Publications by authors named "Adam Rainczuk"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Utilizing Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry to Investigate the Unfolding Pathway of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase.

Front Chem 2021 9;9:614595. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Native mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for structural biology as it enables the evaluation of molecules as they occur in their physiological conditions. Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) has shown essential in these analyses as it allows the measurement of the shape of a molecule, denoted as its collision cross section (CCS), and mass. The structural information garnered from native IMS-MS provides insight into the tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins and can be used to validate NMR or crystallographic X-ray structures. Additionally, due to the rapid nature (millisecond measurements) and ability of IMS-MS to analyze heterogeneous solutions, it can be used to address structural questions not possible with traditional structural approaches. Herein, we applied multiple solution conditions to systematically denature bovine Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assess its unfolding pathway from the holo-dimer to the holo-monomer, single-metal monomer, and apo-monomer. Additionally, we compared and noted 1-2% agreement between CCS values from both drift tube IMS and trapped IMS for the SOD1 holo-monomer and holo-dimer. The observed CCS values were in excellent agreement with computational CCS values predicted from the homo-dimer crystal structure, showcasing the ability to use both IMS-MS platforms to provide valuable structural information for molecular modeling of protein interactions and structural assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.614595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900566PMC
February 2021

Keratin-14 (KRT14) Positive Leader Cells Mediate Mesothelial Clearance and Invasion by Ovarian Cancer Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Aug 22;11(9). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton 3168, Australia.

Epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis is driven by spheroids, which are heterogeneous cancer cell aggregates released from the primary tumour mass that passively disseminate throughout the peritoneal cavity to promote tumour spread, disease recurrence, and acquired chemoresistance. Despite their clinical importance, the molecular events that control spheroid attachment and invasion into underlying healthy tissues remain poorly understood. We examined a novel in vitro invasion model using imaging mass spectrometry to establish a "snapshot" of the spheroid/mesothelial interface. Amongst numerous adhesion-related proteins, we identified a sub-population of highly motile, invasive cells that expressed the basal epithelial marker KRT14 as an absolute determinant of invasive potential. The loss of KRT14 completely abrogated the invasive capacity, but had no impact on cell viability or proliferation, suggesting an invasion-specific role. Our data demonstrate KRT14 cells as an ovarian cancer "leader cell" phenotype underlying tumor invasion, and suggest their importance as a clinically relevant target in directed anti-tumour therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769856PMC
August 2019

Targeting XIAP and PPARγ in Granulosa Cell Tumors Alters Metabolic Signaling.

J Proteome Res 2019 04 4;18(4):1691-1702. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Molecular and Translational Science , Hudson Institute of Medical Research and the Monash University , Clayton , Victoria 3168 , Australia.

Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are hormonally active cancers characterized by indolent growth and late, invasive relapse. No therapies have yet proven to be efficacious. We previously reported that the inhibition of the antiapoptotic X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) removes transrepression of the pro-proliferative nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, in a GCT-derived cell line, KGN. Both PPARγ and XIAP are overexpressed in human GCT. The inhibition of XIAP with the restoration of PPARγ signaling using a SMAC-mimetic (Compound A (CmpdA)) and rosiglitazone (RGZ)/retinoic acid (RA), respectively, reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the KGN cells. Utilizing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture, we identified 32 differentially expressed proteins in the KGN cells following the CmpdA/RGZ/RA-treatment, 22 of which were upregulated by ≥1.5 fold. Of these, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; 4.5-fold induction) was examined for putative binding sites for PPARγ using in silico screening. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the direct binding of PPARγ on the promoter region of SCD, with increased binding in the CmpdA/RGZ/RA-treated KGN cells. Because PPARγ plays a pivotal role in lipid and glucose metabolism, the upregulation of proteins associated with metabolic processes such as SCD is consistent with the restoration of PPARγ activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00917DOI Listing
April 2019

Non-Invasive Fluorescent Monitoring of Ovarian Cancer in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Dec 31;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 31.

