Publications by authors named "Adam R McKay"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lytic water dynamics reveal evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of ATP hydrolysis by TIP49 AAA+ ATPases.

Structure 2014 Apr 6;22(4):549-59. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Division of Biosciences, Institute for Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Eukaryotic TIP49a (Pontin) and TIP49b (Reptin) AAA+ ATPases play essential roles in key cellular processes. How their weak ATPase activity contributes to their important functions remains largely unknown and difficult to analyze because of the divergent properties of TIP49a and TIP49b proteins and of their homo- and hetero-oligomeric assemblies. To circumvent these complexities, we have analyzed the single ancient TIP49 ortholog found in the archaeon Methanopyrus kandleri (mkTIP49). All-atom homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations validated by biochemical assays reveal highly conserved organizational principles and identify key residues for ATP hydrolysis. An unanticipated crosstalk between Walker B and Sensor I motifs impacts the dynamics of water molecules and highlights a critical role of trans-acting aspartates in the lytic water activation step that is essential for the associative mechanism of ATP hydrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2014.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991330PMC
April 2014

The naphthoquinone diospyrin is an inhibitor of DNA gyrase with a novel mechanism of action.

J Biol Chem 2013 Feb 28;288(7):5149-56. Epub 2012 Dec 28.

Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis and other bacterial diseases represent a significant threat to human health. The DNA topoisomerases are excellent targets for chemotherapy, and DNA gyrase in particular is a well-validated target for antibacterial agents. Naphthoquinones (e.g. diospyrin and 7-methyljuglone) have been shown to have therapeutic potential, particularly against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have found that these compounds are inhibitors of the supercoiling reaction catalyzed by M. tuberculosis gyrase and other gyrases. Our evidence strongly suggests that the compounds bind to the N-terminal domain of GyrB, which contains the ATPase active site, but are not competitive inhibitors of the ATPase reaction. We propose that naphthoquinones bind to GyrB at a novel site close to the ATPase site. This novel mode of action could be exploited to develop new antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.419069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3576119PMC
February 2013

Photodetachment spectra of deprotonated fluorescent protein chromophore anions.

J Phys Chem A 2012 Aug 19;116(30):7943-9. Epub 2012 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, University College London , 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ, U.K.

Isolated model anion chromophores of the green and cyan fluorescent proteins were generated in an electrospray ion source, and their photodetachment spectra were recorded using photoelectron imaging. Vertical photodetachment energies of 2.85(10) and 4.08(10) eV have been measured for the model green fluorescent protein chromophore anion, corresponding to photodetachment from the ground electronic state of the anion to the ground and first excited electronic states of the radical, respectively. For the model cyan fluorescent protein chromophore anion, vertical photodetachment energies of 2.88(10) and 3.96(10) eV have been measured, corresponding to detachment from the ground electronic state of the anion to the ground and first excited electronic states of the neutral radical, respectively. We also find evidence suggesting that autoionization of electronically excited states of the chromophore anions competes with direct photodetachment. For comparison and to benchmark our measurements, the vertical photodetachment energies of deprotonated phenol and indole anions have also been recorded and presented. Quantum chemistry calculations support our assignments. We discuss our results in the context of the isolated protein chromophore anions acting as electron donors, one of their potential biological functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp3058349DOI Listing
August 2012

Targeting serpins in high-throughput and structure-based drug design.

Methods Enzymol 2011 ;501:139-75

Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Native, metastable serpins inherently tend to undergo stabilizing conformational transitions in mechanisms of health (e.g., enzyme inhibition) and disease (serpinopathies). This intrinsic tendency is modifiable by ligand binding, thus structure-based drug design is an attractive strategy in the serpinopathies. This can be viewed as a labor-intensive approach, and historically, its intellectual attractiveness has been tempered by relatively limited success in development of drugs reaching clinical practice. However, the increasing availability of a range of powerful experimental systems and higher-throughput techniques is causing academic and early-stage industrial pharmaceutical approaches to converge. In this review, we outline the different systems and techniques that are bridging the gap between what have traditionally been considered distinct disciplines. The individual methods are not serpin-specific. Indeed, many have only recently been applied to serpins, and thus investigators in other fields may have greater experience of their use to date. However, by presenting examples from our work and that of other investigators in the serpin field, we highlight how techniques with potential for automation and scaling can be combined to address a range of context-specific challenges in targeting the serpinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385950-1.00008-0DOI Listing
March 2012

Assembly states of the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP-1) revealed by sedimentation velocity and non-denaturing MS.

Biochem J 2011 May;436(1):101-12

Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan.

