit shape index, pericarp thickness ascorbic acid and average fruit weight. However, over dominance was found to control total soluble solids, titratable acidity, number of fruits per plant and total fruits weight per plant. Some sort of asymmetry (i  vi) at loci showing dominance was observed for almost all the characters. Key words: Additive, Asymmetrical gene distribution, Dominance, Gene action, Genotype, Loci, Lycopersicom esculentum, Morphological, Non-allelic interaction, Performance, Physiological, Quality, Quantitative, Tomato, Yield.

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January 2005
5 Reads

EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE AND GENE ACTION OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS IN SOME LOCAL AND EXOTIC TOMATO GENOTYPES I. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 32, No. (1), 93-107.

* Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University ** Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo – Egypt *** Genetic Engineering and Biotec

ABSTRACT Six tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes were used in the present work to study the genetic behavior of morphological and physiological characters and to obtained information from the crosses about relative magnitude of gene effect involved in the inheritance of these characters and the components of genetic variance and gene action in both parents and their F1 hybrids. this study was carried out in both the Experimental Farm and the Biotechnology Lab., El-Kassassein Horticulture Research Station, A.R.C, during the winter season 2001/2002 and 2002/2003. Significant variances among all genotypes indicated the presence of either additive or non-additive genetic variations for all these characters. The mean square values for the parents, the hybrids and the interaction between parents and hybrids showed highly significant and significant for almost all the studied characters. A considerable portion of non-additive genetic variation which due to allelic interaction are present in all genotypes for number of branches, number of leaves and leaf area. However, rest of the characters are characterized with minimum portion of variation due to dominance gene effects in relation to the whole non-additive genetic variation. However, considerable portion of non-allelic interaction was suggested to be involved in the non-additive gene effects controlling number of leaves par plant. Additive gene effects is important in controlling the number of branches per plant, leaf area and chlorophyll A. Almost all morphological and physiological, characters are largely-determined by genes with dominant effects, except for number of branches per plant which determined largely with additive gene effects and non-additive gene interaction. Both additive and dominance gene effects are involved in controlling almost all characters. However, dry leaves weight, number of leaves per plant, plant height, plant growth rate and chlorophyll B suggested to be mainly controlled by dominance gene effects. h2 estimates, which express the dominance effects, indicate the existence of more positive genes controlling all characters except leaf area and carotenoids content. Over-dominance was found to control all morphological and physiological characters. Some sort of asymmetry (i  vi) at loci showing dominance was observed for almost all the characters except for growth rate and chlorophyll A and B contents which had nearly equal proportions of both positive and negative genes controlling these characters. Key words: Additive, Allelic interaction, Dominance, Gene action – Lycopersicom esculentum – Morphological – Performance – Physiological – Quantitative – Tomato.

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January 2005
5 Reads

Heterosis and genetic distances among some parental and hybrid watermelon genotypes in relation to polygenic traits and biochemical markers

Zagazig J. Agric. Res., 31(6): 2681-2706. (Egypt)

Zagazig J. Agric. Res., 31(6): 2681-2706. (Egypt)

Guirgis, A.A.; Swidan, Suzan A.; Greish, S.M.; El-Fouly, A.H.M. and Badawy, W. W. 2004. Heterosis and genetic distances among some parental and hybrid Watermelon genotypes in relation to polygenic traits and biochemical markers.

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December 2004
5 Reads

PERFORMANCE AND NATURE OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE OF CUCUMIS MELO GENOTYPES AND THEIR F1 HYBRIDS IN RELATION TO POLYGENIC VARIATION AND ISOZYME POLYMORPHISM

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 31 No. (6), 2659-2679.

* Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt ** Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo – Egypt *** Agricultur

ABSTRACT Six Cucumis melo L., genotypes included two plant introductions of the North Center Regional Plant Introduction Station, Iowa State University, two Commercial American varieties and two Egyptian local varieties were used to carry out this study in the Experimental Farm and the Biotechnology Lab., el-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station during the seasons of 2001 and 2002. The genetic divergence among the six C. melo genotypes and their F1 hybrids based on the genetic distance revealed five clusters. The clusering pattern indicated that there was no relationship between the parental divergence and their hybrid performance. The local variety; Ismaillawi, constituted a single cluster and having divergent distance from the other genotypes. The association analysis revealed that plant height had significant and positive correlation coefficients either phenotypic and genotypic with plant growth rate, average fruit weight, fruit length and fruit width. Also, plant growth rate showed positive significant correlation with each of average fruit weight, fruit length and fruit width. Selection for elevated levels of these characters is likely to increase the average fruit weight and fruit yield. Variation in isozyme banding patterns for parental genotypes and their nine F1 hybrids showed that the genetic distance among parental genotypes were higher in both magnitude and range than those observed among their F1 hybrids indicating that each of these nine F1 hybrids had intermediate genetic background in relation to their corresponding parents. These results clearly indicate that there is no parallelism between the phylogenetic relationship based on polygenic characters and that based on biochemical markers. Keywords: Analysis, Cluster, Correlation, Cucumis Melo, Divergence, Esterase, Parental divergence, Phylogenetic, Glutamate dehydrogenase, Isozyme, Melate dehydrogenase, Polymorphism.

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November 2004
5 Reads

Regulation of pyrimidine metabolism in plants.

Front Biosci 2004 May 1;9:1611-25. Epub 2004 May 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.

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May 2004
8 Reads
8 Citations

IN VITRO TRANSLATED PROTEINS AND ISOESTERASES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO TOLERANCE TO NEMATODE INFECTION AND YIELD IN SOME PEA GENOTYPES

. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ, 28(4): 3013-3024.

. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ, 28(4): 3013-3024.

ABSTRACT Eight pea (Pisum sativum) parental genotypes were used to evaluate both developmental and yield characteristics. Seven of these genotypes were also used to study the association between in vitro translated proteins as molecular markers and the tolerance to root-knot nematode; Moloidogyne incognita. This study was achieved in the Experimental Farm at El-Kassasein Horticultural Research Station, during the seasons of 2001 and 2002. Horticultural evaluation over both seasons showed that Mammoth variety have the best performance over the other seven pea genotypes for all developmental, yield and quality characters. Meanwhile Arica is characterized with least performance for pod quality. Meloidogyne incognita inoculation to roots of seven out of the eight pea varieties, showed that Mammoth variety followed by Jerbo are characterized with high degree of nematode resistance having the least reproduction factors of nematode in soil; 0.3 and 0.6, respectively. Meanwhile, Little Marvel variety showed to be the most susceptible one for root-knot nematode. In vitro translated proteins using mRNAs of root of the nematode-infected varieties, clearly demonstrated strong association between these expressed proteins and the resistance in the seven pea varieties. Among all the In vitro translated proteins, seven out of the nine protein bands, which had molecular weight ranged from 126KDa to 12KDa, were found to be differentially expressed in nematode inoculated root tissues of the resistant variety; Mammoth, while none of them was expressed in the susceptible variety Little Marvel (P7). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients showed significant values between the presence of the nine protein bands, and either the number of galls per root or the egg mass index, 0.96 and 0.89, respectively. The result suggests that triple esterase isozymes could also be used as a molecular marker in root tissue of M.incognita resistant cultivars. These isozymes might be involved in catalyzing the deposition of suberin in the cell wall in resistant tissues. Key words: Genotypes, in vitro translated proteins, Isoesterases, isozymes, mRNA, Meloidogyne incognita, Molecular markers, Pea, Pisum sativum, Root-knot nematode Spearman's rank correlation, Susceptible, Tolerance, Yield.

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April 2003
5 Reads

DIFFERENTIAL IN VITRO TRANSLATED PROTEINS AND ISOSTERASES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO TOLERANCE TO NEMATODE INFECTION AND YIELD IN SOME PEA GENOTYPES

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 28(4): 3024-3024.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Inst., Menofiya Univ., Egypt *Horticultural Crops Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Centre, Egypt **Plant Pathology Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Centre, Egypt

ABSTRACT Eight pea (Pisum sativum) parental genotypes were used to evaluate both developmental and yield characteristics. Seven of these genotypes were also used to study the association between in vitro translated proteins as molecular markers and the tolerance to root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne incognita. This study was achieved in the Experimental Farm at El-Kassasein Horticultural Research Station, during the seasons of 2001 and 2002. Horticultural evaluation over both seasons showed that Mammoth variety have the best performance over the other seven pea genotypes for all developmental, yield and quality characters. Meanwhile Arica is characterized with least performance for pod quality. Melodogyne incognita inoculation to roots of seven out of the eight pea varieties, showed that Mammoth variety followed by Jerbo are characterized with high degree of nematode resistance having the least reproduction factors of nematode in soil; 0.3 and 0.6, respectively. Meanwhile, Little Marvel variety showed to be the most susceptible one for root-knot nematode. In vitro translated proteins using mRNAs of root of the nematode-infected varieties, clearly demonstrated strong association between these expressed proteins and the resistance in the seven pea varieties. Among all the in vitro translated proteins, seven out of the nine protein bands, which had molecular weights ranged from 126KDa to 12KDa, were found to be differentially expressed in nematode inoculated root tissues of the resistant variety; Mammoth, while none of them was expressed in the susceptible variety Little Marvel (P7). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients showed significant values between the presence of the nine protein bands, and either the number of galls per root or the egg mass index, 0.96 and 0.89, respectively. The result suggests that triple esterase isozymes could also be used as a molecular marker in root tissue of M.incognita resistant cultivars. These isozymes might be involved in catalyzing the deposition of suberin in the cell wall in resistant tissues. Keywords: In Vitro translation proteins, Isosterases, Genotypes, mRNA, Melodogyne incognita, Nematode infection, Pea, Pisum sativum, Root-knot, Spearman's rank correlation, Tolerance, Yield.

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April 2003
5 Reads

MICROSATELLITE, RAPD AND CODOMINANT MARKERS IN RELATION TO SELECTION IN Pisum sativum L.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(9): 5669-5688.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(9): 5669-5688.

