Publications by authors named "Adam S Levin"

56 Publications

Indications and outcomes of palliative major amputation in patients with metastatic cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Dec 30;40:101700. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with stage IV cancer often experience diminished quality of life and pain. Although palliative amputation (PA) can reduce pain, it is infrequently performed because of the morbidity associated with amputation and the limited life expectancy in this population. Here, we describe the indications for PA in patients with stage IV carcinoma or sarcoma and discuss their clinical courses and outcomes. We hypothesized that PA would be associated with reduced pain and improved quality of life in these patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients who underwent major amputation (proximal to the ankle or wrist) for metastatic sarcoma or carcinoma from January 1995 to April 2021. We excluded patients who underwent amputation for indications other than palliation. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with survival after PA.

Results: Twenty-six patients underwent PA (11 for carcinoma, 15 for sarcoma). The most common indications for PA were pain (all patients) and fungating tumor (16 patients). PA was the initial surgery in 7 patients. Forequarter amputations were the most common procedure (6 patients). All patients reported reduced pain after PA, with the mean (±standard deviation) visual analog pain score (on a 10-point scale) decreasing from 5.7 ± 2.9 preoperatively to 0.43 ± 1.3 postoperatively (p < 0.001). The mean preoperative ECOG score was 1.9 ± 0.2 compared with 1.3 ± 0.1 postoperatively (p < 0.001). Fourteen patients were fitted for prostheses (6 upper extremity, 8 lower extremity). Two patients had local recurrence, both within 6 months after PA. The mean survival time after PA was 13 ± 12 months, and mean follow-up was 28 ± 29 months. Mean survival time after PA was not significantly different between patients with sarcoma (11 ± 11 months) versus carcinoma (15 ± 14 months) (p = 0.51). Adjuvant chemotherapy was positively associated with survival; no other factors were associated with survival.

Conclusions: PA was associated with significantly reduced pain in all patients with stage IV cancer. PA should be considered for those with intractable pain, fungating tumors, or symptoms that diminish quality of life.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101700DOI Listing
December 2021

What Factors Are Associated with Local Metastatic Lesion Progression After Intramedullary Nail Stabilization?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Dec 28. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Pathologic fracture of the long bones is a common complication of bone metastases. Intramedullary nail stabilization can be used prophylactically (for impending fractures) or therapeutically (for completed fractures) to preserve mobility and quality of life. However, local disease progression may occur after such treatment, and there is concern that surgical instrumentation and the intramedullary nail itself may seed tumor cells along the intramedullary tract, ultimately leading to loss of structural integrity of the construct. Identifying factors associated with local disease progression after intramedullary nail stabilization would help surgeons predict which patients may benefit from alternative surgical strategies.

Questions/purposes: (1) Among patients who underwent intramedullary nail stabilization for impending or completed pathologic fractures of the long bones, what is the risk of local progression, including progression of the existing lesion and development of a new lesion around the nail? (2) Among patients who experience local progression, what proportion undergo reoperation? (3) What patient characteristics and treatment factors are associated with postoperative local progression? (4) What is the difference in survival rates between patients who experienced local progression and those with stable local disease?

Methods: Between January 2013 and December 2019, 177 patients at our institution were treated with an intramedullary nail for an impending or completed pathologic fracture. We excluded patients who did not have a pathologic diagnosis of metastasis before fixation, who were younger than 18 years of age, who presented with a primary soft tissue mass that eroded into bone, and who experienced nonunion from radiation osteitis or an avulsion fracture rather than from metastasis. Overall, 122 patients met the criteria for our study. Three fellowship-trained orthopaedic oncology surgeons involved in the care of these patients treated an impending or pathologic fracture with an intramedullary nail when a long bone lesion either fractured or was deemed to be of at least 35% risk of fracture within 3 months, and in patients with an anticipated duration of overall survival of at least 6 weeks (fractured) or 3 months (impending) to yield palliative benefit during their lifetime. The most common primary malignancy was multiple myeloma (25% [31 of 122]), followed by lung carcinoma (16% [20 of 122]), breast carcinoma (15% [18 of 122]), and renal cell carcinoma (12% [15 of 122]). The most commonly involved bone was the femur (68% [83 of 122]), followed by the humerus (27% [33 of 122]) and the tibia (5% [6 of 122]). A competing risk analysis was used to determine the risk of progression in our patients at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. A proportion of patients who ultimately underwent reoperation due to progression was calculated. A univariate analysis was performed to determine whether lesion progression was associated with various factors, including the age and sex of the patient, use of adjuvant therapies (radiation therapy at the site of the lesion, systemic therapy, and antiresorptive therapy), histologic tumor type, location of the lesion, and fracture type (impending or complete). Patient survival was assessed with a Kaplan-Meier curve. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The cumulative incidence of local tumor progression (with death as a competing risk) at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery was 1.9% (95% confidence interval 0.3% to 6.1%), 2.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 7.5%), 3.9% (95% CI 1.3% to 8.9%), and 4.9% (95% CI 1.8% to 10.3%), respectively. Of 122 patients, 6% (7) had disease progression around the intramedullary nail and 0.8% (1) had new lesions at the end of the intramedullary nail. Two percent (3 of 122) of patients ultimately underwent reoperation because of local progression. The only factors associated with progression were a primary tumor of renal cell carcinoma (odds ratio 5.1 [95% CI 0.69 to 29]; p = 0.03) and patient age (difference in mean age 7.7 years [95% CI 1.2 to 14]; p = 0.02). We found no associations between local disease progression and the presence of visceral metastases, other skeletal metastases, radiation therapy, systemic therapy, use of bisphosphonate or receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitor, type of fracture, or the direction of nail insertion. There was no difference in survivorship curves between those with disease progression and those with stable local disease (= 0.36; p = 0.54).

Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that for this population of patients with metastatic bone disease who have a fracture or impeding fracture and an anticipated survival of at least 6 weeks (completed fracture) or 3 months (impending fracture), the risk of experiencing local progression of tumor growth and reoperations after intramedullary nail stabilization seems to be low. Lesion progression was not associated with the duration of survival, although this conclusion is limited by the small number of patients in the current study and the competing risks of survival and local progression. Based on our data, patients who present with renal cell carcinoma should be cautioned against undergoing intramedullary nailing because of the risk of postoperative lesion progression.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000002104DOI Listing
December 2021

Iatrogenic Metastasis of Soft-tissue Sarcoma at the Donor Flap Site: Case Report and Proposed Surgical Oncologic Techniques.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2021 12 2;5(12). Epub 2021 Dec 2.

From the Division of Orthopaedic Oncology (Dr. LiBrizzi, Dr. Rao, Dr. Levin, and Dr. Morris), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (Dr. Tuffaha), and the Department of Pathology (Dr. Gross), The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore MD.

An 81-year-old woman with multiply recurrent undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the foot underwent wide excision and reconstruction with an anterolateral thigh free flap. Six years postoperatively, she developed biopsy-proven recurrence within the harvest site. No other sites of disease were detected on staging workup. The flap site recurrence was attributed to iatrogenic implantation at the time of harvesting. Iatrogenic metastases are thought to be caused by tumor implantation, which may be attributable to cross-contamination from instrumentation and surgical techniques. In the present article, we highlight preventive techniques and oncologic surgical principles intended to reduce the likelihood of iatrogenic metastasis. Increased awareness by all members of the surgical team may prevent this unfortunate complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOSGlobal-D-21-00208DOI Listing
December 2021

Regional or Neuraxial Anesthesia May Help Mitigate the Effects of Bone Cement Implantation Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Cemented Hip and Knee Arthroplasty for Oncologic Indications.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Introduction: Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) occurs during and after cementation of implants and is associated with hypotension, hypoxia, and cardiovascular collapse. In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors and potential mitigating factors of BCIS in the oncologic adult cohort undergoing cemented arthroplasty.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed oncologic patients aged 18 years or older who underwent cemented arthroplasty of either the hip or knee from 2015 to 2020. All implants were stemmed. We classified BCIS into three separate categories: (1) grade 1: intraoperative moderate hypoxia (<94%) or drop in systolic blood pressure >20%; (2) grade 2: intraoperative severe hypoxia or drop in systolic blood pressure >40%; and (3) grade 3: cardiovascular collapse requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Demographics, primary malignancy diagnosis, intraoperative factors including cement timing, development of BCIS, 30-day postoperative outcomes, and mortality up to 2 years postoperatively were evaluated. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results: Sixty-seven patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 31 patients (46%) developed BCIS. No difference was found in age (65.5 versus 60.9 years; P = 0.15) or body mass index (28.8 kg/m2 versus 29.3 kg/m2; P = 0.76), comorbidities, intraoperative factors, or postoperative surgical outcomes between those who developed BCIS and those who did not (all; P > 0.05). An association with the type of anesthesia administered and development of BCIS in patients receiving general anesthesia alone (17/24 patients, 71%), neuraxial and general (4/15 patients, 27%), and regional and general anesthesia (10/28 patients 36%, P = 0.01) was found. Compared With neuraxial and regional anesthesia, general anesthesia alone had 5.8 (P = 0.007) and 4.5 times (P = 0.006) greater odds of developing BCIS, respectively. No differences were noted in rates of BCIS between regional and neuraxial anesthesia (P = 0.81).

Discussion: Addition of regional or neuraxial anesthesia may be protective in reducing development of BCIS in the orthopaedic oncologic cohort undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-21-00553DOI Listing
November 2021

Age and Racial Disparities in Telemedicine Utilization in an Academic Orthopedic Surgery Department.

Telemed J E Health 2021 Nov 2. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted significant racial and age-related health disparities. In response to pandemic-related restrictions, orthopedic surgery departments have expanded telemedicine use. We analyzed data from a tertiary care institute during the pandemic to understand potential racial and age-based disparities in access to care and telemedicine utilization. Data on patient race and age, and numbers of telemedicine visits, in-person office visits, and types of telemedicine were extracted for time periods during and preceding the pandemic. We calculated odds ratios for visit occurrence and type across race and age groups. Patients ages 27-54 were 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.4, < 0.01) and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.3, < 0.05) times more likely to be seen than patients <27 during the pandemic, versus the 2019 and 2020 controls. Patients 54-82 were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5, < 0.001) times more likely to be seen than patients <27 during the pandemic versus the 2019 control. Patients 27-54, 54-82, and 82+, respectively, were 3.3 (95% CI 2.6-4.2, < 1e-20), 3.5 (95% CI 2.8-4.4, < 1e-24), and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.4, < 0.05) times more likely to be seen by telemedicine than patients <27. Among pandemic telemedicine appointments, Black patients were 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9, < 1e-3) times more likely to be seen by audio-only telemedicine than White patients, as compared with video telemedicine. Telemedicine access barriers must be reduced to ensure that disparities during the pandemic do not persist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2021.0330DOI Listing
November 2021

Do contrast-enhanced and advanced MRI sequences improve diagnostic accuracy for indeterminate lipomatous tumors?

Radiol Med 2021 Oct 25. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose: Benign, intermediate-grade and malignant tumors sometimes have overlapping imaging and clinical characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the added value of contrast-enhanced sequences (dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE)), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and chemical shift imaging (CSI) to noncontrast MRI sequences for the characterization of indeterminate lipomatous tumors.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with histologically proven peripheral lipomatous tumors were retrospectively evaluated. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded the MRI features in three sessions: (1) with noncontrast T1-weighted and fluid-sensitive sequences; (2) with addition of static pre- and post-contrast 3D volumetric T1-weighted sequences; and (3) with addition of DCE, DWI, and CSI. After each session, readers recorded a diagnosis (benign, intermediate/atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT), or malignant/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDL)). Categorical imaging features (presence of septations, nodules, contrast enhancement) and quantitative metrics (apparent diffusion coefficient values, CSI signal loss) were recorded.

