Publications by authors named "Adel Abdel-Moneim"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

COVID-19 Pandemic and Male Fertility: Clinical Manifestations and Pathogenic Mechanisms.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Apr;86(4):389-396

Molecular Physiology Division, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511, Egypt.

The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been a major public health emergency worldwide with over 118.27-million confirmed COVID-19 cases and 2.62-million deaths recorded, as of March 12, 2021. Although this disease primarily targets lungs, damages in other organs, such as heart, kidney, liver, and testis, may occur. Testis is the cornerstone of male reproduction, while reproductive health is the most valuable resource for continuity of the human race. Given the unique nature of SARS-CoV-2, the mechanisms of its impact on the testes have yet to be fully explored. Notably, coronaviruses have been found to invade target cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, which can be found in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary tract, and reproductive organs, such as testes. Coronavirus studies have suggested that testes might be a potential target for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The first etiopathogenic concept proposed by current hypotheses indicates that the virus can invade testes through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Next, the activated inflammatory response in the testes, disease-associated fever, and COVID-19 medications might be implicated in testicular alterations. Although evidence regarding the presence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in semen remains controversial, this emphasizes the need for researchers to pay closer attention to sexually transmitted diseases and male fertility after recovering from COVID-19. In this review the latest updates regarding COVID-19-associated testicular dysfunction are summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297921040015DOI Listing
April 2021

Prophylactic effects of Cynara scolymus L. leaf and flower hydroethanolic extracts against diethylnitrosamine/acetylaminoflourene-induced lung cancer in Wistar rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Molecular Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Salah Salem St, 62511, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

The study examines the prophylactic action of artichoke leaf hydroethanolic extract (ALE) and artichoke flower head hydroethanolic extract (AFE) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/acetylaminofluorene (AAF)-induced lung cancer in Wistar rats. To chemically induce lung cancer, DEN was injected intraperitoneally twice a week for a fortnight at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), followed by oral supplementation of AAF four times a week for 3 weeks at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. The DEN/AAF-administered rats were orally supplemented with ALE or AFE at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. for 17 weeks starting from the 1st week of DEN injection to the 17th week of the experiment. The lung cancerous injuries resulting from DEN/AAF-administration were significantly improved by the treatment with ALE and AFE as observed in histological examination. In addition, there was a significant reduction in lung lipid peroxidation, with resultant elevation in antioxidant enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase as well as glutathione content in DEN/AAF-supplemented rats treated with ALE and AFE as compared to DEN/AAF-administered control. The lung tumor suppressor protein (p53) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) mRNA expression significantly increased in the rats treated with ALE and AFE. In conclusion, the finding showed that ALE and AFE produced anti-cancer prophylactic effects against DEN/AAF-induced lung cancer in rats via suppression of oxidative stress and improved apoptotic signal induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13391-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Hepatoprotective Effects of Polydatin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles in Diabetic Rats: Modulation of Glucose Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Biomarkers.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Feb;86(2):179-189

Molecular Physiology Division, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511, Egypt.

Polydatin (PD) has a broad range of pharmacological activities; however, its effects on diabetic liver damage are poorly studies. This work is aimed to explore possible protective effects of polydatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PD-CSNPs) or PD against liver damage associated with diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats using nicotinamide/streptozotocin treatment. Diabetic rats were then divided into six groups: normal control rats, diabetic control rats, and rats orally treated with PD, PD-CSNPs, equivalent unloaded CSNPs, or metformin daily for 4 weeks. Treatment with PD and PD-CSNPs significantly reduced the blood glucose content, lipid peroxidation in the liver, and activities of serum transaminases and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (including succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase); by contrast, liver glycogen content, glutathione concentration, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were markedly increased compared with the control diabetic rats. Furthermore, expression of the tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β mRNAs was significantly downregulated, while expression of glucose transporter 2 and glucokinase mRNAs was strongly upregulated vs. control diabetic rats. We concluded that PD-CSNPs and PD ameliorate diabetic liver damage by modulating glucose transporter 2 expression, affecting the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, PD-CSNPs being more efficient than PD, probably due to higher bioavailability and prolonged release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297921020061DOI Listing
February 2021

Insights into the possible impact of COVID-19 on the endocrine system.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 3:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Molecular Physiology Division, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus. Because of the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic, few data are available on the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 on the different endocrine glands. Previous studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) have shown a harmful effect on endocrine function. Notably, the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, which is the entry route of coronaviruses to the host cell, is widely expressed in the endocrine organs including testis, endocrine pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal, and pituitary glands. Clinical and biochemical manifestations have been recorded in COVID-19 patients resulting in changes in endocrine activities, which were also recorded during the SARS outbreak in 2003. This review aims to explore the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the function of endocrine glands, based on the latest research in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1890131DOI Listing
March 2021