ABSTRACT Two F2 pea populations raised from the crosses Ambassador x Hunter and Little Marvel x Mammoth were used to evaluate some quantitative traits in both populations and to test the relationship between high-and low-yield selected individual plants and three different molecular markers. Range and average values for number of pods and weight of pods per plant and per feddan over the twenty-four plants were observed to be higher in the base population of the F2 "Ambassador (P1) x Hunter (P2)" than those of the F2 "Little Marvel (P3) x Mammoth (P4)". Higher average values of positive selection for yield traits in the F2 (P1xP2) depended mainly on the positive selection for number of pods, number of leaves, number of branches and pods weight per plant. The results suggest that number and weight of pods per plant showed to be the most direct yield-contributing traits, while, number of branches and number of leaves per plant were of positive indirect effect on yield. RAPD markers showed higher average number of amplification fragments in high-yield selected pea plants than in low-yield ones in both F2 populations. A RAPD fragment with approximate size of 700 bp which were found in all samples of the high-yield F2 (P1xP2) and were absent from those of the low-yield F2(P3xP4) suggesting that this fragment might flank one of the genes affecting such high yield traits in all individuals of the F2 (P1xP2). This fragment could successfully help in pea marker aided selection (MAS) programs. The complementary simple sequence repeats (SSRs) AC/GT loci were found by far to be more common in genomic DNA of pea plants of both F2 populations than AG/CT SSR loci. Both single and complementary microsatellite primers showed either single banding pattern or low level of variability over both F2 populations. Moreover, the results indicated that the presence of the allele expression of the esterase isozymes loci Est10D and Est9 in root tissues were found to be associated with the high-yield of the selected pea plants both F2 populations. The total absence of Est9 expression, from root tissues, was found to be prominent in low-yield selected plants in both the F2 pea populations. Key words: Codominant Markers, Esterase, Isozymes, MAS, Microsatellite, Molecular forms, Molecular markers, Pisum sativum, RAPD markers, Selection, SSR loci.

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September 2000
5 Reads

MICROSATELLITE, RAPD AND CODOMINANT MARKERS IN RELATION TO SELECTION IN Pisum sativum L.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(9): 5671-5690.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(9): 5671-5690.

ABSTRACT Two F2 pea populations raised from the crosses Ambassador x Hunter and Little Marvel x Mammoth were used to evaluate some quantitative traits in both populations and to test the relationship between high-and low-yield selected individual plants and three different molecular markers. Range and average values for number of pods and weight of pods per plant and per feddan over the twenty-four plants were observed to be higher in the base population of the F2 "Ambassador (P1) x Hunter (P2)" than those of the F2 "Little Marvel (P3) x Mammoth (P4)". Higher average values of positive selection for yield traits in the F2(P1xP2) depended mainly on the positive selection for number of pods, number of leaves, number of branches and pods weight per plant. The results suggest that number and weight of pods per plant showed to be the most direct yield-contributing traits, while, number of branches and number of leaves per plant were of positive indirect effect on yield. RAPD markers showed higher average number of amplification fragments in high-yield selected pea plants than in low-yield ones in both F2 populations. A RAPD fragment with approximate size of 700 bp which were found in all samples of the high-yield F2(P1xP2) and were absent from those of the low-yield F2(P3xP4) suggesting that this fragment might flank one of the genes affecting such high yield traits in all individuals of the F2 (P1xP2). This fragment could successfully help in pea marker aided selection (MAS) programs. The complementary simple sequence repeats (SSRs) AC/GT loci were found by far to be more common in genomic DNA of pea plants of both F2 populations than AG/CT SSR loci. Both single and complementary microsatellite primers showed either single banding pattern or low level of variability over both F2 populations. Moreover, the results indicated that the presence of the allele expression of the esterase isozymes loci Est10D and Est9 in root tissues were found to be associated with the high-yield of the selected pea plants of both F2 populations. The total absence of Est9 expression, from root tissues, was found to be prominent in low-yield selected plants in both the F2 pea populations. Key words: Codominant Markers, Esterase, Isozymes, MAS, Microsatellite, Molecular forms, Molecular markers, Pisum sativum, RAPD markers, Selection, SSR loci.

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September 2000
5 Reads

Genetic Identity of Malate Dehydrogenase and Esterase Molecular Forms in F2 Populations of Crosses with Common Parents in Relation to Performance in Pea.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(7): 4193-4211.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(7): 4193-4211.

ABSTRACT Eight F2 pea populations raised from both the four F1 crosses with common male parent "Ambassador" and the other four F1 crosses with the same parent genetic identities and their performance, inbreeding depression and dominanace. Both esterase and malate dehydrogenase molecular forms were screened in four different tissues in these F2 populations. Genetics identity estimates, based on allelic frequencies in loci controlling the molecular forms of either esterase or malate dehydrogenase molecular forms were screened in four different tissues in these F2 populations. Genetic identify estimates, based on allelic frequencies in loci controlling the molecular forms of either esterase or malate dehydrogenase, were almost lower in their values but wider in their ranges among F2 populations, which were raised from F1 crosses with common male parent than those for F2 populations which were raised from crosses with common female parent. The results demonstrate the presence of more differences in the allelic frequencies of loci controlling the molecular forms of both enzymes in these populations. Spearman's correlation coefficients between ranks of performance of fifteen quantitative characters in the eight F2 populations showed lower range of associations among F2 populations of F1's with common female than among those of F1's with common male parent. The lower mean values over most characters of F2 populations of F1's with common female parent, suggest the presence of either more association of decreasing genes or higher degree of gene dispersion with caused a reduction of the phenotypic value in most of these characters. Both the low identity values and negative ID estimates in the F2 populations of F1's with common male parent, strongly suggest that the F2 population of the F1 cross "Ambassador x Hunter" could be successfully used for individual selection of raising a new promising pea variety. Key words: Esterase, Genetic identity, Inbreeding depression, Isozymes, Malate dehydrogenase, Molecular forms, Pisum sativum, Polymorphism.

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July 2000
5 Reads

Differential Display of In Vitro Translation and Subtractive Enriched cDNA for mRNAs from Greated and Ungrafted F1 Melon Hyprid on Lagenaria siceria Rootstocks.

Authors:
Guirgis A.A.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(4): 2019-2033.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(4): 2019-2033.

ABSTRACT The four grafted melon genotypes; Ismaillawi, Ananas El-Dokki, PI 124111 and the F1 (Ismaillawi PI124111), on Lagenaria siceraria rootstocks were found to have higher mean values of all studied developmental characters than the respective values of ungrafted genotypes. The differential characters than the respective values of ungrafted genotypes. The differential increase in developmental characters in different scion genotypes revealed that the PI124111 followed by the F1 (Ismaillawi x PI124111) were the best combination with this rootstock under irrigation conditions using under-ground water of EC 1.7 m.mhos. In vitro translated mRNAs isolated from leaves of dark-treated grafted and ungrafted melon genotypes on Lagenaria siceraria rootstock, showed that after one week of grafting date, mRNa samples of F1 (Ismaillawi x PI 124111) expressed two more protein bands (108.4 and 41.7KD) than those of ungrafted plants. After two weeks of grafting date, mRNAs of leaves of dark-treated grafted F1 plants showed to have the transcript of additional third protein band with a molecular weight of 67KD which was also found to be absent of in vitro translated mRNAs of respective ungrafted plants. The differential display of in vitro translated mRNAs of roots and leaves of both scion and rootstock of dark-untreated plants showed that the two unique protein bands (108.6, 42KD) which were also appeared in L.siceraria roots found in the in vitro translated mRNA samples of leaves of F1 melon scion grafted on L.siceraria rootstock. The results suggest that both the two transcripts of mRNAs either might be migrated from the roots of L.siceraria rootstock to scion leaves or stimulated to be transcribed in scion leaves as a response of signals originated in roots of the rootstock. Positive subtractive enriched cDNA fragment, after two rounds of PCR amplification, was observed with a size of about 200bp which will be used as a probe for fishing a complete cDNA involved in enhancing the developmental characters of grafter melon plants on L.siceraria rootstocks. Key words: cDNA, Cucumis melo, Grafting, in vitro translation, Lagenaria siceraria; mRNA, PCR, Salinity, Subtractive enrichment, Suppressive subtraction hybridization , SSH, Stress.

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April 2000
5 Reads

Woud-Induced Molecular Alterations and its Relationship to Peroxidase Isozymes of Fungal-Infected Melon Generations.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(4): 2004-2018.

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(4): 2004-2018.

ABSTRACT A transitory inhibition of either Prx1 locus or its functional protein was observed in parental, F1 and F2 melon generations as a result to fungal infection with Pseudoperonospora cubensis. This locus was found to be activated again in leaf tissues of all generations either 48 hours after fungal elicitation or transcriptionally stimulated by unknown elicitors induced through 2 hours of wound treatment. Rapid increase in peroxidase isozymes intensity after 24 hour of fungal inoculation was observed for resistant melon genotypes especially, P1; P1 140471, F1; P1 x P5 and P2; P1 124111. Similar increments in isoperoxidase activity in resistant genotypes after 2 hours of wounding suggesting stimulation of the transcription level of all leaf isoperoxidases specially the four-banded Prx2 locus. Meanwhile, the susceptible genotypes; P3; Honey dew and P5; Ismaillawi did not show rapid changes in peroxidase isozymes. Positive Spearman rank correlation coefficients were observed between Downey mildew resistance and the highest isoperoxidase activity scores over all melon generation; 0.73 and 0.55, at 72 and 24 hours after fungal infection, respectively. The time course of wound induction of peroxidase activity suggests the inducibility of fungal resistance in leaf tissues by wound treatment. The results also suggest an indirect role for Prx1 locus in inducing not only intermediate compounds, but also in stimulating transcription of genes involved in the plant defence system. Key words: Cucumis melo, Genotypes, Germplasm, Isozymes, Peroxidase, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Wound.