Results: For 32 tumors, the diagnostic accuracy of both readers did not improve with the addition of contrast-enhanced sequences, DWI, or CSI (53% (17/32) session 1; 50% (16/30) session 2; 53% (17/32) session 3). Noncontrast features, including thick septations (p = 0.025) and nodules ≥ 1 cm (p < 0.001), were useful for differentiating benign tumors from ALTs and DDLs, as were DWI (p = 0.01) and CSI (p = 0.009) metrics.

Conclusion: The addition of contrast-enhanced sequences (static, DCE), DWI, and CSI to a conventional, noncontrast MRI protocol did not improve diagnostic accuracy for differentiating benign, intermediate-grade, and malignant lipomatous tumors. However, we identified potentially useful imaging features by DCE, DWI, and CSI that may help distinguish these entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-021-01420-1DOI Listing
October 2021

Do Disparities in Wait Times to Operative Fixation for Pathologic Fractures of the Long Bones and 30-day Complications Exist Between Black and White Patients? A Study Using the NSQIP Database.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2022 01;480(1):57-63

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Racial disparities in outcomes after orthopaedic surgery have been well-documented in the fields of arthroplasty, trauma, and spine surgery; however, little research has assessed differences in outcomes after surgery for oncologic musculoskeletal disease. If racial disparities exist in the treatment of patients with pathologic long bone fractures, then they should be identified and addressed to promote equity in patient care.

Questions/purposes: (1) How do wait times between hospital admission and operative fixation for pathologic fractures of long bones differ between Black and non-Hispanic white patients, after controlling for confounding variables using propensity score matching? (2) How does the proportion of patients with 30-day postoperative complication differ between these groups after controlling for confounding variables using propensity score matching?

Methods: Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we analyzed 828 patients who underwent fixation for pathologic fractures from 2012 to 2018. This database not only provides a large enough sample of pathologic long bone fracture patients to conduct the present study, but also it contains variables such as time from hospitalization to surgery that other national databases do not. After excluding patients with incomplete data (4% of the initial cohort), 775 patients were grouped by self-reported race as Black (12% [94]) or white (88% [681]). Propensity score matching using a 1:1 nearest-neighbor match was then used to match 94 Black patients with 94 white patients according to age, gender, BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, anemia, endstage renal disease, independence in performing activities of daily living, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary disease. The primary outcome of interest was the number of days between hospital admission and operative fixation, which we assessed using a Poisson regression and report as an incidence risk ratio. The secondary outcomes were the occurrences of major 30-day postoperative adverse events (failure to wean off mechanical ventilation, cerebrovascular events, renal failure, cardiovascular events, reoperation, death), minor 30-day adverse events (reintubation, wound complications, pneumonia, and thromboembolic events), and any 30-day adverse events (defined as the pooling of all adverse events, including readmissions). These outcomes were analyzed using a bivariate analysis and logistic regression with robust estimates of variance and are reported as odds ratios. Because any results on disparities rely on rigorous control of other baseline demographics, we performed this multivariable approach to ensure we were controlling for confounding variables as much as possible.

Results: After controlling for potentially confounding variables such as age and gender, we found that Black patients had a longer mean wait time (incidence risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1 to 2.1]; p = 0.01) than white patients. After controlling for confounding variables, Black patients also had greater odds of having any postoperative adverse event (OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.1 to 3.8]; p = 0.02), including readmission (OR 3.3 [95% CI 1.5 to 7.6]; p = 0.004).

Conclusion: The racial disparities in pathologic long bone fracture care found in our study may be attributed to fundamental racial biases, as well as systemic socioeconomic disparities in the US healthcare system. Identifying and eliminating the racial, socioeconomic, and sociocultural biases that drive these disparities would improve care for patients with orthopaedic oncologic conditions. One possible way to reduce these disparities would be to implement standardized surgical care pathways for pathological long bone fractures across different institutions to minimize variation in important aspects of care, such as time to surgical fixation. Further insight is needed on the types of standardized care pathways and the implementation mechanisms that are most effective.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8673988PMC
January 2022

Sensitivity of the stress field of the proximal femur predicted by CT-based FE analysis to modeling uncertainties.

J Orthop Res 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Proximal femur anatomy and bone mineral density vary widely among individuals, precluding the use of one predefined finite element (FE) model to determine the stress field for all proximal femurs. This variability poses a challenge in current prosthetic hip design approach. Given the numerous options for generating computed tomography (CT)-based FE models, selecting the best methods for defining the mechanical behavior of the proximal femur is difficult. In this study, a combination of computational and experimental approaches was used to explore the susceptibility of the predicted stress field of the proximal femur to different combinations of density-elasticity relationships, element type, element size, and calibration error. Our results suggest that FE models with first-order voxelized elements generated by the Keyak and Falkinstein density-elasticity relationship or quadratic tetrahedral elements generated by the Morgan density-elasticity relationship lead to accurate estimations of the mechanical behavior of human femurs. Other combinations of element size, element type, and mathematical relationships produce less accurate results, especially in the cortical bone of the femoral neck and calcar region. The voxelized model was more susceptible to variation of element size and density-elasticity relationships than FE models with quadratic tetrahedral elements. Regardless of element type, the stress fields predicted by the Keyak and Falkinstein and the Morgan relationships were the most robust to calibration error when deriving material density from CT-generated Hounsfield data. These results provide insight into the implementation of a robust platform for designing patient-specific implants capable of maintaining or modifying the stress in bones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.25138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8716646PMC
June 2021

A guide to resecting tumors of the sciatic notch.