Proteins often exist as ensembles of interconverting states in solution which are often difficult to quantify. In the present manuscript we show that the combination of MS under nondenaturing conditions and AUC-SV (analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity) unambiguously clarifies a distribution of states and hydrodynamic shapes of assembled oligomers for the NAP-1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1). MS established the number of associated units, which was utilized as input for the numerical analysis of AUC-SV profiles. The AUC-SV analysis revealed that less than 1% of NAP-1 monomer exists at the micromolar concentration range and that the basic assembly unit consists of dimers of yeast or human NAP-1. These dimers interact non-covalently to form even-numbered higher-assembly states, such as tetramers, hexamers, octamers and decamers. MS and AUC-SV consistently showed that the formation of the higher oligomers was suppressed with increasing ionic strength, implicating electrostatic interactions in the formation of higher oligomers. The hydrodynamic shapes of the NAP-1 tetramer estimated from AUC-SV agreed with the previously proposed assembly models built using the known three-dimensional structure of yeast NAP-1. Those of the hexamer and octamer could be represented by new models shown in the present study. Additionally, MS was used to measure the stoichiometry of the interaction between the human NAP-1 dimer and the histone H2A-H2B dimer or H3-H4 tetramer. The present study illustrates a rigorous procedure for the analysis of protein assembly and protein-protein interactions in solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20102063DOI Listing
May 2011

Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over" conformation: evidence of positive cooperativity in binding.

Biochemistry 2011 May 5;50(17):3432-40. Epub 2011 Apr 5.

Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, United Kingdom.

DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that control DNA topology and are vital targets for antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. Here we present a mass spectrometry study of complexes formed between the A subunit of the topoisomerase DNA gyrase and the bifunctional inhibitor simocyclinone D8 (SD8), an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces. These studies show that, in an alternative mode of interaction to that found by X-ray crystallography, each subunit binds a single bifunctional inhibitor with separate binding pockets for the two ends of SD8. The gyrase subunits form constitutive dimers, and fractional occupancies of inhibitor-bound states show that there is strong allosteric cooperativity in the binding of two bifunctional ligands to the dimer. We show that the mass spectrometry data can be fitted to a general model of cooperative binding via an extension of the "tight-binding" approach, providing a rigorous determination of the dissociation constants and degree of cooperativity. This general approach will be applicable to other systems with multiple binding sites and highlights mass spectrometry's role as a powerful emerging tool for unraveling the complexities of biomolecular interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi101691kDOI Listing
May 2011

Molecular recognition between Escherichia coli enolase and ribonuclease E.

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2010 Sep 13;66(Pt 9):1036-40. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, England.

In Escherichia coli and many other bacterial species, the glycolytic enzyme enolase is a component of the multi-enzyme RNA degradosome, an assembly that is involved in RNA processing and degradation. Enolase is recruited into the degradosome through interactions with a small recognition motif located within the degradosome-scaffolding domain of RNase E. Here, the crystal structure of enolase bound to its cognate site from RNase E (residues 823-850) at 1.9 A resolution is presented. The structure suggests that enolase may help to organize an adjacent conserved RNA-binding motif in RNase E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0907444910030015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2935283PMC
September 2010

Mass spectrometry defines the stoichiometry of ribosomal stalk complexes across the phylogenetic tree.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2010 Aug 13;9(8):1774-83. Epub 2010 May 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The ribosomal stalk complex plays a crucial role in delivering translation factors to the catalytic site of the ribosome. It has a very similar architecture in all cells, although the protein components in bacteria are unrelated to those in archaea and eukaryotes. Here we used mass spectrometry to investigate ribosomal stalk complexes from bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea in situ on the ribosome. Specifically we targeted ribosomes with different optimal growth temperatures. Our results showed that for the mesophilic bacterial ribosomes we investigated the stalk complexes are exclusively pentameric or entirely heptameric in the case of thermophilic bacteria, whereas we observed only pentameric stalk complexes in eukaryotic species. We also found the surprising result that for mesophilic archaea, Methanococcus vannielii, Methanococcus maripaludis, and Methanosarcina barkeri, both pentameric and heptameric stoichiometries are present simultaneously within a population of ribosomes. Moreover the ratio of pentameric to heptameric stalk complexes changed during the course of cell growth. We consider these differences in stoichiometry within ribosomal stalk complexes in the context of convergent evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M000072-MCP201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2938062PMC
August 2010

Oligomeric assembly and interactions within the human RuvB-like RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 complexes.