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April 2000
5 Reads

EVALUATION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY AND THE NATURE OF GENE ACTION IN PEA II. DEVELOPMENTAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25(3): 1731-1744.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute., Menoufiya University *Agricultural Botany Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University **Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Agr

ABSTRACT Six pea (Pisum salivum L.) varieties, fifteen F1 hybrids and their reciprocals were used in this study as a source of variations to detect the performance and evaluate the variability and genetic architecture of some developmental and physiological characters during the seasons of 1997/98 and 1998/99. All the studied characters are largely determined by genes with dominant effects and to some extent by genes with additive effects except stem length and DNA content which were found to be determined by both types of gene effects. Dominance with asymmetrical gene distribution is suggested to be present in the parental genotypes for number of leaves and number of branches per plant, stem, and leaves and weight and RNA content. Dominant factors are responsible for determining the low expression of stem length while these dominant factors are found to be responsible for the high values of stem and leaves dry weight, DNA and RNA content. Meanwhile, ambidirectional dominance is suggested for both number of leaves and number of branches per plant. Non-independence of gene distribution among parents is observed for stem length, number of leaves and number of branches per plant, stem and leaves dry weight. In addition, non-allelic interaction of the complementary type is suggested for all the studied characters except for stem length. A close association of dominance with high values was observed in Mammoth and Africa for both stem and leaves dry weight and in Mammoth, Little Marvel and Hunter for RNA and DNA contents. Key words: Additive, Ambidirectional dominance, Asymmetrical gene distribution Correlated gene distribution. Developmental characters, Dominance, Gene Action, Genetic variability, Pisum sativum, Pea.

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March 2000
6 Reads

USING GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR DETECTING ISOPEROXIDASE POLYMORPHISM AND GENE ACTION IN Cucum sativus L.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 27 No. (2), 475-486.

Agric Botany Dept., Genetics, Faculty of Agric., Zagazig University * Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Res. Inst. Menoufiya University ** Horticultural Crops Research Inst., Agric. Res. Center,

ABSTRACT The genetic variability in six parental cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) populations, fourteen F1 hybrids and their reciprocals were used in this study the polymorphism of peroxidase molecular forms in two different tissues of the cucumber plant while four of the six varieties used as lines and two as testers with only eight of the fourteen F1 hybrids were used in a line-tester analysis to study the nature of gene action in some developmental characters. A total of eight peroxidase molecular forms were observed in the electrophoretic banding patterns of both mature and cotyledonary leaves in the six parental populations and their fourteen derived F1 generation. These eight molecular forms could be assigned to three loci; Prx2, Prx3 and Prx4. Multiple allelism was observed for the two loci Prx3 and Prx4 which were found to be controlled by fast (F), slow (S) and null (N) alleles. Moreover, each of the alleles controlling the Prx2 locus was found to control more than one polypeptide; peroxidase molecular form. The variances due to SCA were higher than that of GCA showing the superiority of dominance type of gene action for all the studied charactes except for number of knobs per plant. The parental genotype Yomaki had the hiehst GCA for almost all developmental characters except for sex ratio and growth rate. Estimates of SCA suggest that no one of the eight cross could be considered as the best combiner, for all the studied developmental characters. Key words: Cucumber, Cucum sativus L., Electrophoretic banding pattern, F1 hybrids, GCA, Gene action, Genetic variability, Isoperoxidase, Locus, Multiple allelism, Null alleles, Polymorphism, SCA.

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March 2000
5 Reads

RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA AND PROTEIN MARKER ANALYSIS FOR GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CUCUMIS

Authors:
Guirgis A.A.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 27 (2), 501-516.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 27 (2), 501-516.

ABSTRACT Twenty-one genotypes of two Cucumis species, used in this study, were represented by one F1 hybrid and nineteen melon (C. melo L.) genotypes and one genotype of cucumber (C. sativus L.). Their genomic DNA's were used as templates in RAPD-PCR reactions using ten decamer primers to detect dominant molecular markers expressing the genetic variability among these genotypes on the DNA level. Also, SDS-PAGE was used to detect the protein markers appeared in soluble proteins or seeds of these genotypes. Only seven out of the ten primers were reproducible. A total of 97 polymorphic fragments could be identified. The average number of polymorphic fragments per primer was 4.8 among the 21 genotypes with size ranged from 0.2 to 3 kbp. However, a 64.9% of the amplified fragments were common in two or more of the twenty-one Cucumis genotypes. Primer OPF-2 produced polymorphic amplicons that could almost distinguish most of the genotypes. Similarity coefficients among genotypes had wider ranges for RAPD markers (0.04-0.72) than those for protein ones (0.58-1.0). The dendrogram based on RAPD markers grouped the Egyptian and exotic melon germplasm and the C. sativus genotypes into three major groups and five sub-groups, suggesting the great diversity available in the Egyptian melon germplasm. The F1 melon hybrid (P.I. 140471 X Ismaillawi) was located in different cluster but in the same sub-group with its parental genotypes. RAPD loci generated-clusters found to match its dendrogram showing the ability of RAPD analysis in increasing the resolution of genetic differences among Cucumis genotypes. The study suggests that disparity between both RAPD and protein marker analyses systems might be related to the amount of genome coverage characteristic of a particular marker system in Cucumis species and its efficiency in sampling variation. Key words: Cucumis, cucumber, C. sativus L., Dendrogram, Dominant molecular marker, Genetic diversity, Genotypes, Germplasm, Melon, Polymorphic, Protein marker, Random amplified polymorphic DNA ''RAPD", RAPD-PCR, SDS-PAGE, Similarity coefficients.

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March 2000
5 Reads

MALATE DEHYDROGENASE AND ESTERASE ISOZYME LOCI AND ALLELES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH AND LOW VALUES OF SOME QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN F2 GENERATIONS OF PEA

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 27, No. (1), 115 – 133.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt * Horticulture Crops Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre ** Genetics Department, Faculty o

ABSTRACT Two F2 pea populations raised from the cross Africa X Ambassador and Ambassador X Little Marvel were used in this study to detect the genetic loci of multiple molecular forms of both malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) and esterase (Est) and the allelic richness, allelic frequency and their relationship to some developmental and yield characters. The direct genetic differences expressed by electrophoretic variation in four tissues of both F2 generations showed a total of 14 and 31 molecular forms which could be assigned, according to segregated phenotypes, to 6 Mdh and 18 Est loci, respectively. Low variations in Mdh loci over all tissues were observed in both F2 generations. The allelic richness value over the 18 isoesterase loci was 2.78. Multiple allelism were observed in 9 out of the 18 loci. Two loci had 5 alleles for each. One locus had four alleles and 6 loci had 3 alleles for each locus. Higher heterozygosity estimates were found to be parallel to higher ranges between the averages of all characters for F2 generation of the cross Arica x Ambassador and exceeded those of ambassador X Little Marvel. The highest values of yield, in segregants of F2 Arica X Ambassador, were observed to be associated with the presence of the allele expression of Est10B and/or Est10C in root tissues. The allele expression of Est9A, Est9C, Est10B and Est10D in root tissues was found to be associated with the highest values of yield per plant in F2 segregated plants of the cross ambassador X Little Marvel. Absence or null allele expression in both Est9 and Est10 loci of root tissues, in F2 generations of both crosses, was observed in individual with the lowest values of both number and weight of pods per plant. These molecular forms and alleles which were found to be associated with low and high yield in pea would be of great value in breeding programs and could provide a useful means in distinguishing between high and low-yielding genotypes. Key words: Allelic frequency, Allelic richness, Esterase, F2 generations, Heterozygosity, Isozyme, Loci, Low-yielding genotypes, Malate dehydrogenase, Mdh loci, Pea, Phenotypes, Quantitative traits.

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January 2000
5 Reads

ISOESTERASES EXPRESSION, DIVERSITY INDEX AND NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT IN RELATION TO HETEROSIS OF SOME PROMISING PEA HYBRIDS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 26, No. (6), 1565-1582.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya University * Horticulture Crops Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 26, No.

ABSTRACT Heterosis is throught to be related to the genetic diversity among the parents. Differences in the esterase molecular forms in each of root, stem, leaf and seed tissues were used to calculate the diversity index (D.I.) among parental genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum). Hybrid combination having higher D.I.'s exceeded the mean values of the ten hybrids. the D.I. values suggest that both crosses Ambassador X Hunter (P3xP2) and Mammoth X Ambassador (P4xP3) are the best combinations. According to esterase zymograms in different tissues of parental and F1 genotypes, a total of 25 non-specific esterase molecular form were detected in native, non-dissociating polyacrylamide gels. Of these 25 isoesterases, a total of 23, 17, 14 and 11 anodal molecular forms were found to be expressed in seed, leaf, root and stem tissues, respectively. The two high-yielding pea hybrids; Ambassador X Hunter (P3XP2) and Mammoth X Ambassador (P4xP3) had the highest content of RNA and considerable higher values of DNA content in their fourth leaf cells. The study also showed that the more the RNA content in leaf cells the high performance of number of leaves, number of branches per plant, number of seeds and seeds weight per pod this pea genotype has. The highest significant positive heterosis over both mid-and better-parental values for stem dry weight, number of pods per plant and pods weight per plant was observed for the F1 hybrid P3xP2 that also had significant high RNA content. Significant positive heterosis for growth rate in the hybrid P4xP3 was accompanied with the highest significant one for RNA content. The results suggest that the nucleic acid content, of the fourth leaf in the pea plant might be successfully used for selecting high heterotic pea genotypes. Enzymatic D.I. values of the high performing F1 hybrids were higher than those of low performing ones over the fifteen characters. The study strongly suggests the possibility of using the enzymatic diversity index as a general tool in pea breeding programs for predicting the parental pairs of high performing hybrids prior to actual field experiments. Key words: Diversity index, Electrophoresis, Esterase, Heterosis, Hybrid, Genetic diversity Isozymes, Molecular forms, Nucleic acid content, Pea, Pisum sativum, Polymorphism, RNA content, Zymogram.

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November 1999
5 Reads

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION AND MULTIPLE ALLELISM CONTROLLING THE MOLECULAR FORMS OF ESTERASE LOCI IN CUCUMIS MELO

Annals of Agric., Sci., Moshtohor, Vol.37(2): 1109-1123.

*Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya Univ. Sadat City, Egypt **Agric. Botany Dept., Fac. of Agric., Suez Canal Univ. *Horticultural Crops Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center

ABSTRACT Isoesterase electrophoretic banding patterns were screened either in four tissues of six out of seven melon germplasm or in foliar leaves of parental F1 and F2 generations of three crosses. Zymograms showed a total of nineteen anodal molecular forms which could be assigned to thirteen loci. Nine of these loci are found to be monomorphic at the level of their expression but eleven of them were polymorphic at the level of their allelic frequencies. The codominant relationship between alleles controlling each of the thirteen loci is demonstrated through parental, F1 and F2 phenotypes. Tissue specificity and differential expression of isoesterases is suggested by the complete absence; N alleles, of almost all the esterase loci in different tissues during the whole ontogeny of the melon plant. The tissue differential expression of almost all loci and the phenotypic banding patterns in F2 generations showed that nine esterase loci are controlled by two alleles; the presence (+) versus absence or null allele (N). The Est2 locus is found to be controlled by the two alleles Est2A and Est2B. Multiple allelism is demonstrated in the three loci; Est5, Est9 and Est13. These loci, also showed a considerable level of polymorphism in their allelic frequencies of F2 generations. Fast(F), slow(s) and null(N) alleles were found to control the expression of each of the two loci; Est9 and Est13. Five alleles, involving the null allele, are sharing the control of the phenotypic expression of the Est5 locus. Heterogeneity of allelic frequencies in, almost, all esterase loci among F2 generations indicated the presence of considerable diverse genetic backgrounds in the parental genotypes. The study suggests that the multiple molecular forms of esterase isozymes may successfully used as markers in melon improving programs. Key words: Allele frequency, Banding pattern, Codominant, Cucumis melo, Differential expression, Electrophoresis, Esterase loci, F2 generations, Melon germplasm, Molecular forms, Monomorphic loci, Multiple allelism, Null allele, Polymorphism, Zymogram.

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June 1999
5 Reads

GRAPHICAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS IN DIALLEL CROSSES OF WATERMELON

Annals of Agric., Sci., Moshtohor, Vol.36(4): 2147-2163.

*Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya University **Genetics Dept., Faculty of Agric., Zagazig Univ. *Horticultural Crops Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Cairo, Egypt

ABSTRACT A diallel crosses for four parents and all possible of twelve hybrids of watermelon Citrullus lamatus (Thumb.) Mansf, were evaluated in the experimental farm of El-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station during the season of 1998. Both graphical and numerical methods of analysis were followed to get an indication of the genetic make up of the four parents involved in this study. Overdominance characterized the action of genes that control all the characters studied except stem dry weight, fruit shape index, average fruit weight and total yield per plant which showed partial dominance and nearly complete dominance for total soluble solids. All the characters studied were found to be determined by genes with dominance effects and to some extent by genes with additive effects except for total soluble solids that was found to be controlled mainly by additive gene effects, suggesting that hybridization or hybridization followed by reciprocal recurrent selection would be of great value in improving these characters. The epistasis, probably of complementary type, was found in all the characters except for total soluble solids, where additive gene effect without any genic interaction was observed. The standardized deviations of the order of dominance and the parental measurements and the nature of their relationships suggest a tendency for high values of fresh and dry weight of leaves, fruit shape index and average fruit weight to be associated with recessiveness while high values of the other six characters were found to be associated with dominance. Non-randomness of gene distributions among the parents was demonstrated through the presence of correlated genes of the dispersion type which were observed for stem dry weight, fruit shape index, average fruit weight and total yield per plant. Key words: Additive, Epistasis, Citrullus lamatus, Diallel Crosses, Genic interaction, Graphical analysis, Hybrids, Numerical analysis, Overdominance, Partial dominance, Quantitative characters, Watermelon.

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December 1998
5 Reads

MOLECULAR POLYMORPHISM OF ESTERASE ISOZYMES IN MELON GENERATIONS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO FUNGAL INFECTION AND WOUNDING

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 25, No. (6), 991-1004.

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufiya University * Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University ** Horticulture Crops Research Institute,

ABSTRACT Eleven melon (Cucumis melo L.) populations represented by five parents, three F1's and their F2 generations were used to study the molecular polymorphism of esterase isozymes and their response to both wound and fungal infection. Zymograms of esterase molecular forms were obtained using the non dissociating PAGE technique applied in the Biotechnology Lab., El-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station, A.R.C. Appearance and disappearance of leaf isoesterases after infection with Pseudoperonospora cubensis suggest that either increasing and suppressing transcription levels or different rates of synthesis and degradation of these isozymes are observed after infection of either susceptible and resistant melon genotypes. This suggests that fungal infection might stimulate the induction of many elicitors, thereby affecting the regulation mechanism of isoesterase loci, causing a transitory inhibition of some molecular forms. Transient decrease in the expression of most isoesterases was observed shortly after wound treatment; 2-6 hours, in comparison with that of unwounded leaf tissues. Most of their activities were considerably increased again at 24 hours after wounding. Similar trend of rapid inhibition of isoesterases and the subsequent increase of transcription levels was demonstrated as a result to either treatments of fungal inoculation or wounding. The results, also, suggest that the esterase molecular form at 5.1 cm anodal to the origin, which appeared, shortly after treatment in all generations of the three crosses, is mainly involved in wound inducing systemic resistance and in stimulation the defense reactions in plant tissues. Key words: Crosses, Cucumis melo L., Fungal Infection, Generations, Isoesterase, Isozymes, Melon, Molecular forms, Molecular polymorphism, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Resistant, Susceptible, Wounding.

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November 1998
5 Reads

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY, IDENTITY, GENETIC DISTANCE AND HETEROZYGOSITY IN CUCUMBER POPULATIONS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23, No. (5), 763-772.

Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt * Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23, No. (5), 763-772.

ABSTRACT Three parental populations of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), two F1 hybrids and their F2 generations were used in this study. Both peroxidase and esterase isozymes allelic frequencies in different tissues of the seven populations were used to calculate the genetic identity, distance, gene diversity and average heterozygosity in these populations. Zymograms of both isozymes were obtained using non-dissociating PAGE technique applied in the Biotech Lab., El-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station. The least genetic identity values were found between P1 and F1 (3x2), P2 and F1 (1x3) and P1 and F2 (3x2) according to peroxidase allelic frequencies in root, stem and leaf tissues. While, according isoesterase allelic frequencies in root and stem tissues the lowest genetic identity estimates were found between P2 and P3 and between P1 and P2 parental populations in leaf tissues. The highest Nei's genetic distances were observed between these populations. The average heterozygosity, over the three tissues, revealed that P2 followed by P1 population had the lowest values according either isoperoxidase or isoesterase allelic frequencies. The highest total diversity estimates over all studied generations were observed for Prx2 and Prx3 loci in root tissue, Est6 in both root and leaf tissues and for Est4 in stem tissue indicating that these loci are considered the most polymorphic loci in the respective tissues. The study suggests that these polymorphic loci could supply the breeder with molecular markers which might be successfully utilized in cucumber breeding programs. Key words: Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., Diversity, Esterase, F1 hybrids, F2 generations, Genetic distance, Genetic identity, Heterozygosity, Isozymes, Molecular diversity, Peroxidase, Polymorphic loci, Populations, Zymogram.

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September 1996
6 Reads

MOLECULAR POLYMORPHISM OF PEROXIDASE ISOZYMES IN CUCUMBER GENERATIONS AS EXPRESSED BY NON-DISSOCIATING PAGE

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23, No. (5), 747-761.

Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt * Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23, No. (5), 747-761.

ABSTRACT Seven cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) populations represented by three parents, two F1 and their F2 generations were used in this investigation in order to study the molecular polymorphism in three loci of peroxidase as expressed by the isozyme allelic frequencies in different tissues of these seven populations. Zymograms of peroxidase molecular forms were obtained using non-dissociating PAGE technique applied in the Biotech. Lab. El-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station. The study revealed that, according to isoperoxidase banding patterns in different tissues and in F2 generations, a total of eight peroxidase anodal bands could be assigned to three loci. Phenotypic banding patterns in F2 locus while each of Prx3 and Prx4 loci is controlled by three alleles; the fast allele, the slow allele and the null allele. Codominant relationship between alleles of the three loci is demonstrated through the banding patterns of F1 (1x3) and F1 (3x2) and their F2's segregated phenotypes. Both qualitative and quantitative differences are found to be present in all the three peroxidase loci over different studied tissues indicating that tissue specificity and ontogenic alterations were found to control the expression of isoperoxidase. Ranges of allelic frequencies of isoperoxidase loci showed that, in root tissues, almost all cucumber populations were polymorphic for the three loci, while such polymorphic allelic frequency ranges were only observed for Prx3 and Prx4 loci in both stem and leaf tissues of these populations. Key words: Allelic frequencies, Banding pattern, Codominant, Cucumber, Generations, F1 and F2 generations, Isozymes, Leaf, Loci, Molecular polymorphism, Non-dissociating PAGE, Peroxidase, Phenotypic, Qualitative, Quantitative, Stem, Zymogram.

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September 1996
6 Reads

Genetics of esterase molecular forms and their tissue differential expression in cucumber generations

Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 34(3): 1135-1152

Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 34(3): 1135-1152

Guirgis, A. A.; El Sayed, S. M. A.; El Fouly, A. M., 1996: Genetics of esterase molecular forms and their tissue differential expression in cucumber generations. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 34(3): 1135-1152

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September 1996
6 Reads

LEVEL AND NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND THEIR ACTION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEA PLANTS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23 (3), 413-425.

Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University * Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23 (3), 413-425.

ABSTRACT Two field experiments were carried out, at El-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station, to study the effect of four levels of nitrogen; 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg/fed., and three dosages; single dose, two and three equal parts, of each N level, on pea plants during 1991 and 1992 seasons. The obtained results showed that the increase in N fertilizer level up to 60 kg/fed., significantly increased stem length, leaves content of all photosynthesis pigments, length and weight of pod, number of seeds/pod, seed weight/plant, number and weight of pods/plant and the content of pea seeds of nitrogen, protein and all the studied amino acids. Pea plants supplied by 60 kg N/fed. divided to three subsequent equal portions attained the highest values for photosynthesis pigments content in leaves, number and weight of pods/plant and total yield of pods/fed. This treatment has also proved to be the most efficient one for promoting the induction of nitrogen, proteins and all studied amino acids in pea seeds, except the content of lysine + arginine that showed significant decrease. Moreover, the results suggested that the earlier N supply is critical for more induction and metabolism of both lysine and arginine than later N supply did. Key words: Amino acids, Arginine, Fertilizer, Growth, Lysine, Nitrogen, Pea, Photosynthesis pigments, Protein, Seeds, Yield.

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May 1996
5 Reads

BANDING PATTERNS OF ISOPEROXIDASES AND ROOT SYSTEM IN PEA PLANTS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO LEVEL AND NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23 (3), 401-412.

Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University * Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 23 (3), 401-412.