Cinnamaldehyde mitigates placental vascular dysfunction of gestational diabetes and protects from the associated fetal hypoxia by modulating placental angiogenesis, metabolic activity and oxidative stress.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Mar 13;165:105426. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Laboratory for Integrated Molecular Physiology Research (IMPRES), Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Antwerp, 2020, Antwerp, Belgium.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major pregnancy-related disorder with an increasing prevalence worldwide. GDM is associated with altered placental vascular functions and has severe consequences for fetal growth. There is no commonly accepted medication for GDM due to safety considerations. Actions of the currently limited therapeutic options focus exclusively on lowering the blood glucose level without paying attention to the altered placental vascular reactivity and remodelling. We used the fat-sucrose diet/streptozotocin (FSD/STZ) rat model of GDM to explore the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde (Ci; 20 mg/kg/day), a promising antidiabetic agent for GDM, and glyburide/metformin-HCl (Gly/Met; 0.6 + 100 mg/kg/day), as a reference drug for treatment of GDM, on the placenta structure and function at term pregnancy after their oral intake one week before mating onward. Through genome-wide transcriptome, biochemical, metabolome, metal analysis and histopathology we obtained an integrated understanding of their effects. GDM resulted in maternal and fetal hyperglycemia, fetal hyperinsulinemia and placental dysfunction with subsequent fetal anemia, hepatic iron deficiency and high serum erythropoietin level, reflecting fetal hypoxia. Differentially-regulated genes were overrepresented for pathways of angiogenesis, metabolic transporters and oxidative stress. Despite Ci and Gly/Met effectively alleviated the maternal and fetal glycemia, only Ci offered substantial protection from GDM-associated placental vasculopathy and prevented the fetal hypoxia. This was explained by Ci's impact on the molecular regulation of placental angiogenesis, metabolic activity and redox signaling. In conclusion, Ci provides a dual impact for the treatment of GDM at both maternal and fetal levels through its antidiabetic effect and the direct placental vasoprotective action. Lack of Gly/Met effectiveness to restore it's impaired functionality demonstrates the vital role of the placenta in developing efficient medications for GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105426DOI Listing
March 2021

Polydatin and polydatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles attenuate diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats.

J Mol Histol 2021 Apr 3;52(2):135-152. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Genetic and Molecular Genetic Division, Faculty of Science, Zoology Department, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of heart function. The current study aimed to investigate the ameliorative effect of polydatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PD-CSNPs), polydatin (PD) and metformin (MET) on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. Rats divided into six groups; normal-control, diabetic-control, diabetic + CSNPs (diabetic rats treated with 50 mg/kg blank chitosan nanoparticles), diabetic + PD-CSNPs (diabetic rats treated with PD-CSNPs equivalent to 50 mg/kg of polydatin), diabetic + PD (diabetic rats given 50 mg/kg polydatin), diabetic + MET (diabetic rats given 100 mg/kg metformin), orally and daily for 4 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with PD-CSNPs, PD and MET showed a significant reduction in the values of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin with improvement in heart function biomarkers through decreasing serum creatine kinase and creatine kinase myocardial band activities compared to diabetic control. The treatment agents also suppressed the elevated lipid peroxidation product, increased values of glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, superoxide peroxidase, and catalase activities in the heart of diabetic treated rats. Furthermore, PD-CSNPs, PD and MET decreased heart tissue levels of a pro-inflammatory cytokine; tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nuclear factor-kappa β, upregulation of heart gene expressions; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1. Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed the ameliorative effect of PD-CSNPs, PD and MET against the harmful of diabetic cardiomyopathy by reducing the cardiac fibers, necrotic cardiac myocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration, and the arrangement of the myofibrils and intercalated discs. In conclusion, the new formula of PD-CSNPs was more effective than PD and MET in amelioration the diabetic cardiomyopathy through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and prolonged-release properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-020-09930-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Polydatin mitigates pancreatic β-cell damage through its antioxidant activity.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 26;133:111027. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Japan. Electronic address:

Several reports have been shown the pivotal role of oxidative stress in the progression of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Polydatin (PD), a natural phytochemical, has wide range of pharmacological actions, however, the underlying beneficial effects in pancreas was not clarified. In the current study, using in vivo and in vitro models, we investigated the possible protective effects of PD against oxidative damage in pancreatic β-cells. Diabetic rats were examined after oral administration with PD (50 mg/kg b.wt.) for 28 days. Results revealed that PD significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in the bloodstream of diabetic rats as well as lipid metabolism. Interestingly, in vivo results indicated that PD decreased the lipid peroxidation, improved the antioxidant status, and inhibited the inflammation in pancreas. Alongside, we artificially induced oxidative stress by exposing the insulin-producing RINm5F cells to hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of PD. The co-treatment with PD preserved cell viability, reduced ROS accumulation, as well as enhanced the anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cell function markers. To conclude, PD exhibited potential action in preserving β-cell function and inhibiting oxidative damage probably through its antioxidant properties. Thus, PD could be a possible therapeutic agent for diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111027DOI Listing
January 2021

Relationship of thyroid dysfunction with cardiovascular diseases: updated review on heart failure progression.