School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora 3083, Australia.

Ovarian cancers (OCs) are the most lethal gynaecological malignancy, with high levels of relapse and acquired chemo-resistance. Whilst the tumour⁻immune nexus controls both cancer progression and regression, the lack of an appropriate system to accurately model tumour stage and immune status has hampered the validation of clinically relevant immunotherapies and therapeutic vaccines to date. To address this need, we stably integrated the near-infrared phytochrome iRFP720 at the genomic locus of ID8 mouse OC cells. Intrabursal ovarian implantation into C57BL/6 mice, followed by regular, non-invasive fluorescence imaging, permitted the direct visualization of tumour mass and distribution over the course of progression. Four distinct phases of tumour growth and dissemination were detectable over time that closely mimicked clinical OC progression. Progression-related changes in immune cells also paralleled typical immune profiles observed in human OCs. Specifically, we observed changes in both the CD8+ T cell effector (Teff):regulatory (Treg) ratio, as well as the dendritic cell (DC)-to-myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) ratio over time across multiple immune cell compartments and in peritoneal ascites. Importantly, iRFP720 expression had no detectible influence over immune profiles. This new model permits non-invasive, longitudinal tumour monitoring whilst preserving host⁻tumour immune interactions, and allows for the pre-clinical assessment of immune profiles throughout disease progression as well as the direct visualization of therapeutic responses. This simple fluorescence-based approach provides a useful new tool for the validation of novel immuno-therapeutics against OC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356411PMC
December 2018

Discovery and Validation of Novel Protein Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer Patient Urine.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2018 05 2;12(3):e1700135. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Molecular and Translational Sciences, Monash University, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: For the vast majority of ovarian cancer patients, optimal surgical debulking remains a key prognostic factor associated with improved survival. A standardized, biomarker-based test, to preoperatively discriminate benign from malignant disease and inform appropriate patient triage, is highly desirable. However, no fit-for-purpose biomarkers have yet been identified.

Experimental Design: We conducted a pilot study consisting of 40 patient urine samples (20 from each group), using label-free quantitative (LFQ) mass spectrometry, to identify potential biomarker candidates in urine from individual ovarian cancer patients. To validate these changes, we used parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) to investigate their abundance in an independent validation cohort (n = 20) of patient urine samples.

Results: LFQ analyses identified 4394 proteins (17 027 peptides) in a discovery set of 20 urine samples. Twenty-three proteins were significantly elevated in the malignant patient group compared to patients with benign disease. Several proteins, including LYPD1, LYVE1, PTMA, and SCGB1A1 were confirmed to be enriched in the urine of ovarian cancer patients using PRM. We also identified the established ovarian cancer biomarkers WFDC2 (HE4) and mesothelin (MSLN), validating our approach.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: This is the first application of a LFQ-PRM workflow to identify and validate ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers in patient urine samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.201700135DOI Listing
May 2018

Autoantibodies against HSF1 and CCDC155 as Biomarkers of Early-Stage, High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2018 02 15;27(2):183-192. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Molecular and Translational Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

Tumor-directed circulating autoantibodies (AAb) are a well-established feature of many solid tumor types, and are often observed prior to clinical disease manifestation. As such, they may provide a good indicator of early disease development. We have conducted a pilot study to identify novel AAbs as markers of early-stage HGSOCs. A rare cohort of patients with early (FIGO stage Ia-c) HGSOCs for IgG, IgA, and IgM-mediated AAb reactivity using high-content protein arrays (containing 9,184 individual proteins). AAb reactivity against selected antigens was validated by ELISA in a second, independent cohort of individual patients. A total of 184 antigens were differentially detected in early-stage HGSOC patients compared with all other patient groups assessed. Among the six most highly detected "early-stage" antigens, anti-IgA AAbs against HSF1 and anti-IgG AAbs CCDC155 (KASH5; nesprin 5) were significantly elevated in patients with early-stage malignancy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested that AAbs against HSF1 provided better detection of early-stage malignancy than CA125 alone. Combined measurement of anti-HSF1, anti-CCDC155, and CA125 also improved efficacy at higher sensitivity. The combined measurement of anti-HSF1, anti-CCDC155, and CA125 may be useful for early-stage HGSOC detection. This is the first study to specifically identify AAbs associated with early-stage HGSOC. The presence and high frequency of specific AAbs in early-stage cancer patients warrants a larger scale examination to define their value for early disease detection at primary diagnosis and/or recurrence. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0752DOI Listing
February 2018