Surg Oncol 2021 Sep 8;38:101604. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Sciatic notch tumors are rare and have numerous etiologies. Tumor presentation varies widely and no uniform recommendations exist for approaching resection. Most studies on the topic have been small case series, with the approach dictated by surgeon experience and comfort. We provide an overview of surgical approaches for resecting sciatic notch tumors reported in the literature, as well as a conceptual framework for application of these approaches based on standard oncologic principles. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are described on the basis of anatomic location of the tumor. For tumors that span the notch with intra- and extra-pelvic extension, notchplasty is a novel technique that provides superior visualization and access for en-bloc excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101604DOI Listing
September 2021

Predictors of Recurrence and Patterns of Initial Failure in Localized Ewing Sarcoma: A Contemporary 20-Year Experience.

Sarcoma 2021 17;2021:6681741. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The majority of patients with localized Ewing sarcoma will remain disease-free long term, but for those who suffer recurrence, successful treatment remains a challenge. Identification of clinicopathologic factors predictive of recurrence could suggest areas for treatment optimization. We sought to describe our experience regarding predictors of recurrence and patterns of first failure in patients receiving modern systemic therapy for nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma.

Methods: The medical records of pediatric and adult patients treated for localized Ewing sarcoma between 1999 and 2019 at Johns Hopkins Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Local control was surgery, radiotherapy, or both. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards modeling was performed to obtain hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence.

Results: In 94 patients with initially localized disease, there were 21 recurrences: 4 local, 14 distant, and 3 combined. 5-year and 10-year RFS were 75.6% and 70.5%, respectively. On multivariable analysis including age at diagnosis and tumor size, <95% tumor necrosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC; HR 14.3,  = 0.028) and radiological tumor size change during NAC (HR 1.04 per 1% decrease in size change,  = 0.032) were independent predictors of recurrence. Among patients experiencing distant recurrence, pulmonary metastases were present in 82% and were the only identifiable site of disease in 53%.

Conclusions: Poor pathologic or radiologic response to NAC is predictive of recurrence in patients with localized Ewing sarcoma. Suboptimal tumor size reduction following chemotherapy provides a means to risk-stratify patients who do not undergo definitive resection. Isolated pulmonary recurrence was a common event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6681741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068528PMC
April 2021

Lymphadenopathy in Fungating Extremity Soft-Tissue Sarcoma: Metastasis or Reactive?

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 3;28(8):4695-4705. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Patients with fungating extremity soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) can develop lymphadenopathy, which can represent nodal metastasis or benign reactive adenopathy.

Methods: In 1787 patients with STS, 67 (3.7%) had fungating extremity STS. In the 62 patients who met our inclusion criteria, we evaluated prevalence and histopathology of lymphadenopathy, factors associated with lymphadenopathy and nodal metastasis, and prevalence of and factors associated with lung metastasis and survival time from fungation. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze node pathology, lung metastasis, and survival duration with α = 0.05.

Results: Lymphadenopathy occurred in 11 of 62 patients (18%), 6 with nodal metastasis and 5 with reactive adenopathy. The only factor associated with lymphadenopathy was location of primary tumor in the upper extremity (p = 0.02). No tumor characteristics were associated with nodal metastasis. In all five patients with reactive adenopathy, the condition was recognized within 3 days after tumor fungation. Lymphadenopathy recognized more than 3 days after tumor fungation was likely to be nodal metastasis. Forty-one percent of patients developed lung metastasis, which was not associated with presence of lymphadenopathy or any patient or tumor characteristic. Age, tumor size, and Black and Asian race were independently associated with greater risk of death.

Conclusions: Eighteen percent of patients with fungating extremity STS developed lymphadenopathy. Approximately half of cases represented nodal metastasis, and half represented reactive adenopathy. Lymphadenopathy that develops within 3 days after tumor fungation should increase suspicion for reactive adenopathy versus nodal metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09305-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Administration of TGF-ß Inhibitor Mitigates Radiation-induced Fibrosis in a Mouse Model.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 03;479(3):468-474

I. Gans, J. M. El Abiad, A. S. Levin, C. D. Morris, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Radiation-induced fibrosis is a long-term adverse effect of external beam radiation therapy for cancer treatment that can cause pain, loss of function, and decreased quality of life. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is believed to be critical to the development of radiation-induced fibrosis, and TGF-β inhibition decreases the development of fibrosis. However, no treatment exists to prevent radiation-induced fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to mitigate the development of radiation-induced fibrosis in a mouse model by inhibiting TGF-β.

Question/purposes: Does TGF-β inhibition decrease the development of muscle fibrosis induced by external beam radiation in a mouse model?

Methods: Twenty-eight 12-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned randomly to three groups: irradiated mice treated with TGF-βi, irradiated mice treated with placebo, and control mice that received neither irradiation nor treatment. The irradiated mice received one 50-Gy fraction of radiation to the right hindlimb before treatment initiation. Mice treated with TGF-c (n = 10) received daily intraperitoneal injections of a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β (1 mg/kg) in a dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle for 8 weeks (seven survived to histologic analysis). Mice treated with placebo (n = 10) received daily intraperitoneal injections of only a dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle for 8 weeks (10 survived to histologic analysis). Control mice (n = 8) received neither radiation nor TGF-β treatment. Control mice were euthanized at 3 months because they were not expected to exhibit any changes related to treatment. Mice in the two treatment groups were euthanized 9 months after radiation, and the quadriceps of each thigh was sampled. Masson's trichome stain was used to assess muscle fibrosis. Slides were viewed at 10 × magnification using bright-field microscopy, and in a blinded fashion, five representative images per mouse were used to quantify fibrosis. The mean ± SD fibrosis pixel densities in the TGF-βi and radiation-only groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests. The ratio of fibrosis to muscle was calculated using the mean fibrosis per slide in the TGF-βi group to standardize measurements. Alpha was set at 0.05.