Hormones (Athens) 2020 Sep 2;19(3):301-309. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Immunology Section, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Heart disease remains the leading cause of death globally. Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome that results from impairment of the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. Over the past two decades, accumulated evidence has revealed the contribution of thyroid hormones to cardiovascular (CV) events, exerting their action through genomic and non-genomic pathways within the cardiomyocytes. The pivotal role of thyroid hormones in maintaining cardiac homeostasis has been observed in previous investigations which suggest that the CV system is adversely impacted by fluctuations in thyroid hormone levels, such as those that occur in hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and low triiodothyronine syndrome (LTS). Thyroid dysfunction has direct effects on myocardial contractility, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart mass, heart rate, ejection fraction, and heart output, which may ultimately lead to HF. Recent clinical data have shown that thyroid hormone replacement therapy for hypothyroid patients appears to provide the potential for reducing CV events. Therefore, this review aims to address the impact of thyroid hormone dysfunction on pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development and progression of HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42000-020-00208-8DOI Listing
September 2020

New insights into the , and antihyperglycemic mechanisms of gallic acid and -coumaric acid.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 May 13:1-7. Epub 2020 May 13.

Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University, Cairo, Egypt.

To explore the probable and mechanisms of gallic acid (GA) and -coumaric acid (PCA) as anti-hyperglycemic agents. Male albino rats were allocated into four groups, group1 was used as normal control. Group 2 was established as a diabetic control and group3 and 4 were treated with an oral dose of GA and PCA, respectively. GA and PCA revealed a significant decrease in the activity of α-amylase, a noticeable rise in glucose induced-insulin secretion and glucose-uptake in peripheral glucose-uptake , increase also liver glycogen and serum insulin levels . Further, GA and PCA exhibited a significant reduction in intestinal glucose absorption compared to blank. The antihyperglycemic activities of GA and PCA can be mediated through delaying intestinal glucose absorption, enhancing β-cell activity and promoting glucose uptake by peripheral tissue enhancing insulin sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1762659DOI Listing
May 2020

Novel polydatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for safe and efficient type 2 diabetes therapy: In silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 20;154:1496-1504. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PSAS), Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Polydatin (PD) has many pharmacological activities; however, its bioavailability is still a critical cornerstone issue. The present investigation aimed to develop a novel oral formula of polydatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PD-CSNPs) to improve PD therapeutic potential against type 2 diabetes. The interaction mechanism between PD and CSNPs was studied via Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. The formula was prepared and characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM, and dynamic light scattering. The release profile of PD was studied in vitro, as well as the cytotoxicity effect versus Vero cell line and antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. The practical results verified the formation of PD-CSNPs with entrapment efficiency of about 96.74 ± 0.39%, size average 144.25 ± 3.37 nm, and the prolonged release pattern was less than 20% after 12 hrs. The cytotoxicity study confirmed the safety of the formula at low and high doses. Moreover, the in vivo study revealed that PD-CSNPs exhibited highly significant antidiabetic efficacy in diabetic rats compared to free PD. To conclude, the current investigation proved that CSNPs are promising nanocarriers for nontoxic and effective PD delivery against type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.031DOI Listing
July 2020

The potential role of interleukin-37 in infectious diseases.

Int Rev Immunol 2020 21;39(1):3-10. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Physiology Section, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is a newly introduced cytokine to interleukin-1 family. Many studies have demonstrated that IL-37 owns immunosuppressive effects against both innate and acquired immune responses via inhibition of several inflammatory mediators. Thence, IL-37 has anti-inflammatory action in some diseases including cancer, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. Recent investigations have reported the important role of IL-37 in immunity against viral, bacterial and fungal infections as they prevent inappropriate immune activation and suppress the inflammation induced by these infectious agents. Thus, IL-37 could play a crucial role in protecting host tissues from injury during infections by damping excessive inflammatory reactions. However, the precise roles of IL-37 in infectious diseases remain largely unknown. The current review shed light on the pivotal role of IL-37 in infectious diseases such as the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), viral myocarditis, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), tuberculosis, leprosy, pneumococcal pneumonia, listeria infection, aspergillosis, candidiasis and eumycetoma. In conclusion, this review reported that IL-37 has a crucial role in reducing infection-associated inflammation and has a good impact on inflammation-induced pathology. However, tight regulation that achieved balance between effector immune responses that required for pathogen elimination and limited tissue damage that resulted from excessive inflammation should be existed in the potential IL-37 therapy to prevent clinical complications of a disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08830185.2019.1677644DOI Listing
June 2020

Relation Between Oxidative Stress and Hematologic Abnormalities in Children With Type 1 Diabetes.