Biochem J 2010 Jul;429(1):113-25

Department of Structural and Molecular Biology, Darwin Building, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

The two closely related eukaryotic AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities), RuvBL1 (RuvB-like 1) and RuvBL2, are essential components of large multi-protein complexes involved in diverse cellular processes. Although the molecular mechanisms of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 function remain unknown, oligomerization is likely to be important for their function together or individually, and different oligomeric forms might underpin different functions. Several experimental approaches were used to investigate the molecular architecture of the RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complex and the role of the ATPase-insert domain (domain II) for its assembly and stability. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 were mainly monomeric and each monomer co-existed with small proportions of dimers, trimers and hexamers. Adenine nucleotides induced hexamerization of RuvBL2, but not RuvBL1. In contrast, the RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complexes contained single- and double-hexamers together with smaller forms. The role of domain II in complex assembly was examined by size-exclusion chromatography using deletion mutants of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2. Significantly, catalytically competent dodecameric RuvBL1-RuvBL2, complexes lacking domain II in one or both proteins could be assembled but the loss of domain II in RuvBL1 destabilized the dodecamer. The composition of the RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complex was analysed by MS. Several species of mixed RuvBL1/2 hexamers with different stoichiometries were seen in the spectra of the RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complex. A number of our results indicate that the architecture of the human RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complex does not fit the recent structural model of the yeast Rvb1-Rvb2 complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20100489DOI Listing
July 2010

Structural basis for the cooperative interplay between the two causative gene products of combined factor V and factor VIII deficiency.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Mar 8;107(9):4034-9. Epub 2010 Feb 8.

Department of Structural Biology and Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8603, Japan.

Combined deficiency of coagulation factors V and VIII (F5F8D), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by coordinate reduction in the plasma levels of factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII), is genetically linked to mutations in the transmembrane lectin ERGIC-53 and the soluble calcium-binding protein MCFD2. Growing evidence indicates that these two proteins form a complex recycling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and thereby function as a cargo receptor in the early secretory pathway of FV and FVIII. For better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional coordination of ERGIC-53 and MCFD2, we herein characterize their interaction by x-ray crystallographic analysis in conjunction with NMR and ultracentrifugation analyses. Inspection of the combined data reveals that ERGIC-53-CRD binds MCFD2 through its molecular surface remote from the sugar-binding site, giving rise to a 11 complex in solution. The interaction is independent of sugar-binding of ERGIC-53 and involves most of the missense mutation sites of MCFD2 so far reported in F5F8D. Comparison with the previously reported uncomplexed structure of each protein indicates that MCFD2 but not ERGIC-53-CRD undergoes significant conformational alterations upon complex formation. Our findings provide a structural basis for the cooperative interplay between ERGIC-53 and MCFD2 in capturing FV and FVIII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908526107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840101PMC
March 2010

A crystal structure of the bifunctional antibiotic simocyclinone D8, bound to DNA gyrase.

Science 2009 Dec;326(5958):1415-8

Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.

Simocyclinones are bifunctional antibiotics that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase by preventing DNA binding to the enzyme. We report the crystal structure of the complex formed between the N-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli gyrase A subunit and simocyclinone D8, revealing two binding pockets that separately accommodate the aminocoumarin and polyketide moieties of the antibiotic. These are close to, but distinct from, the quinolone-binding site, consistent with our observations that several mutations in this region confer resistance to both agents. Biochemical studies show that the individual moieties of simocyclinone D8 are comparatively weak inhibitors of gyrase relative to the parent compound, but their combination generates a more potent inhibitor. Our results should facilitate the design of drug molecules that target these unexploited binding pockets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1179123DOI Listing
December 2009

Allosteric activation of the ATPase activity of the Escherichia coli RhlB RNA helicase.

J Biol Chem 2008 Feb 28;283(9):5567-76. Epub 2007 Dec 28.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA.

Helicase B (RhlB) is one of the five DEAD box RNA-dependent ATPases found in Escherichia coli. Unique among these enzymes, RhlB requires an interaction with the partner protein RNase E for appreciable ATPase and RNA unwinding activities. To explore the basis for this activating effect, we have generated a di-cistronic vector that overexpresses a complex comprising RhlB and its recognition site within RNase E, corresponding to residues 696-762. Complex formation has been characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry, revealing an avid, enthalpy-favored interaction between the helicase and RNase E-(696-762) with an equilibrium binding constant (Ka) of at least 1 x 10(8) m(-1). We studied ATPase activity of mutants with substitutions within the ATP binding pocket of RhlB and on the putative interaction surface that mediates recognition of RNase E. For comparisons, corresponding mutations were prepared in two other E. coli DEAD box ATPases, RhlE and SrmB. Strikingly, substitutions at a phenylalanine near the Q-motif found in DEAD box proteins boosts the ATPase activity of RhlB in the absence of RNA, but completely inhibits it in its presence. The data support the proposal that the protein-protein and RNA-binding surfaces both communicate allosterically with the ATPase catalytic center. We conjecture that this communication may govern the mechanical power and efficiency of the helicases, and is tuned in individual helicases in accordance with cellular function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M708620200DOI Listing
February 2008

Elevated copy number of L-A virus in yeast mutant strains defective in ribosomal stalk.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Apr 12;355(2):575-80. Epub 2007 Feb 12.