Results: The mean (± SD) percentage of fibrosis per slide was greater in the radiation-only group (1.2% ± 0.42%) than in the TGF-βi group (0.14% ± 0.09%) (odds ratio 0.12 [95% CI 0.07 to 0.20]; p < 0.001). Among control mice, mean fibrosis was 0.05% ± 0.02% per slide. Mice in the radiation-only group had 9.1 times the density of fibrosis as did mice in the TGF-βi group.

Conclusion: Our study provides preliminary evidence that the fibrosis associated with radiation therapy to a quadriceps muscle can be reduced by treatment with a TGF-β inhibitor in a mouse model.

Clinical Relevance: If these observations are substantiated by further investigation into the role of TGF-β inhibition on the development of radiation-induced fibrosis in larger animal models and humans, our results may aid in the development of novel therapies to mitigate this complication of radiation treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899598PMC
March 2021

Healing of Pathologic Humeral Fractures in Patients with Metastatic Disease: Consideration for Operative Fixation in Patients.

J Surg Orthop Adv 2020 ;29(3):177-181

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Division of Orthopaedic Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

We compared short-term outcomes after operative versus nonoperative treatment of pathologic humeral fractures. We hypothesized that patients who underwent operative fixation would heal faster and have better pain control. A retrospective review was conducted of 25 patients who underwent operative fixation and 6 who received nonoperative treatment from 2005-2017. Operative patients healed significantly earlier than nonoperative patients (p = 0.02). At 16-week follow-up, radiographs showed evidence of healing in 24 of 25 operatively treated patients and 2 of 6 nonoperatively treated patients (p < 0.01). Pain improved during the inpatient stay in 24 of 25 operatively treated patients and none of the nonoperatively treated patients (p < 0.01). All operatively treated patients returned to self-reported baseline motor function by final follow-up, whereas none of the nonoperatively treated patients returned to baseline (p = 0.01). Operative treatment was associated with earlier healing, pain control and return to function compared with nonoperative treatment of pathologic humeral fractures. Level of Evidence: 3. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 29(3):177-181, 2020).
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November 2020

Team approach: Management of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 11 29;67(11):e28509. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Division of Orthopaedic Oncology, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

With current treatments for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the overall prognosis for survival is favorable. Increasing emphasis is placed on recognizing and managing the long-term consequences of ALL and its treatment, particularly involving osteonecrosis. Early osteonecrosis diagnosis and management may improve outcomes and is best accomplished through coordinated teams that may include hematologic oncologists, radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, physical therapists, and the patient and their family. Magnetic resonance imaging is the "gold standard" for diagnosis of early-stage and/or multifocal osteonecrosis. Treatments for osteonecrosis in ALL patients are risk stratified and may include observation, corticosteroid or chemotherapy adjustment, and pharmaceutical or surgical approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28509DOI Listing
November 2020

Use of Advanced Imaging for Radiographically Occult Hip Fracture in Elderly Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Radiology 2020 09 7;296(3):521-531. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, (A.H., J.E., P.T.J., S.D.) Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (A.S.L.), and High Value Practice Academic Alliance (A.H., A.S.R., P.T.J., S.D.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N Caroline St, JHOC 3140D, Baltimore, MD 21287; Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (R.K., S.E.S.); Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (A.S.R.); and Library of Evidence, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (R.K., A.S.R.).

Background The overall rate of hip fractures not identified on radiographs but that require surgery (ie, surgical hip fractures) remains unclear in elderly patients who are suspected to have such fractures based on clinical findings. Moreover, the importance of advanced imaging in these patients has not been comprehensively assessed. Purpose To estimate the frequency of radiographically occult hip fracture in elderly patients, to define the higher-risk subpopulation, and to determine the diagnostic performance of CT and bone scanning in the detection of occult fractures by using MRI as the reference standard. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed to identify English-language observational studies published from inception to September 27, 2018. Studies were included if patients were clinically suspected to have hip fracture but there was no radiographic evidence of surgical hip fracture (including absence of any definite fracture or only presence of isolated greater trochanter [GT] fracture). The rate of surgical hip fracture was reported in each study in which MRI was used as the reference standard. The pooled rate of occult fracture, diagnostic performance of CT and bone scanning, and strength of evidence (SOE) were assessed. Results Thirty-five studies were identified (2992 patients; mean age, 76.8 years ± 6.0 [standard deviation]; 66% female). The frequency of radiographically occult surgical hip fracture was 39% (1110 of 2835 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%, 43%) in studies of patients with no definite radiographic fracture and 92% (134 of 157 patients; 95% CI: 83%, 98%) in studies of patients with radiographic evidence of isolated GT fracture (moderate SOE). The frequency of occult fracture was higher in patients aged at least 80 years (44%, 529 of 1184), those with an equivocal radiographic report (58%, 71 of 126), and those with a history of trauma (41%, 977 of 2370) (moderate SOE). CT and bone scanning yielded comparable diagnostic performance in the detection of radiographically occult hip fracture ( = .67), with a sensitivity of 79% and 87%, respectively (low SOE). Conclusion Elderly patients with acute hip pain and negative or equivocal findings at initial radiography have a high frequency of occult hip fractures. Therefore, the performance of advanced imaging (preferably MRI) may be clinically appropriate in all such patients. © RSNA, 2020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020192167DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinicopathologic Analysis of Chondroblastoma in Adults: A Single-Institution Case Series.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Apr 2;29(2):120-128. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