Can J Diabetes 2020 Apr 20;44(3):222-228. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Objectives: Recently, numerous studies have renewed attention to the hematologic profile in the early identification of diabetic inflammation and complications. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between hematologic indices abnormalities and oxidative stress among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods: This study included 70 children diagnosed with T1DM and 30 healthy control subjects. The children with T1DM were divided into 2 groups according to the duration of diabetes: children with newly diagnosed T1DM and children with established T1DM.

Results: Erythrocyte count and platelet count were decreased significantly in children with established T1DM, whereas leukocyte count and neutrophil count were increased significantly in children with newly diagnosed T1DM compared with healthy control subjects. Moreover, hemoglobin and hematocrit values revealed a significant depletion in both T1DM groups; however, values of red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were significantly elevated in both T1DM groups compared with healthy control subjects. Also, microalbuminuria levels showed a significant increase in children with established T1DM, whereas lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde) and nitric oxide levels were elevated markedly in both T1DM groups compared with the healthy group.

Conclusions: The data demonstrated that the hematologic profile showed noticeable alterations in children with T1DM, and the inflammation and oxidative stress markers were contributed to the hematologic abnormalities. The results revealed that some hematologic indices can be used in the early detection of children with T1DM at risk for diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2019.07.153DOI Listing
April 2020

The Impact of Glycemic Status and Metformin Administration on Red Blood Cell Indices and Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

Malays J Med Sci 2019 Jul 29;26(4):47-60. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Background: Most guidelines all over the world recommended metformin as the first-line treatment for in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, the present study was suggested to assess the outcome of metformin administration and glycemic status on alterations in red blood cell (RBCs) indices as well as the oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods: Between December 2016 and October of 2017, a total of 158 eligible individuals were classified as 50 healthy subjects and 108 diabetic patients who were subdivided into six groups according to the type of anti-diabetic treatments.

Results: Overall, the results elucidated that hemoglobin concentration was markedly diminished, while red cell distribution width (RDW) value was significantly ( < 0.001) elevated in all diabetic groups as compared to control. Moreover, in all diabetic groups, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was elevated noticeably ( < 0.001), while reduced glutathione (GSH) revealed a lower concentration ( < 0.001) than that of control.

Conclusion: The present study exhibited the amelioration effect of metformin administration on oxidative stress and glycemic status which reflected on some RBCs indices. However, hemoglobin concentration showed a noticeable diminution in all metformin-treated groups in spite of the improvement in glycemic and oxidative stress status which indicated that the metformin-induced anemia is independently from diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2019.26.4.6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719883PMC
July 2019

Correlation between oxidative stress and hematological profile abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jul - Aug;13(4):2365-2373. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Aims: Diabetes patients with renal impairment commonly have a degree of hematological abnormalities than those non-diabetics with chronic kidney disease. The present study aimed to clarify the association between oxidative stress and hematological abnormalities with the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

Methods: A total of 20 healthy subjects and 100 patients were enrolled in the study. Eligible renal dysfunction patients were classified according to biochemical markers into five groups (20 patients); diabetic patients, pre-renal failure patients, diabetic pre-renal failure patients, renal failure patients, and diabetic renal failure patients.

Results: Erythrocytes and platelets count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels revealed a significant decrease in all renal dysfunction groups, while leukocytes count, red cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume showed significant increases in diabetic and renal dysfunction groups as compared to the healthy control. Nitric oxide level increased significantly, while reduced glutathione showed a marked decrease in diabetic and all renal dysfunction groups compared to the healthy control.

Conclusion: Nitric oxide and reduced glutathione were associated with the inflammatory status in diabetic renal dysfunction patients which reflected by elevation in leukocytes and neutrophils count, red cell distribution width as well as the reduction in values of erythrocytes, platelets count, hemoglobin and hematocrit. Therefore, hematological indices can play a role in predict the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.06.014DOI Listing
January 2020

Association of glycemic status and interferon-γ production with leukocytes and platelet indices alterations in type2 diabetes.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 May - Jun;13(3):1963-1969. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between glycemic status and the inflammation biomarkers; leukocytes, platelets indices and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients regarding diabetic complications.

Methods: Study was conducted on 158 patients allocated as normal healthy subjects (50) and 108 patients diagnosed as T2DM. The diabetic patients were subdivided into six groups according to metformin administration as mono-or dual therapies.

Results: The current results exhibited a significant elevation in systolic blood pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol levels and IFN-γ as well as a noticeable decrease in HDL-cholesterol and anti-atherogenic factor values compared to the healthy patients. Leukocytes and neutrophils count, main platelets volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) values revealed noticeable elevations in most treated T2DM groups, while a marked depletion was recorded in platelets count compared to healthy subjects. Glycemic control, most treated diabetic patients with metformin mono- and dual therapies showed an ameliorative effect in HbA1c, IFN-γ, MPV, and PDW values compared to recent diabetic ones.