Mapping the testicular interstitial fluid proteome from normal rats.

Proteomics 2016 09;16(17):2391-402

Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Communication between the testicular somatic (Sertoli, Leydig, peritubular myoid, macrophage) and germ cell types is essential for sperm production (spermatogenesis), but the communicating factors are poorly understood. We reasoned that identification of proteins in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) that bathes these cells could provide a new means to explore spermatogenic function. The aim of this study was to map the proteome of TIF from normal adult rats. Low-abundance proteins in TIF were enriched using ProteoMiner beads and identified by MALDI-MS/MS, recognizing 276 proteins. Comparison with proteomic and genomic databases showed these proteins originated from germ cells, somatic cells (Sertoli, peritubular myoid, Leydig), and blood plasma. In silico analysis revealed homologues of >80% TIF proteins in the human plasma proteome, suggesting ready exchange between these fluids. Only 36% of TIF proteins were common with seminiferous tubule fluid that transports mature spermatids to the epididymis, indicating these two fluids are quite different. This TIF proteome provides an important new resource for the study of intercellular communication in the testis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201600107DOI Listing
September 2016

Identification of novel dipeptidyl peptidase 9 substrates by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis.

FEBS J 2015 Oct 3;282(19):3737-57. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Centre for Cancer Research, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Australia.

Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a member of the S9B/DPPIV (DPP4) serine protease family, which cleaves N-terminal dipeptides at an Xaa-Pro consensus motif. Cytoplasmic DPP9 has roles in epidermal growth factor signalling and in antigen processing, whilst the role of the recently discovered nuclear form of DPP9 is unknown. Mice lacking DPP9 proteolytic activity die as neonates. We applied a modified 2D differential in-gel electrophoresis approach to identify novel DPP9 substrates, using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking endogenous DPP9 activity. A total of 111 potential new DPP9 substrates were identified, with nine proteins/peptides confirmed as DPP9 substrates by MALDI-TOF or immunoblotting. Moreover, we also identified the dipeptide Val-Ala as a consensus site for DPP9 cleavage that was not recognized by DPP8, suggesting different in vivo roles for these closely related enzymes. The relative kinetics for the cleavage of these nine candidate substrates by DPP9, DPP8 and DPP4 were determined. This is the first identification of DPP9 substrates from cells lacking endogenous DPP9 activity. These data greatly expand the potential roles of DPP9 and suggest different in vivo roles for DPP9 and DPP8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.13371DOI Listing
October 2015

The utility of isotope-coded protein labeling for prioritization of proteins found in ovarian cancer patient urine.

J Proteome Res 2013 Sep 16;12(9):4074-88. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Prince Henry's Institute, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, 3168.

Urine offers a number of attractive features as a sample type for biomarker discovery, including noninvasive sampling, quantity and availability, stability, and a narrow dynamic range. In this study we report the first application of isotope coded protein labeling (ICPL), coupled with in-solution isoelectric fractionation and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF, to examine and prioritize urinary proteins from ovarian cancer patients. Following the definition of stringent exclusion criteria a total of 579 proteins were identified with 43% providing quantitation data. Protein abundance changes were validated for selected proteins by ESI-Qq-TOF MS, following which Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis by tissue microarray was used to explore the biological relevance of the proteins identified. Several established markers (e.g., HE4, osteopontin) were identified at increased levels in ovarian cancer patient urine, validating the approach used; we also identified a number of potential marker candidates (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1, cell-adhesion molecule 1) previously unreported in the context of ovarian cancer. We conclude that the ICPL strategy for identification and relative quantitation of urine proteins is an appropriate tool for biomarker discovery studies, and can be applied for the selection of potential biomarker candidates for further characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr400618vDOI Listing
September 2013

Evidence for the antagonistic form of CXC-motif chemokine CXCL10 in serous epithelial ovarian tumours.

