Publications by authors named "Adekunle G Fakunle"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
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July 2021

Indoor microbiome and risk of lower respiratory tract infections among children under-five years: A meta-analysis.

Indoor Air 2020 09 22;30(5):795-804. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Discipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

We investigated whether exposure to microbiome within the indoor environment is associated with risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among children under 5 years of age. Electronic scientific repositories; PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, GreenFILE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library were searched and screened through July 2019 for published reports for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an adjusted measure of risk for LRTI associated with IM exposure, including the relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). The pooled OR was computed using the inverse of variance method for weighting. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the effect of individual studies, while heterogeneity was evaluated by I statistics using RevMan 5.3. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Exposure to a higher concentration of IM was associated with an increased risk of LRTI [OR:1.20 (1.11, 1.33), P < .0001]. The risk was stronger with exposure to total fungal concentration [OR:1.27 (1.13, 1.44), P < .0001] than visible molds [OR:1.20 (1.07, 1.34, P = .001]. Under-five children exposed to higher IM concentration are likely at increased risk of LRTI. Interventions addressing IM exposure should be considered in the management of LRTI among under-five children.
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September 2020

Home Assessment of Indoor Microbiome (HAIM) in Relation to Lower Respiratory Tract Infections among Under-Five Children in Ibadan, Nigeria: The Study Protocol.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 13;17(6). Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Discipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 321 George Campbell Building Howard College Campus, Durban 4041, South Africa.

The association between household air pollution and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among children under five years of age has been well documented; however, the extent to which the microbiome within the indoor environment contributes to this association is uncertain. The home assessment of indoor microbiome (HAIM) study seeks to assess the abundance of indoor microbiota (IM) in the homes of under-five children (U-5Cs) with and without LRTI. HAIM is a hospital- and community-based study involving 200 cases and 200 controls recruited from three children's hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria. Cases will be hospital-based patients with LRTI confirmed by a pediatrician, while controls will be community-based participants, matched to cases on the basis of sex, geographical location, and age (±3 months) without LRTI. The abundance of IM in houses of cases and controls will be investigated using active and passive air sampling techniques and analyzed by qualitative detection of bacterial 16SrRNA gene (V3-V4), fungal ITS1 region, and viral RNA sequencing. HAIM is expected to elucidate the relationship between exposure to IM and incidence of LRTI among U-5Cs and ultimately provide evidence base for strategic interventions to curtail the burgeoning burden of LRTI on the subcontinent.
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March 2020

Echocardiographic Abnormalities and Determinants of 1-Month Outcome of Stroke Among West Africans in the SIREN Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 06 30;8(11):e010814. Epub 2019 May 30.

1 Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine University of Ibadan Ibadan Nigeria.

Background Little is known about the relationship between echocardiographic abnormalities and outcome among patients with acute stroke. We investigated the pattern and association of baseline echocardiographic variables with 1-month disability and mortality among patients with stroke in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study. Methods and Results We enrolled and followed up consecutive 1020 adult patients with acute stroke with baseline transthoracic echocardiography from west Africa. To explore the relationship between echocardiographic variables and 1-month disability (using modified Rankin scale >3) and fatality, regression models were fitted. Relative risks were computed with 95% CIs. The participants comprised 60% men with a mean age of 59.2±14.6 years. Ischemic stroke was associated with smaller aortic root diameter (30.2 versus 32.5, P=0.018) and septal (16.8 versus 19.1, P<0.001) and posterior wall thickness at systole (18.9 versus 21.5, P=0.004). Over 90% of patients with stroke had abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry with eccentric hypertrophy predominating (56.1%). Of 13 candidate variables investigated, only baseline abnormal LV geometry (concentric hypertrophy) was weakly associated with 1-month disability (unadjusted relative risk, 1.80; 95% CI , 0.97-5.73). Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with increased 1-month mortality (unadjusted relative risk, 3.05; 95% CI , 1.36-6.83). Conclusions Nine of 10 patients with acute stroke had abnormal LV geometry and a third had systolic dysfunction. Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with 1 month mortality. Larger studies are required to establish the independent effect and unravel predictive accuracy of this association.
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June 2019