Conclusion: Diabetes was correlated significantly with dyslipidemia and atherogenic risk in parallel with an increase in IFN-γ production and hematological inflammatory biomarkers; leukocytes, neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratios, MPV and PDW values. The amelioration in inflammatory biomarkers was associated with improvement in glycemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.04.046DOI Listing
December 2019

Relationship of leukocytes, platelet indices and adipocytokines in metabolic syndrome patients.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jan - Feb;13(1):874-880. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Aims: The current study aimed to explore the correlation between leukocytes and platelets indices with adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) and MetS components.

Methods: A total of 100 healthy subjects and 200 patients diagnosed with different MetS components were enrolled in the study. Eligible patients were allocated into four groups (50 patients). Group1 include patients with 2 criteria of MetS components, group 2 with 3 criteria, group 3 with 4 criteria and group 4 had patients with 5 criteria.

Results: Regarding white blood cell indices, data showed that total leukocyte and neutrophil count as well as neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio were significantly increased in all groups of MetS patients when compared to the healthy group. Additionally, platelets count, platelet distribution width (PDW), and main platelet volume (MPV) levels and platelets/lymphocyte (P/L) ratio were significantly higher in all patients with MetS as compared to the healthy subjects. Serum leptin concentration and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR) were elevated significantly, while adiponectin level was significantly diminished in all MetS groups when compared to the control.

Conclusion: leukocytes and platelets indices were associated with hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia as well as MetS components. The study also suggested the necessary role of leukocytes, platelet indices, and LAR as markers in early diagnoses of individuals with MetS components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.12.016DOI Listing
April 2019

Sofosbuvir in combination with ribavirin or simeprevir: real-life study of patients with hepatitis C genotype 4.

Ann Gastroenterol 2019 Jan-Feb;32(1):93-98. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science (Mohamed Abdel-Gabbar, Mohamed Ramadan).

Background: The discovery of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) is an outstanding achievement of modern medicine in the current century. The current study aimed to explore the effectiveness and safety of two regimens sofosbuvir (SOF) in combination with either ribavirin (RBV) or simeprevir (SMV) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype (GT) 4 patients in Egypt.

Methods: A total of 201 patients, treatment-naïve and experienced, with CHC GT4 infection were allocated into two groups based on the type of the regimen used. All eligible patients were treated orally with SOF plus daily oral weight-based RBV (24 weeks; group 1), or SOF plus daily oral SMV (12 weeks; group 2).

Results: In the patients who received SOF/RBV therapy for 24 weeks, a sustained virological response (SVR12) was achieved by 89% (90/101) of all patients, 92% (49/53) of naïve patients and 85% (41/48) of experienced patients. In the SOF/SMV group, the SVR12 rate was 92% (92/100) for overall patients, 93% (70/75) of naïve patients and 88% (22/25) of experienced patients. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 70% of patients in the SOF/RBV group and 42% patients in the SOF/SMV group. The most common AEs in both groups were fatigue, headache, nausea, and dyspnea.

Conclusions: The present comparative study suggests that both SOF/RBV and SOF/SMV combination regimens are highly effective in CHC GT4 treatment. However, the two-DAA regimen (SOF/SMV) may offer well-tolerated treatment, with a shorter duration and better safety compared to SOF/RBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20524/aog.2018.0327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302204PMC
November 2018

Effectiveness of sofosbuvir/pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin in treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients.

Clin Exp Hepatol 2018 Sep 10;4(3):191-196. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Introduction: New regimens involving direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have recently been approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4). The current study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF) with pegylated interferon (PegINF)/ribavirin (RBV) for chronic HCV GT4 patients at the beginning of the interferon-free era.

Material And Methods: Between March 2015 and November 2015, 99 patients (59 naïve and 40 experienced) infected with HCV GT4 were enrolled in the study. Eligible patients received daily oral 400 mg SOF, RBV (body weight: < 75 kg, 1000 mg; < 75 kg, 1200 mg), the dose modified according to patient tolerability, plus 180 μg PegINFα-2 once weekly for 12 weeks.

Results: Among the patient cohort, sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) was achieved by 88% (87/99) of all patients, by 93% (55/59) of naïve patients and by 80% (32/40) of experienced patients. Regarding treatment failure, the data recorded 12% (12/99) of patients (4 null responses and 8 relapsers). Otherwise, the most common adverse events observed during the study included headache, nausea, fatigue, dyspnea, influenza-like illness, anemia, and leukopenia.