1466Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Chondroblastoma is a rare benign tumor of immature cartilage cells that generally occurs in an epiphyseal location of skeletally immature individuals. However, a few studies have reported cases in older patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of chondroblastoma in an adult population. The pathology archives of our institution were searched for cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed in patients ≥25 years of age. Of 14 patients identified, 8 were male and 6 were female with a median age of 34 years (range = 29-54 years). Most lesions occurred in short bones of hands and feet (N = 7, 50%), followed by the long tubular bones (N = 4, 28%). All demonstrated typical histologic features of chondroblastoma, but more extensive calcification, necrosis, and degenerative changes were also seen. At follow-up (median = 73.5 months), 2 patients (17%) had local recurrence. None had metastasis. In summary, chondroblastoma in adults tends to involve the short bones of the hands and feet and demonstrate histologic changes associated with long-standing growth of a benign tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066896920927794DOI Listing
April 2021

Can a Novel Scoring System Improve on the Mirels Score in Predicting the Fracture Risk in Patients with Multiple Myeloma?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Mar;479(3):521-530

J. A. Bressner, C. D. Morris, L. Fayad, A. S. Levin, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Stratification of the fracture risk is an important treatment component for patients with multiple myeloma, which is associated with up to an 80% risk of pathologic fracture. The Mirels score, which is commonly used to estimate the fracture risk for patients with osseous lesions, was evaluated in a cohort in which fewer than 15% of lesions were caused by multiple myeloma. The behavior of multiple myeloma lesions often differs from that of lesions caused by metastatic disease, and accurate risk stratification is critical for effective care. To our knowledge, the Mirels score has not been validated specifically for multiple myeloma.

Questions/purposes: Our purpose was: (1) To develop a novel scoring system for the prediction of pathologic fracture in patients with long-bone lesions from multiple myeloma; and (2) to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) between the novel scoring system and the Mirels system.

Methods: Between 2003 and 2017, 763 patients at one center with the diagnosis of multiple myeloma were reviewed, of whom 174 presented with long-bone disease involvement. Of those, 5% (nine of 174) were missing data or radiographs at a minimum of 1 year and had not reached an endpoint (fracture or surgery) before that time and were therefore excluded. Many patients have more than one lesion; consequently, we used the largest lesion in each patient, resulting in 163 lesions in as many patients. Ten percent (16 of 163) of these patients eventually developed a fracture and 4% (six of 163) underwent prophylactic stabilization (excluded from analysis because of outcome uncertainty). During the study period, prophylactic stabilization was performed at the discretion of the orthopaedic oncologist. Fifty-one percent (83 of 163) of patients were female, and the mean (± SD) age was 60 ± 10 years at radiographic lesion identification. All lesions were characterized before determining whether the patient underwent pathologic fracture. We identified variables associated with pathologic fracture on univariate analysis. Variables independently significant on logistic regression analysis were used to generate scoring algorithms at varying weights and scoring cutoffs for comparison via ROC curves. We then selected a novel score based on ROC performance, and compared the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of that scoring system to that of Mirels score. ROC AUCs were compared after bootstrapping 100,000 iterations. Alpha was set at 0.05.

Results: After controlling for potential confounders, such as age, sex, and duration of myeloma diagnosis, we found the following factors were independently associated with the occurrence of pathologic fracture: larger lesion size (area, cm2) (log odds 0.17; p = 0.03), longer lesion latency (years from diagnosis to lesion identification) (log odds 0.25; p = 0.03), presence of pain (relative risk [RR] 2.9; p = 0.04), and metaphyseal location (RR 3.2, compared with epiphyseal or diaphyseal; p = 0.003). These variables were used to formulate a novel scoring system. Compared with the Mirels system, the novel system was more sensitive (69% [95% CI 61 to 76] versus 38% [95% CI 30 to 46]; p < 0.05) but not different in terms of specificity (87% [95% CI 80 to 91] versus 87% [95% CI 81 to 92]; p > 0.05), PPV (37% [95% CI 29 to 45] versus 25% [95% CI 19 to 33]; p > 0.05), NPV (96% [95% CI 91 to 99] versus 92% [95% CI 87 to 96]; p > 0.05), or AUC (0.85 [95% CI 0.74 to 0.92] versus 0.67 [95% CI 0.51 to 0.81]; p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The novel scoring system was found to be more sensitive than the Mirels system for predicting pathologic fracture in our retrospective cohort of patients with multiple myeloma-related bone disease. Specificity, PPV, NPV, and ROC AUC were not different with the numbers available. Thus, the novel scoring system may serve as a more effective screening tool to determine which patients with multiple myeloma would benefit from further radiologic or orthopaedic evaluation based on a skeletal survey.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899603PMC
March 2021

Establishing Telemedicine in an Academic Total Joint Arthroplasty Practice: Needs and Opportunities Highlighted by the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Arthroplast Today 2020 Sep 23;6(3):617-622. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted rapid restructuring of the health-care system in an effort to stop the spread of the virus and to treat patients who are acutely ill with COVID-19, while continuing to provide outpatient care for the remainder of patients. To help control spread of this pandemic, many centers, including total joint arthroplasty clinics, have boosted telemedicine capability to care for patients who would typically be seen in person in outpatient settings. We review key components relevant to the establishment and effective use of telemedicine, focused on patient education, practice logistics, technological considerations, and sensitive patient health information-associated compliance factors, which are necessary to provide care remotely for total joint arthroplasty patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2020.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177124PMC
September 2020

Bisphosphonate Therapy for Treating Osteonecrosis in Pediatric Leukemia Patients: A Systematic Review.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 04;43(3):e365-e370

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Background: Despite improved outcomes in children with leukemia, complications such as osteonecrosis are common. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the role of bisphosphonates in reducing pain, improving mobility, and stabilizing lesions in pediatric leukemia survivors.

Methods: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. Five of 221 articles retrieved met our inclusion criteria.