ABSTRACT Two field experiments were performed during the seasons of 1991 and 1992 at El-Kassasein Horticulture Research Station, to study the effect of four levels of nitrogen; 0, 20, 40, and 60 kg N/fed., and three applications; single dose, two and three equal parts, for each of the N level, on pea plants. The obtained results showed that 20 kg N/fed. applied as three equal portions was found to be the most effective treatment in increasing number and weight of nodules per plant in both the second and the third sampling dates. A 60 kg N/fed. applied as three equal dosage significantly increased the number and length of first, second, and total root branching in later stages of pea plant ontogeny, and also recorded the highest weights of primary and total root in the third growth stage. At least five faster anodal bands out of total nine different peroxidase molecular forms, detected using the non-dissociating PAGE technique, were found to be nodule tissue specific, suggesting that these isozymes could be directly or indirectly involved in the biochemical reactions of N fixation in nodules. Both tissue specificity of isoperoxidases and band intensity differences were present in control and N levels and number of application treatments. The highest number of isoperoxidase was observed in nodule tissue while stem tissue showed the least peroxidase activity in both control and all N treatments. The close association observed among the studied root developmental characteristics and nodulation strongly suggested that all root characters could share in increasing pea plant productivity. Key words: Banding patterns, Fertilizer, isozymes, Isoperoxidase, Molecular forms, Nitrogen, Nodule, Non-dissociating, PAGE, Pea, Root system.

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May 1996
5 Reads

Effect of phosphorus and foliar spray with molybdenum on some morphological characters and yield of pea.

Zagazig J. Agric. Res 22 (6), 1463-1477

Zagazig J. Agric. Res 22 (6), 1463-1477

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December 1995
5 Reads

BIOCHEMICAL AND ROOT SYSTEM RESPONSE TO NITROGEN SOURCES AND VITAMIN B1 IN Pisum sativum

Annals of Agric., Sci., Moshtohor, Vol.33(4): 1465-1480.

*Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Faculty of Agricultural, Zagazig University **Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt

ABSTRACT The field experiments were carried out, at El-Kassasien Horticulture Research Station, to study the effect of four different N fertilizer sources, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and urea, applied at the same rate, 40 kg N/fed., and two concentrations of vitamin B1; 0 and 50 ppm, on pea plants during 1991 and 1992 seasons. The obtained results showed that N applied as urea form was the most efficient fertilizer in developing modules and root system of pea plants. Urea recorded the highest values for number and fresh weight of nodules, secondary and total root branches. While, the lowest values of these characters were shown as a result to applying N fertilizer in ammonium sulphate form. Foliar spray with 50ppm of vit BI stimulated first and second root branching elongation, primary and secondary roots as well as nodules weight and number during the whole ontogenical stages of pea plants. A total of eleven anodal bands was observed in the zymogram of peroxidase isoenzymes banding pattern using PAGE electrophoresis for different pea plant tissues extracts. The six faster, new molecular forms of peroxidase isoenzymes were found to be the direct biochemical response associated with nodule tissues of pea plants treated with 50 ppm vit. B1. The synthesis of these six isoenzymes is found to be suppressed by ammonium salts when used as N source. The occurrence of post-translational modification of the fifth anodal band and the six faster molecular forms could be due to the environmental treatments and vit B1 application. Highly significant correlation coefficients among all root and nodule characteristics were demonstrated in all the 66 cases studied. An important biochemical role of different peroxidase molecular forms in pea roots and nodulation development was demonstrated through the significant Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between isoperoxidase polymorphism and most of root system characters. Key words: Biochemical, Banding pattern, Correlation, Isoperoxidase, Molecular forms, Nitrogen sources, PAGE, Pea, Pisum sativum, Polymorphism, Post-translational modification, Root, Vitamin B1,

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December 1995
5 Reads

EFFECT OF NITROGEN SOURCES AND VITAMIN B1 ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEA PLANTS

Annals of Agric., Sci., Moshtohor, Vol.33(4): 1481-1495.

*Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Faculty of Agricultural, Zagazig University **Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt

ABSTRACT The field experiments were performed, during the winter seasons of 1991 and 1992 at El-Kassasien Horticulture Research Station, to study the effect of four nitrogen fertilizer sources (ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and urea) which were applied through the drip irrigation system and two concentrations of vitamin B1 (0 and 50 ppm) on growth and yield of pea plants. The obtained results showed that urea recorded had the highest values for number of leaves, stem length, dry weight of leaves, stem and whole plant, chlorophyll a,b and carotenoids in leaves and the yield and its components followed by ammonium nitrate, then calcium nitrate. Ammonium sulphate showed the least values for these characters. Application of vit B1 at 50 ppm significantly increased stem length, the dry matter of leaves, stem and whole plant in all growth stages, and yield of pods per plant as well as per feddan, and also stimulated nitrogen and protein accumulation in pea seeds and most of amino acids as well. Moreover, vit B1 had an important role in promoting the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments especially chlorophyll a and b irrespective to the source of nitrogen used. The most effective combination for attaining the highest values of yield, photosynthetic pigments and seed content of N. P and all studied amino acids was the application of urea as a nitrogen source and 50 ppm of vit. B1. So, the present study suggest this combination to be applied in sandy soils. Key words: Amino acids, Carotenoids, Chlorophyll, Growth, Nitrogen Sources, Pea, Photosynthetic pigments, Vitamin B1, Yield.

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December 1995
6 Reads

ISOPEROXIDASE POLYMORPHISM AND ROOT SYSTEM IN PEA PLANTS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS AND MOLYBDENUM

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 22 (6), 1479-1492.

Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University * Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 22 (6), 1479-1492.

ABSTRACT This experiment was performed, at El-Kassasien Horticultural Research Station, to study the effect of different P fertilizer levels (0, 31, 62 kg. P2O5/Fed.) and Mo concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60 ppm) on pea plants during 1991 and 1992 seasons. The obtained results showed that the increments in each of P2O5 level and Mo concentration caused significant increases in the number, length and fresh weight of first, second and total root branching as well as fresh weight of both primary root and nodules. The highest values of these characters were obtained as a result of 62 kg. P2O5/Fed. and 60 ppm Mo treatments. The presence of four faster isoperoxidase bands in nodule tissue, besides their absence from both root and shoot tissues, strongly suggest that these isoenzymes perform such a function that differ than that of the first shower molecular forms and that they could employ different hydrogen donors in nodule tissue. Tissue specificity was demonstrated for the peroxidase isozymes. The activity of these isoperoxidase was observed to be higher in nodule than that either in root or shoot tissues. Isoperoxidase polymorphism in nodule tissues is found to be higher in the presence of both phosphorus and molybdenum. Significant correlation coefficients among all root characteristics were demonstrated except in 1 out of 66 cases. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated the presence of considerable association between isoperoxidase polymorphism and most of root system characteristics, suggesting the presence of important role of different peroxidase molecular forms in pea root development. Key words: Correlation, Fertilizer, Isoperoxidase, Isozymes, Molecular forms, Molybdenum, Nodule, Pea, Phosphorus, Polymorphism, Root system, Shoot, Spearman's rank correlation, Tissue specificity.

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November 1995
4 Reads

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND FOLIAR SPRAY WITH MOLYBDENUM ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND YIELD OF PEA

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 22 (6), 1463-1477.

Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Zagazig University * Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt, Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 22 (6), 1463-1477.

ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to study the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels (0, 31, 62 kg. P2O5/fed.) and two sprays of each molybdenum concentration (0, 20, 40, 60 ppm Mo) as well as their interaction effect on some morphological characters, yield and seed quality of pea plants during 1991 and 1992 seasons. The obtained results showed that, up to the highest level i.e. 62 kg. P2O5/fed., the increments in phosphorus fertilizer level significantly increased stem length, leaves content of both chlorophyll and carotenoids, seeds weight per plant, number and weight of pods per plant, total yield and seed content of protein, phosphorus and also seed content of nine out of twelve studied amino acids. The increments in Mo concentration significantly increased stem length, leaves content of carotenoids, number of pods per plant, total yield and seed protein content and nitrogen percentage and its content of eight out of the twelve studied amino acids. Mo treatments had no effect on the dry matter accumulation and chlorophyll content in pea leaves but significantly decreased both phosphorus percentage of pea seeds and their content of amino acid; cystine, cysteine, alanine and tryptophane. The combined treatment; 62 kg P2O5/fed. and 60 ppm Mo was found to be the most effective combined treatment and recorded the highest values of photosynthesis pigments content, yield per plant and yield per feddan and also, resulted in a significant increase in seed content of six out of twelve amino acids, exceeding the respective values recorded by either P2O5 or Mo alone for all of these characters. However, the interaction effect between P2O5 and Mo showed insignificant increase in both nitrogen percentage and protein content of pea seeds. It also showed that Mo reduced the increasing effect of phosphorus on the content of amino acid; cystine, cysteine, therionine + glutamic, alanine and tryptophane. Key words: Amino acid, Carotenoids, Chlorophyll, Fertilizer, Foliar spray, Molybdenum, Morphological characters, Pea, photosynthesis pigments, Phosphorus, Protein content, Seed quality, yield.

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November 1995
5 Reads

ISOLATION AND PARTIAL SEQUENCING OF FUNGAL ELICITED TOMATO cDNA OF 4-COUMARATE: CoA LIGASE

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 22 (6), 1393-1404.

Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt * Horticulture Dept., Iowa State University Ames, Iowa, USA,Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 22 (6), 1393-1404.

ABSTRACT A near full-length cDNA encoding tomato 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (tc4CL), a key enzyme in the branchpoint of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was isolated from a λ ZAPHII cDNA library made by reverse transcription of poly (A)+ RNA from leaves of a tomato seedling inoculated with Fusarium oxysporium. The partial nucleotide sequence analysis of the isolated tomato c4CL inserted revealed a 57% identity over 281 bas pairs of the Vaccinia virus complete genome, a 96.3% identity over 27 bases of Parsley mRNA for light inducible protein and a 57.6% identity over 118 bases of Zea mays mRNA for heat shock protein. The deduced polypeptide sequence of 260 amino acids was found to be rich in hydrophobic residues (48.4%) including leucine, tryptophane, valine and, praline. Serine and glycine sequences scored the highest percentages among rest amino acids of this portion; 10.8% and 7.3%, respectively. Key words: cDNA,, 4-Coumarate: coa ligase , Fungal elicited, Fusarium oxysporium, Genome, Heat shock protein, mRNA, Parsley, Phenylpropanoid, Polypeptide sequence, Reverse transcription, Sequencing, Tomato, Vaccinia virus.