Int J Cancer 2014 Feb 28;134(3):530-41. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Laboratory, Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Patients with high-grade, serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) are generally diagnosed with extensive peritoneal metastases, and exhibit 5-year survival rates <30%. A subset of these tumours, defined as "immunoreactive," overexpress mRNA encoding the T-cell-recruiting chemokine CXCL10 (10-kDa interferon gamma-induced protein; C-X-C motif chemokine 10). Tumour-infiltrating CD4(+) CD8(+) T-cells are a well-documented, positive prognostic indicator for HGSOC patients; paradoxically, however, patients diagnosed with HGSOC (overexpressing CXCL10 and therefore theorised to recruit T-cells) typically exhibit poor survival. Recently, an "antagonistic" CXCL10 variant was identified that inhibited leucocyte recruitment to inflamed liver in vivo (Casrouge et al., J Clin Invest 2011;121:308-17). We hypothesised that "immunoreactive" HGSOC might also express antagonistic CXCL10, interfering with leucocyte recruitment and contributing to poor patient prognosis. CXCL10 expression was analysed in HGSOC tissues grouped according to pathology, grade and FIGO stage at diagnosis, and its localisation and association with T-cells established by immunohistochemical staining in tissue microarrays. CXCL10 expression was increased in a subset of serous epithelial tumour samples; however, it did not correlate well with CD45-positive tumour infiltrate. Immunoprecipitation and de novo sequence analysis of CXCL10 identified the N-terminally cleaved, "antagonistic" variant of CXCL10 specifically in malignant tumours, and not in benign ovarian disease. The data demonstrate the presence of the antagonistic form of CXCL10 in HGSOC for the first time, and provide a partial explanation for reduced leucocyte infiltration observed in these tumours. We suggest that CXCL10 cleavage and subsequent antagonism of immune cell recruitment may be a feature of the "immunoreactive" HGSOC subtype, leading to early impairment of the immune response and subsequently worsening patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28393DOI Listing
February 2014

Proteomics of the human endometrium and uterine fluid: a pathway to biomarker discovery.

Fertil Steril 2013 Mar 6;99(4):1086-92. Epub 2012 Oct 6.

Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Failure of the endometrium to achieve receptivity results in infertility, and it is also a rate-limiting step in in vitro fertilization (IVF) success. The microenvironments provided by the endometrium during the receptive phase and that support implantation are highly complex and constantly changing as implantation progresses. Although a number of gene array studies have defined mRNA changes across the cycle, with infertility, and in IVF cycles, these have not generally been informative due in part to the subsequent regulation of transcription and posttranslational modifications of the proteins. State-of-the-art proteomic technologies now enable analysis of changes in the endometrium and its secretome related to cycle phase and associated with infertility. These techniques include two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, and multiplex analyses of selected panels of markers. Subsequent definition of cellular location, timing of production of identified proteins, and their regulation by steroid hormones and blastocyst-derived factors provide indications of their functions and their relationship to the establishment of pregnancy. Proteins discovered by proteomic analyses and fully evaluated will provide the differentiative profiles necessary to inform clinical practice and serve as an end point for optimizing stimulation cycles in IVF clinics as well as more clearly defining the molecular mechanisms underlying successful implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.09.013DOI Listing
March 2013

The emerging role of CXC chemokines in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Reproduction 2012 Sep 6;144(3):303-17. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Prince Henry's Institute, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