Results: Bisphosphonates, especially when combined with dietary calcium and vitamin D supplements and physical therapy (supplements/PT) were associated with improved pain and mobility in 54% and 50% of patients, respectively. A significantly greater proportion of patients treated with bisphosphonates (83%) reported mild/moderate pain or no pain compared with those with supplements/PT alone (36%) (P<0.001). Sixty-six percent of patients treated with bisphosphonates achieved improved/full mobility compared with 27% of those treated with supplements/PT alone (P=0.02). However, 46% of patients showed progressive joint destruction despite bisphosphonate therapy. No adverse events were reported, except for acute phase reactions to intravenous therapies.

Conclusions: Bisphosphonates, when combined with supplements/PT, were associated with less pain and improved mobility, but not prevention of joint destruction in pediatric leukemia patients with osteonecrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8572516PMC
April 2021

Departmental Experience and Lessons Learned With Accelerated Introduction of Telemedicine During the COVID-19 Crisis.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020 Jun;28(11):e469-e476

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Despite the use of digital technology in healthcare, telemedicine has not been readily adopted. During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare systems have begun crisis management planning. To appropriately allocate resources and prevent virus exposure while maintaining effective patient care, our orthopaedic surgery department rapidly introduced a robust telemedicine program during a 5-day period. Implementation requires attention to patient triage, technological resources, credentialing, education of providers and patients, scheduling, and regulatory considerations. This article provides practical instruction based on our experience for physicians who wish to implement telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Between telemedicine encounters and necessary in-person visits, providers may be able to achieve 50% of their typical clinic volume within 2 weeks. When handling the massive disruption to the routine patient care workflow, it is critical to understand the key factors associated with an accelerated introduction of telemedicine for the safe and effective continuation of orthopaedic care during this pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195846PMC
June 2020

Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Compared With Neoadjuvant Radiation Alone in the Management of High-Grade Soft Tissue Extremity Sarcomas.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2020 Mar-Apr;5(2):231-237. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: Patients with large, high-grade soft tissue sarcomas are commonly treated with aggressive limb preservation regimens. This study aimed to assess cancer control outcomes of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) compared with radiation therapy (RT) alone.

Methods: We reviewed records of patients with high-grade extremity or trunk soft tissue sarcomas ≥5 cm who were treated with neoadjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy. Patient and disease characteristics were compared using test and χ tests. Standardized mortality ratio weighted method was used to compare overall survival (OS), local control, and disease-free (DFS) survival. Acute radiation and surgical toxicity were reported.

Results: In the study, 64 patients (34 CRT and 30 RT) treated between 1997 and 2015 were analyzed. In the RT group compared with the CRT group, the patient population was older, with a median age of 65 versus 50 years ( < .001), and more likely to have cardiovascular disease (CVD; 30% vs 0%, < .001). At a median follow-up of 41 months, after adjusting for propensity score of receiving RT, the 3-year LC was 87.3% versus 86.1%, DFS was 58.5% versus 56.6%, and OS was 75.6% versus 69.0% for the CRT and RT groups, respectively ( > .05). Acute dermatitis occurred in 18% versus 3% and surgical complications occurred in 32% versus 17% of CRT and RT patients, respectively.

Conclusions: In this study, patients receiving RT alone were more likely to be older and have comorbid cardiovascular disease. When controlling for baseline differences, neoadjuvant CRT and RT provided similar rates of LC, DFS, and OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2019.08.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136634PMC
October 2019

Desmoid tumor mimics local recurrence of extremity sarcoma on MRI.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Jun 24;121(8):1259-1265. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Division of Orthopaedic Oncology, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background And Objectives: The development of desmoid fibromatosis after tumor resection may mimic local recurrence. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been reported after extremity sarcoma resection. We report four cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis ("desmoid tumors") mimicking local recurrence after extremity sarcoma resection.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients treated for extremity sarcoma by our orthopedic oncology service from 2014 to 2019 and identified four patients with biopsy-proven desmoid tumors. We extracted clinical, pathologic, radiographic, and operative data for the primary neoplasms and desmoid tumors.

Results: Four patients with postresection surveillance magnetic resonance imaging suspicious for local recurrence underwent further analysis showing desmoid tumors. Patients underwent image-guided needle biopsy, with specimens demonstrating fibromatosis-type histologic characteristics. Two cases were β-catenin positive. Desmoid tumors were managed with observation. No patient had experienced local or distant recurrence of the primary tumor at a mean follow-up of 30 months after resection (range, 23-34 months); none underwent surgery for symptoms of desmoid tumors.

Conclusions: Desmoid tumors should be considered part of the differential diagnosis when assessing patients with radiographic concern for postresection local recurrence of extremity bone and soft-tissue sarcoma. An image-guided needle biopsy can inform diagnosis and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25906DOI Listing
June 2020

CORR Insights®: External Validation of PATHFx Version 3.0 in Patients Treated Surgically and Nonsurgically for Symptomatic Skeletal Metastases.

Authors:
Adam S Levin

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 04;478(4):819-821

A. S. Levin, Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282601PMC
April 2020

Natural history of Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome: Patient survey and review of clinical literature.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 05 7;182(5):1093-1103. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

McKusick-Nathans Department of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Ollier disease (OD) and Maffucci syndrome (MS) are characterized by multiple enchondromas. Patients with MS also have benign vascular overgrowths that become malignant in 8.5% of cases. OD is characterized by multiple enchondromas, typically unilateral in distribution with a predilection for the appendicular skeleton. MS is characterized by multiple enchondromas bilaterally distributed in most of the cases. Both disorders feature multiple swellings on the extremity, deformity around the joints, limitations in joint mobility, scoliosis, bone shortening, leg-length discrepancy, gait disturbances, pain, loss of function, and pathological fractures. About 50% of patients with OD or MS develop a malignancy, such as chondrosarcoma, glioma, and ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumor. To better understand the natural history of OD and MS, we reviewed 287 papers describing patients with OD and MS. We also created a survey that was distributed directly to 162 patients through Facebook. Here, we compare the review of the cases described in the literature to the survey's responses. The review of the literature showed that: the patients with OD are diagnosed at a younger age; the prevalence of chondrosarcomas among patients with OD or MS was ~30%; in four patients, vascular anomalies were identified in internal organs only; and, the prevalence of cancer among patients with OD or MS was ~50%. With these data, health care providers will better understand the natural history, severity, and prognosis of these diseases and the prevalence of malignancies in these patients. Here, we recommend new guidelines for the care of patients with OD and MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164175PMC
May 2020