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November 1995
5 Reads

Genetic characterization of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) genotypes tolerant to heavy metals

Pak. J. Biotechnol 6 (1-2), 1-9

Pak. J. Biotechnol 6 (1-2), 1-9

ABSTRACT In the present research work, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) agent was applied to select highly tolerant Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants to some heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, nickel, and molybdenum). Four hyper-accumulator lines were selected, that proved to be more tolerant to the corresponding heavy metal when compared to the wild-type control, for genetic analysis in an attempt to elucidate the genetic bases of heavy metal tolerance in higher plants. Total soluble protein electrophoretic profiles indicated that metallothioneins (5-8 kDa) were expressed in Cd, Mo, Ni, and Zn hyperaccumulator lines when compared with their corresponding wild-type plants. Peroxidase and super oxide dismutase isozyme patterns were not conclusive. The expression of glutathione synthetase (GSH) gene(s) was monitored in the four genotypes lines and the wild-type control, using RT-PCR technologies. Increases ranging between 5 to 2 folds were encountered in the genotypes lines relative to the controls. According to the present findings, it seems that B. juncea hyperaccumulator genotypes have evolved a number of mechanisms to cope with heavy metal stress such as the expression of several metallothioneins and the over expression ofGSH gene(s). However, the results of oxygen radical scavengers were not conclusive, and need further justifications.

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June 1995
5 Reads

Molecular Identifications as Expressed in Peroxidase Polymorphism of Stone Fruit Rootstocks

Annals of Agric. Sc., Moshtohor, Vol. 32(3): 1631-1638.

Annals of Agric. Sc., Moshtohor, Vol. 32(3): 1631-1638.

ABSTRACT Highest number of hands (10) is detected in the zymogram of peroxidase isozymes in the extract of Sweet almond shoots, while the lowest number (2) is noticed in Nemaguard peach roots, Number of bands in other stocks differs between these two values. The general of the zymogram shows that bands were either condensed, medium, faint or light and appear at different R.M. values in various stocks. Clear condensed bands were noticed at R.M. (15.9) and (13.5) in sweet almond shoots and roots, respectively. It appears also clearly at R.M. (13.5) in Nemaguard and Okinawa shoot extract. Key words: Sweet almond, Isoperoxidase, Nemaguard, Okinawa, Rootstocks, Zymogram.

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August 1994
5 Reads

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.)

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 21 (3A), 809-820.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 21 (3A), 809-820.

ABSTRACT Genetic divergence, as a function of multivariables, using Mahalanobis D2 technique was studied for fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per plant, plant height and number of locules per fruit in seventeen genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). These seventeen genotypes represented both parental and the F1 progenies derived of crosses among the two commercial varieties and the other five hybrids. On the basis of multivariate analysis, the seventeen genotypes could be grouped into five clusters. The diversity amongst the parents was mostly reflected in the corresponding F1's. These were considerable diversity among the genotypes. One of the parents, "Harzfeuer" P7 was uniquely diverse from the rest of the genotypes. The genetic divergence among the seventeen genotypes showed that the fruit yield was the most important character contributing towards genetic diversity. According to D2 values, fruit yield per plant is found to be the most important character for differentiation in tomato. Multivariate analysis revealed that the diversity in these tomato genotypes is greatly influenced by the same character followed by plant height and number of fruits per plant. The coanonical analysis emphasized the important role of fruit yield per plant and number of fruits per plant in this species as the axis of differentiation. Key words: Combining ability, Dominance, Earliness, Fruit yield, Genetic divergence, Heterosis, Lycopersicon esculentum, Quantitative characters, Mahalanobis D2, Multivariate analysis, Tomato.

View Article
May 1994
5 Reads

HETEROSIS, DOMINANCE AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR EARLINESS AND SOME QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS IN TOMATO

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 21 (3A), 797-807.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 21 (3A), 797-807.

ABSTRACT Seven genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were used in a line x tester analysis to evaluate heterosis, dominance and combining ability for five quantitative characters. Significant positive heterosis was expressed in most of the crosses for both number of leaves per plant and stern diameter, indicating that these characters are controlled by dominant increasing genes. Meanwhile, significant negative heterosis was found in the cross "Money Maker X Evaline" for number of days till flowering indicating that, in this character, recessive genes are the increasing genes. Significant heterosis over better parental values was exhibited by three out of the five characters in the crosses; "Super Marmand X Evaline", "Money Maker X Evaline and "Money X King Kong". Partial to complete dominance expressed in all the characters, except number of days till flowering demonstrated that the increasing genes displayed dominance effects in these, characters. Meanwhile, over-dominance effects expressed for number of days till flowering confirmed that the decreasing alleles, controlling this character, interacted as dominant ones over most of the crosses. Furthermore, unidirectional dominance accompanied by over-dominance and gene dispersion are found to be the cause of heterosis in all the characters over the ten crosses. General combining ability effects for the two male parents showed that Super Marmand is a good combiner for all the characters except for plant height. The highest value of general combining ability for the testers was exhibited by "King Kong" for number of leaves per plant, plant height stem diameter and internode length and by "Carmello" for number of days till flowering. Positive specific combining ability estimates revealed that the best combinations were the cross "Super Marmand X Harzfeuer" for number of days till flowering and "Money Maker X Evaline" for number of leaves per plant. Hereafter, it is demonstrated that no cross combination was consistently good for all the characters. Hence, the high estimates of both general and specific combining ability can be used to a considerable extent as a criterion in selection for desirable parents in making crosses for any breeding program. The study has indicated the possibility of evolving a hybrid or synthetic variety at the commercial level using the hybrid "Money Maker X Evaline" and "Super Marmand X Harzfeuer". These hybrids have essentially better features than their parents. Key words: Combining ability, Decreasing alleles, Dominance, Earliness, Fruit characters, Heterogeneity , Heterosis, Hybrid, Increasing genes , Lycopersicon esculentum, Over-dominance, Quantitative characters, Selection, Trans-gressive segregation, Tomato, Yield .

View Article
May 1994
4 Reads

ISOENZYMIC DIVERSITY INDEX IN RELATION TO HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND FRUIT CHARACTERS IN TOMATO

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 20 (1A), 215-228.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 20 (1A), 215-228.

ABSTRACT Extent of heterosis and combining ability for yield and fruit characters are indicators for trans-gressive segregation in crosses of self-pollinated crops. However, the extent of both heterosis and combining ability are thought to be related to the genetic diversity among the parents. Isoenzymic variation was used for estimating the genetic diversity among seven parents as well as ten derived hybrid genotypes of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using esterase and peroxidase isoenzymes. Differences in the two systems were used to calcular the diversity index (D.I.). Hybrid combinations having higher D.I.'s exceeded the mean values of the ten crosses. The study revealed that the cross "Super Marmand X Harzfeur" with the highest D.I. value had higher mean value, in each of the eight characters, than the corresponding means over the ten crosses. In spite of the heterogeneity of the female parent used in each of the studied crosses, most of F1 hybrids showed higher mean values than their parental counterparts. The significant heterotic effects, suggested the existence of reasonable level of dispersing genes and a comparable amount of non-additive gene effects in most loci controlling the studied characters. General combining ability effects clearly indicated that Super Marmand is a good combiner for yield characters. The highest value of general combining ability effects for the testers was exhibited by Evaline for fruit yield, early yield, pericarp thickness and number of locules per fruit. Harzfeuer was best combiner for number of flowers per cluster and number of fruits per plant. These parents were generally, excellent combiners for yield. Positive specific combining ability estimates revealed that the best combinations were the crosses Super Marmand X Harzfeuer for fruit yield and Money Maker X Evaline for number of fruits per plant. The study indicated that high D.I. values and significant heterotic effects, besides high estimates of both general and specific combining ability, might successfully by used as criteria in selection for desirable parents in Tomato breeding programs. Key words: Combining ability, Fruit characters, Heterogeneity , Heterosis, Hybrid, Isoenzymic diversity index , Lycopersicon esculentum, Trans-gressive segregation, Tomato, Yield .

View Article
January 1993
5 Reads

PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES COLLECTION, EVALUATION AND UTILIZATION FOR HORTICULTURAL CROPS IN EGYPT

Workshop on Crop Genetic Resources in Egypt: 140-147.

Workshop on Crop Genetic Resources in Egypt: 140-147.

ABSTRACT The enormous genetic diversity between and within the local land races, and the primitive cultivars, of various crops evolved over long periods in diverse areas with trasitional farming systems, constitutes a most valuable source of genetic materials for plant improvement. In Egypt, disappearing of many primitive cultivars of various crops, especially vegetables, necessitates the need of an urgent effort to be made for establishing a "Plant Germplasm Unit" to collect and conserve active collections of such germplasm. Using various cryopreservation techniques for germplasm storage, may practically resolve the problems of preserving both fruit crops germplasm and the useful genotypes of vegetatively propagated horticultural and field crops. The conservation of genetic resources is solely direct toward utilization by present and future generations. Hence, characterization, multiplication, evaluation and documentation of collected material is of the greatest importance. The univariate, multivariate and the molecular divergent analysis could be applied to assess germplasm diversification. Both molecular genetic distance based on allele frequencies in different isozyme loci and the genetic distance based on polygenic traits are necessary to asses the degree of diversification between plant germplasm. Key words: Germplasm, Multivariate analysis, Genetic distance, Egypt.

View Article
April 1992
5 Reads

INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN CABBAGE POPULATIONS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 18 (2), 501-509.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 18 (2), 501-509.