Conclusions: SOF combination-based therapies were considered promising choice regimens for chronic HCV infection. The present findings suggest that the combination of the SOF/PegINF/RBV regimen was effective for Egyptian patients with HCV GT4. The recorded adverse events and viral outcome revealed the high need for further efforts to minimize the side effects of the current regimen and/or replace PegINF with additional potent DAA(s) to increase SVR12 to achieve 100%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2018.78123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6185926PMC
September 2018

The pleiotropic role of interleukin-17 in atherosclerosis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Oct 24;106:1412-1418. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Physiology Section, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which considers the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition of arterials' wall in which the development and the destabilization of plaque occur. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in modifying lipoproteins in arterials' wall. Recent investigations have demonstrated the opposing roles of CD4 T cells subtypes in atherosclerosis. T helper-1 (Th1) response and pro-inflammatory cytokines possess proatherogenic effects, whereas T regulatory (Treg) cells have an atheroprotective role. Th17 cells have emerged as a new CD4 T-cell subtype, which produce IL-17 that plays a crucial role in numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, several studies have investigated the potential role of IL-17 in atherosclerosis. Some investigations have suggested a proatherogenic effect, however the others proposed an atheroprotective role. Hence, the exact role of IL-17 in the disease development and plaque stability is still debatable. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on both atherogenesis and atheroprotective roles of IL-17. In addition, the synergistic and antagonistic effects of IL-17 with other cytokines in atherosclerosis will be discussed. On the basis of the current understanding of these roles, the possibility of developing novel therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis may be evolved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.07.110DOI Listing
October 2018

Modulation of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in experimental type 2 diabetes by gallic acid and p-coumaric acid: The role of adipocytokines and PPARγ.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Sep 20;105:1091-1097. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Molecular Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

There are many indications that confirm the vital role of adipocytokines and PPARγ in diabetics. Hence, the current investigation aimed to study the modulatory effects of gallic acid and p-coumaric acid on adipocytokines secretion and PPARγ mRNA expression in type 2 diabetic rats. After induction of type 2 diabetes, diabetic rats were orally treated with 20 mg/kg body mass gallic acid and 40 mg/kg body mass p-coumaric acid for six weeks. Among treatment diabetic rats, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels significantly declined in diabetic rats, while insulin level and body weight significantly increased as compared to control group. Gallic acid and p-coumaric acid markedly decreased the level of TNF-α and increased the levels of PPARγ mRNA and adiponectin. In addition, the tested agents improved markedly lipid profile parameters, cardiovascular indices 1 and 2 and anti-atherogenic index. In conclusion, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid exhibited marked antidiabetic action that could be mediated via modulation of TNF-α and adipocytokines secretions as well as upregulation of PPARγ mRNA expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.096DOI Listing
September 2018

Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin: large real-life results of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4.

Hepatol Int 2018 Jul 12;12(4):348-355. Epub 2018 May 12.

Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of daclatasvir (DCV) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) infection are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DCV plus sofosbuvir (SOF) with or without ribavirin (RBV) for treatment of Egyptian patients infected with HCV GT4.

Methods: Between April 2016 and March of 2017, a large cohort of 946 patients with chronic HCV GT4 was enrolled for completing the treatment. Patients were classified into two groups: group 1 (easy to treat) was treated with a dual therapy of SOF/DCV daily for 12 weeks and group 2 (difficult to treat) was treated with a triple therapy of SOF/DCV/RBV daily for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety of the treatments were estimated, and baseline characters associated with sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) were investigated.

Results: Among the patient's cohort, SVR12 was achieved by 94% (891/946) in the overall patients, by 95% (718/758) in the easy-to-treat group, and by 92% (173/188) in the difficult-to-treat group. The most common adverse events recorded were fatigue, headache, nausea, asthenia, and gastrointestinal troubles. No patient discontinued treatment due to severe adverse events.

Conclusion: The findings from the present study suggested that SOF/DCV (with or without RBV) regimen exhibited high effectiveness, was well tolerated in the treatment of chronic HCV GT 4, and revealed itself as a better option for patients with advanced liver disease, making the eradication of HCV a more realistic target to achieve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-018-9868-8DOI Listing
July 2018

A sofosbuvir-based quadruple regimen is highly effective in HCV type 4-infected Egyptian patients with DAA treatment failure.

J Hepatol 2018 06 3;68(6):1313-1315. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.010DOI Listing
June 2018

Retreatment Efficacy of Sofosbuvir/Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir + Ribavirin for Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Patients.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 May 15;63(5):1341-1347. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.

Background: The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, rare clinical trials have been reported on the combination regimen of sofosbuvir (SOF) with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus ribavirin (RBV) for treated patients with HCV genotype 4 (GT4) infection.

Aims: To clarify the retreatment efficacy and safety of the recent regimen, SOF with OBV/PTV/r + RBV, for chronic HCV GT4-experienced patients who failed treatment with DAA-based regimens.

Methods: A total of 113 treatment-experienced patients were allocated for the completion of their treatment period. The enrolled patients were treated orally with SOF plus a fixed dose combination of OBV/PTV/r + RBV, which was administered orally based on the patients' tolerability. The primary end point was a sustained virological response (HCV RNA < 15 IU/mL), observed 12 weeks after the end of the treatment (SVR12).