5-Aminolevulinic acid tumor paint and photodynamic therapy for myxofibrosarcoma: an in vitro study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2020 Mar 5;15(1):94. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Background: 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a fluorescent contrast agent, has been used for tumor paint and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for various tumors, but its use with soft tissue sarcomas is not well documented. Myxofibrosarcoma, a subtype of soft tissue sarcoma with a high local recurrence rate, may benefit from similar types of treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 5-ALA tumor paint and PDT on a myxofibrosarcoma cell line.

Methods: Tumor paint was assessed by exposing micromass pellets of human adipose-derived stromal (ADS) cells or myxofibrosarcoma (MUG-Myx1) cells to 5-ALA. Cell pellets were then visualized using a microscope at established excitation and emission wavelengths. Corrected total cell fluorescence was calculated per accepted protocols. Photodynamic therapy was similarly assessed by exposing ADS and MUG-Myx1 cells to 5-ALA, with subsequent analysis via flow cytometry and real-time confocal microscopy.

Results: The use of 5-ALA tumor paint led to a selective fluorescence in MUG-Myx1 cells. Findings were confirmed by flow cytometry. Interestingly, flow cytometry results showed progressive selective cell death with increasing 5-ALA exposure as a result of the PDT effect. PDT was further confirmed using confocal microscopy, which revealed progressive cellular bubble formation consistent with advancing stages of cell death-a finding that was not seen in control ADS cells.

Conclusions: 5-ALA tumor paint and PDT were successfully used on a human myxofibrosarcoma cell line (MUG-Myx1). Results from this study showed both selective fluorescent tagging and selective cytotoxicity of 5-ALA toward malignant myxofibrosarcoma cells, while sparing benign adipose control cells. This finding was further confirmed in a dramatic time-lapse video, visually confirming active, targeted cell death. 5-ALA's two-pronged application of selective tumor identification and cytotoxicity may transform surgical and medical approaches for treating soft tissue sarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-01606-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059315PMC
March 2020

Poroid Hidradenocarcinoma of the Ankle: Case Report of a Rare Malignant Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasm.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Mar - Apr;59(2):423-426

Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Soft-tissue masses on the anterior ankle result from a broad range of underlying processes, often presenting a diagnostic challenge. Appropriate treatment of these tumors can be determined by using a combination of patient history, interpretation of pathologic findings, physical examination, and radiographic appearance. We present a case of an exceptionally rare malignant cutaneous adnexal tumor, highlighting the importance of adherence to fundamental biopsy principles for diagnosing and managing musculoskeletal lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.08.019DOI Listing
January 2021

CORR Insights®: Thirty-day Postoperative Complications After Surgery for Metastatic Long Bone Disease Are Associated With Higher Mortality at 1 Year.

Authors:
Adam S Levin

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 02;478(2):319-321

A. S. Levin, Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438156PMC
February 2020

Surgical Hip Dislocation Using the Modified Hardinge Approach for Excision of Osteocartilaginous Lesions of the Acetabulum and Femoral Neck in an Adult: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2019 Dec;9(4):e0026

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Case: A 20-year-old woman presented with hip pain related to an osteocartilaginous lesion arising within the cotyloid fossa. She also had a lesion along the inferior femoral neck. Resection of both lesions was performed with surgical hip dislocation through a modified Hardinge approach.

Conclusions: This unusual location for an osteocartilaginous lesion can lead to substantial pain and disability. Surgical dislocation through a modified Hardinge approach is an excellent option to concurrently resect these benign lesions of the cotyloid fossa and femoral neck without the need for trochanteric osteotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00026DOI Listing
December 2019

Prophylactic Versus Postfracture Stabilization for Metastatic Lesions of the Long Bones: A Comparison of 30-day Postoperative Outcomes.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019 Aug;27(15):e709-e716

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Dr. El Abiad, Dr. Raad, Dr. Puvanesarajah, Dr. Rao, Dr. Morris, and Dr. Levin), the Department of Pathology (Dr. Morris and Dr. Levin), and the Department of Oncology (Dr. Morris and Dr. Levin), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Introduction: The goals of orthopaedic treatment for most patients with osseous metastases are to control pain, maintain function, and maximize quality of life and time at home. The aim of this study was to determine differences in 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality between patients who underwent prophylactic versus postfracture stabilization for metastatic lesions of long bones.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for patients who underwent prophylactic fixation (n = 461) or postfracture stabilization (n = 856) for pathologic fractures because of metastatic lesions of long bones from 2006 to 2016. The groups were compared with respect to several potential confounders using Student t, Kruskal-Wallis, and χ tests. Logistic and Poisson regression models (inclusion threshold of P < 0.1) were used to assess the associations of functional status with outcomes. The alpha level was set at 0.05.

Results: Prophylactic fixation was associated with a lower risk of major medical complications (odds ratio = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.93; P = 0.02), discharge to a care facility rather than home (odds ratio = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.63; P < 0.01), and lower risk of a longer hospital stay (incidence risk ratio = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.96; P = 0.01) compared with postfracture stabilization. No significant difference was found in the risk of unplanned revision surgery or 30-day postoperative mortality between the two groups.

Conclusion: Although prevention of pathologic fractures caused by metastatic disease may not always be possible, patients who underwent prophylactic stabilization had a lower risk of major complications within 30 days postoperatively and shorter hospital stays compared with patients who underwent postfracture stabilization.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00345DOI Listing
August 2019
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