In recent years, chemokines have generated intense investigations due to their involvement in both physiological and pathological processes of inflammation, particularly in ovarian biology. The physiological process of ovulation in the normal ovary involves various chemokines that mediate the healing of the ruptured endometrium. It is now being reported that many of these chemokines are also associated with the cancer of the ovary. Chronic inflammation underlies the progression of ovarian cancer; therefore, it raises the possibility that chemokines are involved in the inflammatory process and mediate immune responses that may favour or inhibit tumour progression. Ovarian cancer is a gynaecological cancer responsible for highest rate of mortality in women. Although there have been several investigations and advances in surgery and chemotherapy, the survival rate for this disease remains low. This is mainly because of a lack of specific symptoms and biomarkers for detection. In this review, we have discussed the emerging role of the CXC chemokines in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The CXC group of chemokines is gaining importance in the field of ovarian cancer for being angiostatic and angiogenic in function. While there have been several studies on the angiogenesis function, emerging research shows that ELR(-) CXC chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, are angiostatic. Importantly, the angiostatic chemokines can inhibit the progression of EOC. Given that there are currently no biomarkers or specific therapeutic targets for the disease, these chemokines are emerging as promising targets for therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-12-0153DOI Listing
September 2012

Decidual-secreted factors alter invasive trophoblast membrane and secreted proteins implying a role for decidual cell regulation of placentation.

PLoS One 2012 16;7(2):e31418. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Prince Henry's Institute, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Inadequate or inappropriate implantation and placentation during the establishment of human pregnancy is thought to lead to first trimester miscarriage, placental insufficiency and other obstetric complications. To create the placental blood supply, specialized cells, the 'extravillous trophoblast' (EVT) invade through the differentiated uterine endometrium (the decidua) to engraft and remodel uterine spiral arteries. We hypothesized that decidual factors would regulate EVT function by altering the production of EVT membrane and secreted factors. We used a proteomics approach to identify EVT membrane and secreted proteins regulated by decidual cell factors. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized in vitro by treatment with estradiol (10(-8) M), medroxyprogesterone acetate (10(-7) M) and cAMP (0.5 mM) for 14 days. Conditioned media (CM) was collected on day 2 (non-decidualized CM) and 14 (decidualized CM) of treatment. Isolated primary EVT cultured on Matrigel™ were treated with media control, non-decidualized or decidualized CM for 16 h. EVT CM was fractionated for proteins <30 kDa using size-exclusion affinity nanoparticles (SEAN) before trypsin digestion and HPLC-MS/MS. 43 proteins produced by EVT were identified; 14 not previously known to be expressed in the placenta and 12 which had previously been associated with diseases of pregnancy including preeclampsia. Profilin 1, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP1), dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1/cathepsin C) and annexin A2 expression by interstitial EVT in vivo was validated by immunhistochemistry. Decidual CM regulation in vitro was validated by western blotting: decidualized CM upregulated profilin 1 in EVT CM and non-decidualized CM upregulated annexin A2 in EVT CM and pro-DPP1 in EVT cell lysate. Here, non-decidualized factors induced protease expression by EVT suggesting that non-decidualized factors may induce a pro-inflammatory cascade. Preeclampsia is a pro-inflammatory condition. Overall, we have demonstrated the potential of a proteomics approach to identify novel proteins expressed by EVT and to uncover the mechanisms leading to disease states.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0031418PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281063PMC
August 2012

Proprotein convertase 5/6 is critical for embryo implantation in women: regulating receptivity by cleaving EBP50, modulating ezrin binding, and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions.