ABSTRACT The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of three generations of selfing on the acceptability of quality of plant and head characters in cabbage in the base population and in the two successive selection cycle bulks of a collected population, from four regions, and the Balady Improved cultivar. The experimental materials consisted of random mated bulks and selfed bulks corresponding to each cycle (cycle 0 to 2) of both the two populations as well as fifteen single plant progenies selected of the collected population that kept separated during the 2nd, cycle bulk. Results showed that overage inbreeding depressions, for all the characters, were higher in the collected population than in the Balady Improved cultivar. The highest average inbreeding depression in the collected population was observed for wrapper leaves weight, followed by net head weight. In Balady Improved cultivar, the highest average inbreeding depression was observed for number of non-wrapper leaves, followed by non-wrapper leaves weight. There is no indication that the extent of inbreeding depressions in the advanced cycle bulks were less than those in the base populations or initial cycle bulks for all the characters. These results suggest that the fluctuation in inbreeding depression, over cycles of inbreeding, resulted from the type of gene action and gene frequencies at loci governing these characters which would determine the magnitude of inbreeding depression. Heritability estimates were relatively high in some characters suggesting the success of selection for breeding shorter stalk length and high compactness. In other characters where heritability was low, the production of hybrid commercial lines was suggested. Key words: Cabbage, Compactness, Generations, Head weight, Heritability, Inbreeding depression, Non-wrapper leaves , Populations, Random mating, Selection, Selection cycle, Selfing.

View Article
March 1991
7 Reads

NATURE OF GENETIC VARIABILITY AND ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS IN OKRA POPULATIONS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (4A), 1179-1185.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (4A), 1179-1185.

ABSTRACT Four populations of okra were isolated from Egyptian primitive cultivars. The populations were used to study the nature of gene action and the interrelationships among seven quantitative characters using North Carolina Design III in two crosses. Each of the four populations was found to be quite different from the other in respect to the distribution of both increasing and decreasing genes controlling all the characters studied. Both the populations "314" and "152" exhibited more frequencies of increasing genes controlling pod weight and early and total yield/plant. Most of the characters studied showed that the portion of the heritable variance due to dominance gene effects was at least lower than the additive genetic variance expressed by genes governing these characters. High broad-sense heritability estimates were observed for all the characters. Varied narrow-sense heritability estimates among the two crosses were found in the four populations demonstrating the diverse genetic backgrounds of such focal germplasm, and suggesting that total yield/plant in both crosses would show a good response to directional selection. Different correlation patterns were observed among the half-sib families of the progeny of each of the four populations. Key words: Association analysis, Broad-sense heritability, Crosses, Gene action, Genetic variability , Half-sib families, Heritable variance, Increasing and decreasing genes, narrow-sense heritability, Okra, Populations, Pod weight, Yield.

View Article
October 1990
6 Reads

GENETIC STUDIES ON THE TOMATO F1 CROSS "BISON X L. ESCULENTUM VAR. SUCCENTERIATUM, BREZH" UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS. I . AMINO ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN ROOT AND SHOOT TISSUES

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 No. 3(A), 661-673.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 No. 3(A), 661-673.

ABSTRACT Two tomato parents, differed in their origin; the American determinate variety "Bison" and the semi-cultivated type L. esculentum var. Succenteriatum Brezh, along with their F1 hybrid were used to examine the genetic response of these genotypes to salt tolerance and to estimate both the expression of heterosis and the dominance effects in respect of free amino acids concentration of F1 hybrid under salinity. The free amino acids concentrations in both root and shoot systems were determined at the three growth stages; early vegetative, late vegetative and flowering stages. The biochemical analysis showed the presence of thirteen free amino acid individuals in roots or shoots of the parents and F1 hybrid under control or saline treatments, indicating the adsence of any amino acid as a marker for establishing a test for salt tolerance. Significant genotypic variations were observed for most of amino acid concentrations. Both saline treatments and genotype-saline interactions exhibited significant differences for all amino acids concentrations in root and shoot systems at all the studied growth stages. The fluctuations in amino acids concentrations at various stages of growth might reflect the differential expressivity of certain genes during antigenic processes which may interact with developmental and environmental factors in addition to salinity conditions. Variable estimates of heterosis either in magnitudes or directions, were expressed for amino acids concentrations in F1 hybrid under non-stressed conditions. Also, significant, positive and negative heterotic effects were manifested in both roots and shoots of F1 plants under saline treatments, at various growth stages, might be due to the effect of developmental processes which could modify the expression of heterosis. The estimates of dominance relations are in agreement and parallelism with the expression of heterosis in F1 hybrid either under non-stress or saline stress conditions. The different behaviour of dominance relations in roots and shoots suggest that genes responsible for amino acids synthesis might be differed in their actions and interactions in different organs of the same plant. Key words: Amino acids , Biochemical analysis, Bison variety, Dominance, Heterosis, F1 Hybrid, Genotype, L. esculentum var. succenteriatum, brezh, Root , Saline conditions, Salt tolerance, Shoot, Tomato.

View Article
September 1990
5 Reads

GENETIC STUDIES ON THE TOMATO F1 CROSS "BISON X L. ESCULENTUM VAR. SUCCENTERIATUM BREZH" UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS II – WATER RELATIONS AND SUGARS CONCENTRATIONS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 No. 3(A), 675-685.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 No. 3(A), 675-685.

ABSTRACT Two diverse tomato genotypes, a commercial variety and a semi cultivated one, along with their F1 hybrid were used to examine the genetic response to salt tolerance and also to study the expression of both heterosis and dominance effects in F1 hybrid under saline conditions. The physio-biochemical criteria related to salinity; water content in the leaves and sugar fractions, in both root and shoot systems, were determined at three stages of plant growth. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic variations for both water relations and sugar concentrations. Marked differences, in the ability of the two tomato parents to deal with saline conditions, were detected; the semi-cultivated type showed a sort of tolerance to salinity compared with the relative low tolerance of the other parent. Different patterns of both water balance and sugar fractions were detected among the parents and their F1 hyprid under saline conditions at various growth stages assuring the different genetic responses to salinity. Significant positive and negative heterotic effects were manifested for both water relations and sugar concentrations in roots and shoots of F1 plants under saline treatments. The availabilities of heterosis estimates in such characters at various growth stages might be due to the effect of developmental processes which could modify the expression of this phenomenon. The dominance effects for these physiobiochemical criteria under unsalinized and salinized conditions suggested complete to over-dominance gene effects for either the lower or the higher parent confirming the heterotic effects detected for these characters. The fluctuations in heterosis and dominance effects in F1 hybrid under various saline levels reflected the different interactions of genes responsible for these physio-biochemical characters with saline conditions. Key words: Dominance, F1 cross, Heterosis, Hybrid, Genotypes, Genotypic variations, Over-dominance, Salinity, Tomato, Water content.

View Article
September 1990
5 Reads

HETEROZYGOTE SUPERIORITY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IN OKRA

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (2), 293-300.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (2), 293-300.

ABSTRACT A comparison of the genetic divergence among five okra land races, collected from various regions of Egypt, and their possible F1 combinations were made to provide a measure for comparing the homeostatic properties of the heterozygotes and their homozygous parents in respect to a set of six characters related to yield and fitness. A wide genetic divergence existed among the studied land races of okra which may be attributed to the varied genetic background of the base populations. The progenies derived from such a set of crosses exhibited a broad spectrum of genetic diversity. The superiority of heterozygotes was emphasized for yield characters confirming the greater divergence of the heterozygotes than their homozygotes. A clear relationship was detected between the superiority of the heterozygotes and the genetic divergence of their parents. The study emphasized the considerable role of cytoplasmic effects in causing some genetic divergence in the quantitative traits. Also, the paternal parents could, possibly, contribute to the diversity among the heterozygotes. Key words: F1 crosses, Genetic divergence, Genetic diversity, Heterozygote superiority, Homeostatic properties , Homozygous, Land races, Okra, Quantitative traits , Yield.

View Article
June 1990
8 Reads

GENETIC PATTERNS OF PROTEIN AND ITS FRACTIONS AS REVEALED BY SDS-PAGE IN SOME VICIA FABA L. CULTIVARS AND MUTANTS

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (2), 265-273.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (2), 265-273.

ABSTRACT Allelic and genic interactions controlling protein content besides the variability in multiple molecular forms of the protein banding patterns, as expressed by SDS-PAGE, were studied in six cultivars and three stable mutants of Vicia faba L. In addition to epistatic gene action involved in controlling protein content in all parents, dominant gene effects were considerably observed in governing this character in the cultivar "Giza 1". Additive gene action was absent in all the cultivar crosses but it was present in each of the two mutant crosses. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed obvious differences in protein banding patterns between all cultivars and mutants studied. These differences were on the level of the characteristic bands existing in all the material studied. Each cultivar is characterized by a missing band or bands that differentiate it from other cultivars. In mutants, the number of missing bands increased as total protein content of the seed was increased indicating the presence of compensation effect of most loci controlling protein content in these mutants. Most of the F1 hybrids exhibited bands less than that existed in the parents indicating the presence of the inverse or negative effect on structural loci controlling such protein bands. Key words: Additive, Allelic interaction, Broad bean, Cooking quality, Crosses, Cultivars, Dominant, Electrophoresis , Epistatic gene action, Genic interaction, Genotypic association, Heritability, Mutants, Protein bands, SDS-PAGE, Structural loci, Vicia faba L.

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March 1990
5 Reads

A GENETIC APPROACH TO COOKING QUALITY CRITERIA IN BROAD BEAN

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (2), 255-264.

Zagazig J. Agric., Res., Vol. 17 (2), 255-264.

ABSTRACT This work is an approach to study the genetic behaviour of some cooking quality criteria in broad bean. For this reason seeds of six cultivars and three mutants as well as their derived F1, F2 and F3 seeds were used to study the following cooking quality characters, seed hardness in stewed samples, percentage of water absorption, hydration coefficient of cooked seeds and total soluble solids in the stewed liquor. Genotypic association between these cooking quality criteria and some other seed characters were also studied. The non-allelic interactions of the type dominance x dominance and additive x additive were invariably highly significant for degree of hardness, explaining the great tendency to dominance observed in the crosses involved Roumi and each of the four Giza cultivars. Both the percent of water absorption and hydration coefficient were under the control of additive and dominant gene effects in addition to some types of non-allelic interactions. Total soluble solids was controlled by dominant genes that mostly acted in F2 seeds of most crosses, and in only single crosses by additive gene action. Heterotic effects and inbreeding depression were significantly present in most of the crosses, suggesting particular breeding system that consider heterozygosity for the improvement of these characters Heritability estimates for all cooking characters studied were of a non-sense type, as a direct consequence of the abundance of dominant-recessive genes controlling these quality criteria. Significant correlations were observed between protein content and almost all the studied cooking criteria in the cross "Roumi x G. 4", but only with total soluble solids in the cross "Mut. 3 x Mut. 15". Also, significant correlation was found between degree of hardness and each of seed weight and size in F2 of the cross "Roumi x G.1" and with seed weight, seed coat weight, seed color and protein content in the cross "Roumi x G.4". Key words: Allelic interaction, Broad bean, Cooking quality, Genotypic association, Heritability, Heterozygosity, Inbreeding depression, Non-allelic interaction.