Department of Molecular Biology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

The eukaryotic ribosomal stalk, composed of the P-proteins, is a part of the GTPase-associated-center which is directly responsible for stimulation of translation-factor-dependent GTP hydrolysis. Here we report that yeast mutant strains lacking P1/P2-proteins show high propagation of the yeast L-A virus. Affinity-capture-MS analysis of a protein complex isolated from a yeast mutant strain lacking the P1A/P2B proteins using anti-P0 antibodies showed that the Gag protein, the major coat protein of the L-A capsid, is associated with the ribosomal stalk. Proteomic analysis revealed that the elongation factor eEF1A was also present in the isolated complex. Additionally, yeast strains lacking the P1/P2-proteins are hypersensitive to paromomycin and hygromycin B, underscoring the fact that structural perturbations in the stalk strongly influence the ribosome function, especially at the level of elongation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.02.024DOI Listing
April 2007

Mass measurements of increased accuracy resolve heterogeneous populations of intact ribosomes.

J Am Chem Soc 2006 Sep;128(35):11433-42

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, UK.

It is established that noncovalent complexes can be maintained both during and after electrospray and that assemblies of increasing size and complexity often lead to broadened peaks in mass spectra. This broadening arises from the tendency of large protein assemblies to form adducts with salts and is compounded when complexes are isolated directly from cells, without the full protein complement. To investigate the origins of this broadening in mass spectral peaks and to develop the optimal method for analyzing mass spectra of large protein complexes, we have carried out a systematic investigation of a series of noncovalent complexes representing a range of different sizes and architectures. We establish a positive correlation between peak width and the increased mass observed and show that this correlation is independent of the instrumental parameters employed. Using this relationship we show that we can determine masses of both 30S subunits and intact 2.3 MDa 70S ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus. The masses of both particles are consistent with multiple populations of ribosomes. To identify these various populations we combine simulated mass spectra of ribosomes, with and without the full protein complement, and estimate the extent of adducts from our study of known complexes. The results allow us to determine the contribution of the different subpopulations to the overall mass spectrum. We confirm the existence of these subpopulations using tandem mass spectrometry of intact 30S subunits. Overall, the results show that, rather than uniform particles, gas-phase ribosomes consist of a number of discrete populations. More generally, the results establish a rigorous procedure for accurate mass measurement and spectral analysis of heterogeneous macromolecular assemblies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja061468qDOI Listing
September 2006

Heptameric (L12)6/L10 rather than canonical pentameric complexes are found by tandem MS of intact ribosomes from thermophilic bacteria.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 Jun 27;102(23):8192-7. Epub 2005 May 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom.

Ribosomes are universal translators of the genetic code into protein and represent macromolecular structures that are asymmetric, often heterogeneous, and contain dynamic regions. These properties pose considerable challenges for modern-day structural biology. Despite these obstacles, high-resolution x-ray structures of the 30S and 50S subunits have revealed the RNA architecture and its interactions with proteins for ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Haloarcula marismortui. Some regions, however, remain inaccessible to these high-resolution approaches because of their high conformational dynamics and potential heterogeneity, specifically the so-called L7/L12 stalk complex. This region plays a vital role in protein synthesis by interacting with GTPase factors in translation. Here, we apply tandem MS, an approach widely applied to peptide sequencing for proteomic applications but not previously applied to MDa complexes. Isolation and activation of ions assigned to intact 30S and 50S subunits releases proteins S6 and L12, respectively. Importantly, this process reveals, exclusively while attached to ribosomes, a phosphorylation of L12, the protein located in multiple copies at the tip of the stalk complex. Moreover, through tandem MS we discovered a stoichiometry for the stalk protuberance on Thermus thermophilus and other thermophiles and contrast this assembly with the analogous one on ribosomes from mesophiles. Together with evidence for a potential interaction with the degradosome, these results show that important findings on ribosome structure, interactions, and modifications can be discovered by tandem MS, even on well studied ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0502193102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1149426PMC
June 2005

Mass spectrometry of intact ribosomes.

FEBS Lett 2005 Feb;579(4):943-7

The University Chemical Laboratory, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK.

The ability to maintain intact ribosomes in the mass spectrometer has enabled research into their changes in conformation and interactions. In the mass spectrometer, it is possible to induce dissociation of proteins from the intact ribosome and, in conjunction with atomic structures, to understand the factors governing their release. We have applied this knowledge to interpret the structural basis for release of proteins from ribosomes for which no high resolution structures are available, such as complexes with elongation factor G and ribosomes from yeast. We also describe how improvements in technology and understanding have widened the scope of our research and lead to dramatic improvements in quality and information available from spectra of intact ribosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2004.12.003DOI Listing
February 2005