Endocrinology 2011 Dec 4;152(12):5041-52. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Establishment of endometrial receptivity is vital for successful embryo implantation; its failure causes infertility. Epithelial receptivity acquisition involves dramatic structural changes in the plasma membrane and cytoskeleton. Proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC6), a serine protease of the proprotein convertase (PC) family, is up-regulated in the human endometrium specifically at the time of epithelial receptivity and stromal cell decidualization. PC6 is the only PC member tightly regulated in this manner. The current study addressed the importance and mechanisms of PC6 action in regulating receptivity in women. PC6 was dysregulated in the endometrial epithelium during the window of implantation in infertile women of three demographically different cohorts. Its critical role in receptivity was evidenced by a significant reduction in mouse blastocyst attachment of endometrial epithelial cells after PC6 knockdown by small interfering RNA. Using a proteomic approach, we discovered that PC6 cleaved the key scaffolding protein, ezrin-radixin-moesin binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), thereby profoundly affecting its interaction with binding protein ezrin (a key protein bridging actin filaments and plasma membrane), EBP50/ezrin cellular localization, and cytoskeleton-membrane connections. We further validated this novel PC6 regulation of receptivity in human endometrium in vivo in fertile vs. infertile patients. These results strongly indicate that PC6 plays a key role in regulating fundamental cellular remodeling processes, such as plasma membrane transformation and membrane-cytoskeletal interface reorganization. PC6 cleavage of a crucial scaffolding protein EBP50, thereby profoundly regulating membrane-cytoskeletal reorganization, greatly extends the current knowledge of PC biology and provides substantial new mechanistic insight into the fields of reproduction, basic cellular biology, and PC biochemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2011-1273DOI Listing
December 2011

Combination of hydrogel nanoparticles and proteomics to reveal secreted proteins associated with decidualization of human uterine stromal cells.

Proteome Sci 2011 Sep 1;9(1):50. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Prince Henrys Institute of Medical Research, Clayton 3168 Australia.

Background: Identification of secreted proteins of low abundance is often limited by abundant and high molecular weight (MW) proteins. We have optimised a procedure to overcome this limitation.

Results: Low MW proteins in the conditioned media of cultured cells were first captured using dual-size exclusion/affinity hydrogel nanoparticles and their identities were then revealed by proteomics.

Conclusions: This technique enables the analysis of secreted proteins of cultured cells low MW and low abundance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-5956-9-50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184050PMC
September 2011

2D-DiGE analysis of the human endometrial secretome reveals differences between receptive and nonreceptive states in fertile and infertile women.

J Proteome Res 2010 Dec 2;9(12):6256-64. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, and Monash IVF Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Endometrial secretions in the uterine cavity contain mediators important for endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. Unbiased analysis of uterine fluid from a receptive versus nonreceptive time of the menstrual cycle and in fertile and infertile women will provide new insights into uterine receptivity. We hypothesized that proteomic analysis of human uterine lavages would identify proteins important for the establishment of pregnancy in humans. Lavages collected from fertile (n = 7) and infertile (n = 8) women during the midsecretory (MS) phase, and from fertile women during the midproliferative (MP) (n = 7) phase, were assessed using 2D-differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DiGE) over a pI 4-7 range. Statistical analysis revealed 7 spots that were significantly decreased in the MP compared to the MS phase, while 18 spots showed differential expression between fertile and infertile women. A number of proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, including antithrombin III and alpha-2-macroglobulin, whose production was confirmed in endometrial epithelium. Their staining pattern suggests roles during embryo implantation. Assessment of the human endometrial secretome has identified differences in the protein content of uterine fluid with respect to receptivity and fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr1004828DOI Listing
December 2010

Is SELDI-TOF a valid tool for diagnostic biomarkers?

Trends Parasitol 2010 Dec 12;26(12):561-7. Epub 2010 Aug 12.

National Reference Centre for Parasitology, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The genome revolution is providing fresh insights into host and parasite genomes, and new tools are becoming available for examining host-parasite interactions at the proteome level. Technologies such as surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) can be applied to discover biomarkers (alterations in both host and parasite proteomes) associated with parasitic diseases. Such biomarkers can represent host proteins, fragments of host proteins or parasite proteins that appear in body fluids or tissues following infection. Individual biomarkers or biomarker patterns not only have diagnostic utility (e.g. in active disease, prognosis, tests of cure) but can also provide unique insights into the mechanisms underlying host responses and pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2010.07.004DOI Listing
December 2010

Proteomics and the search for biomarkers of female reproductive diseases.