View Article
March 1990
7 Reads

MOLECULAR DIVERGENCE AND ISOZYME POLMORPHISM IN RELATION TO THE FRUIT MORPHOMETERIC GENETIC VARIATIONS IN CUCUMBER

Proc. 1st Arab Conf. Genet. Fayoum, Egypt, Vol. .I: 353-367.

*Vegetable Res. Dept., Hort. Res, Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Cairo, Egypt. **USDA-ARS, Plant Introduction Res. Unit, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. ***Plant Genetics Sec., Agric. Botany D

ABSTRACT Peroxidase isozyme patterns in cotyledon, stem, leaf and fruit tissues of eleven cucumber populations were used to quantity the similarities among populations through genetic identity and genetic distance. The peroxidase isozyme polymorphism in fruit tissues was very high for all loci, while it was present only in Px2 locus in leaf tissues. Peroxidase isozyme polymorphism clearly differed from tissue to tissue over all loci. The gene expression pattern of isoperoxidases in different populations also varied in the four tissues. The epigenetic nature of peroxidase isozymes is demonstrated through the different observations of allele frequencies in cotyledons, stems, leaves and fruits as a totipotency of cells in these tissues. Genetic divergence in the polygenic fruit traits was examined in the eleven populations. Multivariate genetic distance estimates were worked out for four quantities characters and these estimates were compared with four measures of molecular divergence. Significant genetic distance occurred in 37 out of 55 comparisons among the eleven populations, Significant correlation was observed between genetic divergence in fruit traits and molecular divergence based on peroxidase allele frequencies in fruit tissues. Not only was there no association between any of other molecular divergence measurements based on peroxidase allele frequencies in cotyledons, stem and leaf tissues, and morphometric multivariate genetic distances but also no significant association was observed among the four molecular divergence matrics. There was no actual concordance between multivariate genetic divergene and molecular genetic divergence over the eleven populations. Key words: Allele frequency, Cucumber, Isozyme loci, Genetic distance, Molecular divergence Multivariate analysis, Peroxidase loci, Polymorphism.

View Article
November 1989
5 Reads

PEROXIDASE ISOZYME VARIABILITY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CUCUMBER FRUIT ROT RESISTANCE

Proc. 1st Arab Conf. Genet. Fayoum, Egypt, Vol (1): 341-352.

*Vegetable Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Cairo, Egypt **USDA-ARS, Plant Introduction Res. Unit. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT Infection of cucumber fruits with Rhizoctonia Solani reslted in increasing peroxidase activity and changing the multiple peroxidase components in the susceptible PI 172840 and also in the resistant PI 197086. there were no changes in multiple molecular forms of the highly resistant PI 165509. isoperoxidases of fruit tissue extracts exhibited twelve different molecular forms which were assigned to seven zones. The increase in isoperoxidase frequencies in susceptible fruit tissues, 24 hr after inoculation, was higher than that in resistant ones, demonstrating that fungus infection of susceptible tissues leads to the activation of new isoperoxidase in different loci. Both phenotype and band frequencies of the Prx2 locus in inoculated and healthy tissues of the parents, back crosses and F2 populations clearly demonstrated that the phenotype "bcd" and the molecular form "b" were represented by a higher frequency in populations possessing considerable resistance of the pathogen. A strong association was observed between fruit rot resistance gene frequency and the frequency of each of the phenotypes "bcd" of the locus Fx2 and the molecular form "b". The tight association between the gene controlling fruit rot resistance and the presence of the molecular form "b" suggested that isoperoxidase "b" could be used as a molecular marker for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani fruit rot. Key words: Back crosses, Band frequency, Cucumber, F2 populations, Fruit rot, Fruit tissue extracts, Fungus infection, Isoperoxidases, Isozyme variability, Molecular forms, Multiple molecular forms, Parents, Resistance gene, Rhizoctonia solani fruit Rot, Susceptible tissues.

View Article
November 1989
4 Reads

STUDIES ON THE GENETIC RESOURCES IN THE PRIMITIVE CULTIVARS OF SOME HIBISCUS SP.

Authors:
Adel A.Guirgis

Ph.D Thesis, Dept. of Genetics, Fac. Agric., Zagazig University, pp.116.

Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Genetics, Fac. Agric., Zagazig University, Egypt

ABSTRACT: Fifteen populations of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) and six populations of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) were isolated from Egyptian primitive cultivars. The populations were used to study the genetic divergence in okra using ten quantitative characters, multivariate analysis of divergence in kenaf using four quantitative characters, the gene action and genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of six quantitative characters in okra and the nature of gene action of six quantitative characters in kenaf. The analysis of genetic divergence was measured by D2 statistic in 15 populations of okra and 6 populations of kenaf was attempted. Using Mahalanobis's D2 statistic, the 15 okra populations could be grouped into six clusters. The 6 kenaf populations, they were grouped into three clusters. The results showed that the diversity in both okra and kenaf is adequate for the improvement through hydridization and selection for several favorable associations already present in the material. The gene action and the genetic mechanisms in Abelmoschus esculentus underlying the inheritance of six characters, namely plant height, days to first flowering, pod length, pod diameter, number of pods per plant and pod weight, were studied in three groups of diallel crosses with reciprocals, each group involved 5 populations. The results revealed the following conclusions: Both additive and non-additive gene action are present in all the six characters studied. Non-additive gene effects was found to be more important for the characters: days to first flowering, number of pods per plant and pod weight, than additive effects. The presence of correlated gene distributions of the dispersion type was observed indicating the presence of non-randomness of gene distributions among the parents of group III for plant height, and among the parents of group II for pod weight. In most of the characters studied, the populations showed that there was some sort of asymmetry of the positive and negative genes over all arrays. The nature of gene action in Hibiscus cannabinus for six characters, namely, plant height, days to first flowering, number of internodes, stem diameter, number of branches per plant and number of capsules per plant was studied in a set of diallel crosses with reciprocals involving six populations, selected from five Egyptian primitive cultivars. Absence of randomness of gene distributions among the populations for plant height and number of internodes per plant. The results revealed that there is a type of association of correlated genes for plant height. The positive and negative genes are distributed with unequal preponderating (μ≠v) of the six populations for all the six characters. Dominant alleles are preponderating for all the characters studied except for number of internodes per plant where recessive alleles are in excess. High heritability estimates were observed for all characters studied except for number of capsules per plant, suggesting the improvement of these characters can be achieved through selection. Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus, Correlated gene distributions, Diallel crosses, Dominant alleles, Gene association, Gene dispersion, Heritability, Hibiscus cannabinus, Kenaf, Mahalanobis's D2 statistic, Non-additive, Okra, Populations, Positive and negative genes, Primitive cultivars, Recessive alleles.

View Article
March 1985
5 Reads

THE USE OF SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MUTAGENS FOR THE INDUCTION OF STERILITY IN Spodoptera littoralis BOISD.

Authors:
Adel A. Guirgis

M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt, Pp. 168.

M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

ABSTRACT: One of the biological methods of control of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.), which attacks the cotton plant in Egypt and causes a severe damage to its growth and productivity, is male sterilization by radiation and chemosterilants. Before such a technique is usefully applied the genetic basis underlying the inheritance of fertility in this insect should be clearly understood. In the present investigation an attempt was made to analyze and describe the genetic behavior of some of the characters contributing directly to the fertility of this insect. The following approaches were undertaken: a) Induction of sterility after gamma irradiation and EMS treatment. b) Continuous inbreeding for 17 generations. c) Diallel crosses involving different isolates of cotton leaf worm. From results the following conclusions were made: 1. Gamma irradiation proved to be more effective for inducing sterility than EMS. The mutant were of the type affecting fecundity, hatchability, egg laying periods, longevity of adults and the ability of male to mate. 2. The two mutagens were not only efficient in the immediate generation but their inherited effects continued in further generations (F1 and F2). 3. Genetic analyses for the above mentioned characters in the mutagenic treated populations were performed. In these analyses the general mean of each of the above mentioned characters was partitioned into its genetic components. It was generally observed that most of the characters affecting fertility were controlled by dominance. In cases in which genic interactions appeared, the dominance x additive and dominance x dominance types of non-allelic interactions prevailed. 4. upon continuous inbreeding for 17 generations there was a general depression for most of the characters studied. However, in some of the characters the depression was not necessarily uniform with the advancement in the inbreeding generations. 5. From the analysis of variance of a 5 x 5 diallel crosses it was further confirmed that the effect of dominance in controlling fertility is much more than the additive component for all the characters studied. 6. The graphic representation for the gene action as derived from the Vr and Wr values was given to elucidate further the behavior of genes controlling the fertility characters. These were overdominance, partial dominance and non-allelic interaction. 7. A number of recessive lethal and sublethal mutants affecting the morphology of eggs, larva, pupa and adults were isolated and described. Key Words: Adult, Chemical mutagens, Cotton leafworm, Dominant lethal, Diallel crosses, Egg Laying Periods, EMS, F1 and F2 generation, Fecundity, Fertility characters, Gamma irradiation, Genic interaction, Hatchability, Inbreeding, Induced sterility, Larva, Physical mutagens, Pupa, Recessive lethal, Spodoptera littoralis, Vr and Wr Graphical analysis.

View Article
October 1979
5 Reads

Top co-authors

Gang Ren
Gang Ren

Stanford University

2
Robert W Thornburg
Robert W Thornburg

Iowa State University

2
Chris Kafer
Chris Kafer

Iowa State University

1
William S York
William S York

University of Georgia

1
Lan Zhou
Lan Zhou

Chongqing Medical University

1
Djoko Santoso
Djoko Santoso

Iowa State University

1
Robert Thornburg
Robert Thornburg

Iowa State University

1
Sanggyu Park
Sanggyu Park

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

1
Clay Carter
Clay Carter

University of California

1