Results: Among all patients, the treatment-experienced patients with SOF plus OBV/PTV/r + RBV had a higher SVR12 rate (97%; 109/113). Further, SVR12 was achieved by 98% (81/83) of non-cirrhotic patients and 93% (28/30) of cirrhotic patients. Additionally, the most common adverse events reported included fatigue, headache, insomnia, nausea, and dyspnea.

Conclusions: The recent multi-targeted regimen of SOF plus OBV/PTV/r + RBV was well tolerated and achieved excellent SVR rates among retreatment-experienced Egyptian patients with prior DAA treatments failure, thus providing an alternative regimen for the retreatment of difficult-to-cure HCV GT4 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-018-5005-8DOI Listing
May 2018

The potential pathogenic role of IL-17/Th17 cells in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 May 27;101:287-292. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Immunology Division, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Immunology Division, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious medical problem affecting millions of peoples worldwide, and has a great socio-economic impacts. Cytokines possess a pivotal role in modulation of immune reactions and disease pathogenesis. T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells, an important proinflammatory CD4 T cell subset secreting interleukin 17 (IL-17), has been embroiled in development of DM. There are recent evidences supporting a definitive role of Th17 cells in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, IL-17 has been shown to play a crucial role in inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, small molecules which have been specified to block Th17 cells differentiation are considered as potential therapeutics for the disease. Anti-IL-17 neutralizing antibodies and/or antibodies targeting Th17 cells have been investigated to protect individuals at risk from disease development. In this review we aimed to shed light on the potential role of IL-17 and Th17 cells in both T1D and T2D pathogenesis and future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.02.103DOI Listing
May 2018

Association between Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Enterovirus-Infected Type 1 Diabetic Children.

Med Princ Pract 2018 10;27(1):86-91. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Immunity Division, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Objective: To examine the effect of infection with Enterovirus (EV) in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes in diabetic and nondiabetic controls.

Subjects And Methods: Three hundred and eighty-two diabetic and 100 nondiabetic children were tested for EV RNA using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. The activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also estimated in diabetic patients infected with EV (T1D-EV+), those not infected with EV (T1D-EV-), and in nondiabetic controls.

Results: The frequency of EV was higher in diabetic children (100/382; 26.2%) than in healthy controls (0/100). Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher but C-peptide was significantly lower in diabetic children than in controls. CRP levels were higher in the T1D-EV+ group than in the T1D-EV- group, and higher in all diabetic children than in nondiabetic controls. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPx, SOD, and CAT decreased significantly in diabetic children compared to in controls. Moreover, the activities of the enzymes tested were significantly reduced in the T1D-EV+ group compared to in the T1D-EV- group.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that EV infection correlated with a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the T1D-EV+ group compared to in the T1D-EV- group; this may contribute to β cell damage and increased inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968231PMC
October 2018

Coxsackievirus B4 as a Causative Agent of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Is There a Role of Inefficiently Treated Drinking Water and Sewage in Virus Spreading?

Food Environ Virol 2018 03 11;10(1):89-98. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Immunology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.

This study proposed to detect the enterovirus (EV) infection in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and to assess the role of insufficiently treated water and sewage as sources of viral spreading. Three hundred and eighty-two serum specimens of children with T1D, one hundred serum specimens of children who did not suffer from T1D as control, and forty-eight water and sewage samples were screened for EV RNA using nested RT-PCR. The number of genome copies and infectious units of EVs in raw and treated sewage and water samples were investigated using real-time (RT)-PCR and plaque assay, respectively. T1D markers [Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, and C-peptide], in addition to anti-Coxsackie A & B viruses (CVs A & B) IgG, were measured in control, T1D-negative EV (T1D-EV), and T1D-positive EV (T1D-EV) children specimens. The prevalence of EV genome was significantly higher in diabetic children (26.2%, 100 out of 382) than the control children (0%, 0 out of 100). FBG and HbA1c in T1D-EV and T1D-EV children specimens were significantly higher than those in the control group, while c-peptide in T1D-EV and T1D-EV children specimens was significantly lower than that in the control (n = 100; p < 0.001). Positivity of anti-CVs A & B IgG was 70.7, 6.7, and 22.9% in T1D-EV, T1D-EV, and control children specimens, respectively. The prevalence of EV genome in drinking water and treated sewage samples was 25 and 33.3%, respectively. The prevalence of EV infectious units in drinking water and treated sewage samples was 8.5 and 25%, respectively. Quantification assays were performed to assess the capabilities of both wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and water treatment plants (WTPs) to remove EV. The reduction of EV genome in Zenin WWTP ranged from 2 to 4 log, while the reduction of EV infectious units ranged from 1 to 4 log. The reduction of EV genome in El-Giza WTP ranged from 1 to 3 log, while the reduction of EV infectious units ranged from 1 to 2 log. This capability of reduction did not prevent the appearance of infectious EV in treated sewage and drinking water. Plaque purification was performed for isolation of separate EV isolates from treated and untreated water and sewage samples. Characterization of the EV amplicons by RT-PCR followed by sequencing of these isolates revealed high homology (97%) with human coxsackievirus B4 (CV B4) in 60% of the isolates, while the rest of the isolates belonged to poliovirus type 1 and type 2 vaccine strains. On the other hand, characterization of the EV amplicons by RT-PCR followed by sequencing for T1D-EV children specimens indicated that all samples contained CV B4 with the same sequence characterized in the environmental samples. CV B4-contaminated drinking water or treated sewage may play a role as a causative agent of T1D in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9322-4DOI Listing
March 2018