Reproduction 2010 Oct 13;140(4):505-19. Epub 2010 Jul 13.

Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Over the past decade, high-throughput proteomics technologies have evolved considerably and have become increasingly more commonly applied to the investigation of female reproductive diseases. Proteomic approaches facilitate the identification of new disease biomarkers by comparing the abundance of hundreds of proteins simultaneously to find those specific to a particular clinical condition. Some of the best studied areas of female reproductive biology applying proteomics include gynaecological cancers, endometriosis and endometrial infertility. This review will discuss the progress that has been made in these areas and will highlight some of the emerging technologies that promise to contribute to better understanding of the female reproductive disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-10-0226DOI Listing
October 2010

Posttranslational activation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 is mediated by proprotein convertase 6 during decidualization for pregnancy establishment.

Endocrinology 2010 Aug 16;151(8):3909-17. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) require major posttranslational modifications to become biologically active. One such key modification is endoproteolytic cleavage of the initially synthesized nonactive precursor protein to release the mature ligand. Here we show in a physiological context of uterine stromal decidualization that BMP2 cleavage is mediated by proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC6). Decidualization is a uterine remodeling event critical for embryo implantation. Deletion or knockdown of either BMP2 or PC6 inhibits decidualization causing implantation failure and female infertility. In this study we provide biochemical and physiological evidence that PC6 proteolytically activates BMP2. We used freshly isolated primary human endometrial stromal cells and demonstrated that PC6 was the sole member of the PC family significantly up-regulated during decidualization. The precursor form of BMP2 was reduced, whereas its active form was increased during decidualization. Inhibition of PC6 activity inhibited decidualization, and this was accompanied by a total blockade of BMP2 activation. Addition of recombinant active BMP2 partially rescued the decidualization arrest caused by PC6 inhibition. PC6 processed BMP2 at the KREKR(282) downward arrow cleavage site, and mutating this site prevented the cleavage. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that the proteolytic activation and thus bioavailability of BMP2 is controlled by PC6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2010-0326DOI Listing
August 2010

Post-translational modifications and protein-specific isoforms in endometriosis revealed by 2D DIGE.

J Proteome Res 2010 May;9(5):2438-49

Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Monash University, and Monash IVF, Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia.

Endometriosis is a chronic disorder affecting approximately 10% of women in whom endometrial tissue forms painful lesions outside the uterus. It has a major impact on their physical, mental and social well-being but has no known cure, and there is no nonsurgical means of diagnosis. We have used a proteomic approach to identify proteins with altered abundance in the eutopic endometrium of endometriosis patients in the midsecretory phase of the menstrual cycle. 2D-differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 20 proteins that were present at different levels in endometriosis patients (p < 0.05), many of which have not previously been associated with endometriosis. Protein abundance changes did not correlate well with published gene array data, emphasizing the extensive post-translational modification that occurs in this tissue. Abundance or localization changes in endometrial tissue were validated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting for three proteins, vimentin (VIM), peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), and ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1 (RNH1), while observed changes could not be confirmed for coronin 1A (CORO1A) or transgelin (TAGLN2). In addition, multiple charge and size isoforms were observed for PDRX6 and vimentin (VIM), and an additional PDRX6 isoform was observed in endometriosis patients that was below the level of detection in healthy women. Biological pathway analysis identified that cytoskeletal remodeling via keratin intermediate filaments, processing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR), the glucocorticoid receptor subunit alpha (GCR), and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) were all significantly over-represented features in endometriosis patients. This study highlights the highly dynamic nature of endometrial tissue and suggests that considerable post-translational modification of proteins is a key factor in the pathology of endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr901131pDOI Listing
May 2010

Proteomic analysis of the intestinal adaptation response reveals altered expression of fatty acid binding proteins following massive small bowel resection.

J Proteome Res 2010 Mar;9(3):1437-49

Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Intestinal adaptation in response to the loss of the small intestine is essential to restore enteral autonomy in patients who have undergone massive small bowel resection (MSBR). In a proportion of patients, intestinal function is not restored, resulting in chronic intestinal failure (IF). Early referral of such patients for transplant provides the best prognosis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain elusive and there is currently no convenient marker to predict whether patients will develop IF. We have investigated the adaptation response in a well-characterized porcine model of intestinal adaptation. 2D DIGE analysis of ileal epithelium from piglets recovering from massive small bowel resection (MSBR) identified over 60 proteins that changed specifically in MSBR animals relative to nonoperational or sham-operated controls. Three fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP, FABP-6, and I-FABP) showed changes in MSBR animals. The expression changes and localization of each FABP were validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis. FABP expression changes in MSBR animals occurred concurrently with altered triglyceride and bile acid metabolism as well as weight gain. The observed FABP expression changes in the ileal epithelium occur as part of the intestinal adaptation response and could provide a clinically useful marker to evaluate adaptation following MSBR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr900976fDOI Listing
March 2010

An optimized procedure for the capture, fractionation and proteomic analysis of proteins using hydrogel nanoparticles.

Proteomics 2010 Jan;10(2):332-6

Prince Henrys Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia.

We have developed an optimized procedure using dual size exclusion/affinity hydrogel nanoparticles to capture and comparatively analyze low molecular mass proteins directly from biological samples. The method described facilitates charge- and size-dependent protein binding, direct analysis by MS or other means and is highly reproducible. A comparative analysis of the low molecular mass proteome of plasma following freeze-thaw immediately after venipuncture is used to illustrate proof-of-concept. The technique described is rapid and may be easily reproduced in any laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200900187DOI Listing
January 2010

Proteomic characterization of midproliferative and midsecretory human endometrium.

J Proteome Res 2009 Apr;8(4):2032-44

Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, P.O. Box 5152, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

This study aimed to identify proteins differentially expressed in the human endometrium between the proliferative and secretory phases of normal menstrual cycles by 2D differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). A total of 196 out of 1017 spots were differentially expressed (p < 0.05). Mass spectrometry identified 76 proteins representing 41 different gene products. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the observed changes in 3 representative proteins (Rho-GDIalpha, CLIC1, PGRMC1). Biological pathway analysis identified the Jnk and EGF signaling pathways as key regulators of protein expression in the midsecretory phase of endometrial proteome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr801024gDOI Listing
April 2009

DNA vaccines and their application against parasites--promise, limitations and potential solutions.

Biotechnol Annu Rev 2004 ;10:189-236

Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Bundoora 3083, Australia.

DNA or nucleic acid vaccines are being evaluated for efficacy against a range of parasitic diseases. Data from studies in rodent model systems have provided proof of principle that DNA vaccines are effective at inducing both humoral and T cell responses to a variety of candidate vaccine antigens. In particular, the induction of potent cellular responses often gives DNA vaccination an immunological advantage over subunit protein vaccination. Protection against parasite challenge has been demonstrated in a number of systems. However, application of parasite DNA vaccines in large animals including ruminants, primates and humans has been compromised by the relative lack of immune responsiveness to the vaccines, but the reasons for this hyporesponsiveness are not clear. Here, we review DNA vaccines against protozoan parasites, in particular vaccines for malaria, and the use of genomic approaches such as expression library immunization to generate novel vaccines. The application of DNA vaccines in ruminants is reviewed. We discuss some of the approaches being evaluated to improve responsiveness in large animals including the use of cytokines as adjuvants, targeting molecules as delivery ligands, electroporation and CpG oligonucleotides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1387-2656(04)10007-0DOI Listing
July 2006