Gallic acid and p-coumaric acid attenuate type 2 diabetes-induced neurodegeneration in rats.

Metab Brain Dis 2017 08 2;32(4):1279-1286. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Molecular Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511, Egypt.

The brain of diabetics revealed deterioration in many regions, especially the hippocampus. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gallic acid and p-coumaric acid against the hippocampal neurodegeneration in type 2 diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats were randomly allocated into four groups: Group 1 served as control ones and others were induced with diabetes. Group 2 considered as diabetic, and groups 3 and 4 were further orally treated with gallic acid (20 mg/kg b.wt./day) and p-coumaric acid (40 mg/kg b.wt./day) for six weeks. Diabetic rats revealed significant elevation in the levels of serum glucose, blood glycosylated hemoglobin and serum tumor necrosis factor-α, while the level of serum insulin was significantly declined. Furthermore, the brain of diabetic rats showed a marked increase in oxidative stress and a decrease of antioxidant parameters as well as upregulation the protein expression of Bax and downregulation the protein expression of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. Treatment of diabetic rats with gallic acid and p-coumaric acid significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance, diminished the brain oxidative stress and improved antioxidant status, declined inflammation and inhibited apoptosis in the hippocampus. The overall results suggested that gallic acid and p-coumaric acid may inhibit hippocampal neurodegeneration via their potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, both compounds can be recommended as hopeful adjuvant agents against brain neurodegeneration in diabetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-017-0039-8DOI Listing
August 2017

Cinnamaldehyde potentially attenuates gestational hyperglycemia in rats through modulation of PPARγ, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Apr 13;88:52-60. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, 62511 Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Cinnamon has a history of use for medicinal purposes and its major benefits have been linked to cinnamaldehyde. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic action of cinnamaldehyde against fatty-sucrosed diet/streptozotocin (FSD/STZ)-rat model of gestational diabetes. Female albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I fed with normal diet (ND) while group II and III were fed with FSD for eight weeks (five weeks pre-gestational and three weeks gestational). Rats of group III were administered with a daily oral dose of 20mg/kg cinnamaldehyde one week before mating onward. At the 7th day of gestation, FSD-fed rats were injected intraperitoneally with STZ (25mg/kg b.wt.) to induce gestational diabetes. Pre-mating treatment of cinnamaldehyde controls hyperphagia and glucose intolerance during the gestational period than in diabetic rats. It also reduced levels of fructosamine, total cholesterols, triglycerides, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), while it significantly increased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, adiponectin, liver glycogen, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity at term pregnancy. In addition, cinnamaldehyde administration up-regulated the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and also ameliorated the number of viable fetuses, implantation loss sites, fetal glucose and insulin levels. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde has safe hypoglycemic action on gestational diabetes by potentiating insulin secretion and sensitivity through activating the antioxidant defense system, suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines production, upregulating PPARγ gene expression and alleviating the reproductive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.054DOI Listing
April 2017

Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

EXCLI J 2013 11;12:943-55. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4904745PMC
June 2016

Hesperidin and naringin attenuate hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production in high fat fed/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

J Diabetes Complications 2012 Nov-Dec;26(6):483-90. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Abnormal regulation of glucose and impaired carbohydrate utilization that result from a defective or deficient insulin are the key pathogenic events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of hesperidin and naringin on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with an HFD for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (35 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 50mg/kg hesperidin or naringin was daily given for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. At the end of the experimental period, blood was obtained from jugular vein and livers were rapidly excised and homogenized for biochemical assays. In the diabetic control group, levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), MDA, NO, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly increased, while serum insulin, GSH, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were decreased. Both hesperidin and naringin administration significantly reversed these alterations. Moreover, supplementation with either compound significantly ameliorated serum and liver MDA, NO and glutathione, and liver antioxidant enzymes. Although detailed studies are required for the evaluation of the exact mechanism of the ameliorative effects of hesperidin and naringin against diabetic complications, these preliminary experimental findings demonstrate that both hesperidin and naringin exhibit antidiabetic effects in a rat model of T2DM by potentiating the antioxidant defense system and suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.06.001DOI Listing
April 2013