Publications by authors named "Adam Margalit"

34 Publications

Regional or Neuraxial Anesthesia May Help Mitigate the Effects of Bone Cement Implantation Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Cemented Hip and Knee Arthroplasty for Oncologic Indications.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Introduction: Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) occurs during and after cementation of implants and is associated with hypotension, hypoxia, and cardiovascular collapse. In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors and potential mitigating factors of BCIS in the oncologic adult cohort undergoing cemented arthroplasty.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed oncologic patients aged 18 years or older who underwent cemented arthroplasty of either the hip or knee from 2015 to 2020. All implants were stemmed. We classified BCIS into three separate categories: (1) grade 1: intraoperative moderate hypoxia (<94%) or drop in systolic blood pressure >20%; (2) grade 2: intraoperative severe hypoxia or drop in systolic blood pressure >40%; and (3) grade 3: cardiovascular collapse requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Demographics, primary malignancy diagnosis, intraoperative factors including cement timing, development of BCIS, 30-day postoperative outcomes, and mortality up to 2 years postoperatively were evaluated. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results: Sixty-seven patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 31 patients (46%) developed BCIS. No difference was found in age (65.5 versus 60.9 years; P = 0.15) or body mass index (28.8 kg/m2 versus 29.3 kg/m2; P = 0.76), comorbidities, intraoperative factors, or postoperative surgical outcomes between those who developed BCIS and those who did not (all; P > 0.05). An association with the type of anesthesia administered and development of BCIS in patients receiving general anesthesia alone (17/24 patients, 71%), neuraxial and general (4/15 patients, 27%), and regional and general anesthesia (10/28 patients 36%, P = 0.01) was found. Compared With neuraxial and regional anesthesia, general anesthesia alone had 5.8 (P = 0.007) and 4.5 times (P = 0.006) greater odds of developing BCIS, respectively. No differences were noted in rates of BCIS between regional and neuraxial anesthesia (P = 0.81).

Discussion: Addition of regional or neuraxial anesthesia may be protective in reducing development of BCIS in the orthopaedic oncologic cohort undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-21-00553DOI Listing
November 2021

Pediatric Back Pain Associated with Bertolotti Syndrome: A Report of 3 Cases with Varying Treatment Strategies.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 11 17;11(4). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Case: Three pediatric patients with back pain associated with Bertolotti syndrome are presented. After failing conservative management, 1 patient underwent mega-apophysis resection, another underwent resection with decompression, and the final underwent posterior fusion. All patients had complete resolution of back pain and returned to full activity at final follow-up.

Conclusion: Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae are congenital anomalies spanning a spectrum from partial/complete L5 sacralization to partial/complete S1 lumbarization with varying clinical presentations. Identification of variable anatomy and symptoms guides surgical management. We present 3 cases with differing surgical techniques including pseudoarticulation resection, arthrodesis of the involved levels, and neuroforaminal decompression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.21.00068DOI Listing
November 2021

Bilateral Toe Walking as Presentation of Unilateral Dysplasia Epiphysealis Hemimelica of the Ankle: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 11 11;11(4). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Case: We describe a case of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH) of the anterior tibiotalar joint that presented as toe walking in a 6-year-old boy. Radiographs and magnetic resonance images showed substantial exostosis at the anterior ankle that blocked dorsiflexion. He underwent surgical excision and casting for equinus, restoring ankle range of motion and gait.

Conclusion: Although DEH is benign, it can cause major deficits and permanent damage to a joint when neglected. Recognition of subtle presentations of DEH, such as toe walking, is crucial. Early treatment can restore joint motion and prevent deformity and arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.21.00264DOI Listing
November 2021

Spinal Fusion with Sacral Alar Iliac Pelvic Fixation in Severe Neuromuscular Scoliosis.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2021 Jul-Sep;11(3). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Neuromuscular scoliosis is characterized by rapid progression of curvature during growth and may continue to progress following skeletal maturity. Posterior spinal fusion in patients with cerebral palsy and severe scoliosis results in substantial improvements in health-related quality of life. Correction of pelvic obliquity can greatly improve sitting balance, reduce pain, and decrease skin breakdown. The sacral alar iliac (SAI) technique has key advantages over prior techniques, including the Galveston and iliac-screw techniques. The SAI technique eliminates the need for subcutaneous muscle dissection over the iliac crest, does not require the use of connectors from the rod to the iliac screw, and decreases the risk of implant prominence.

Description: We demonstrate how to perform posterior spinal fusion with SAI pelvic fixation in a patient with cerebral palsy. In correcting the scoliosis, we utilize the segmental 3-dimensional technique, which includes compression, distraction, transverse approximation to 1 rod at a time, and derotation around 2 rods. We also demonstrate SAI pelvic fixation with identification of the screw starting point on the lateral-caudal border of the first sacral foramen and trajectory toward the anterior inferior iliac spine.

Alternatives: Nonoperative alternatives include bracing, trunk support, contouring of sitting surfaces (such as wheelchairs), and physical therapy to slow curve progression during growth periods and delay the need for surgical treatment. Decision-making is shared with the family following education about the risks and benefits. Families who are satisfied with the function of the child at baseline should not be persuaded into pursuing surgical treatment.

Rationale: Neuromuscular scoliosis can include difficulty sitting secondary to increased pelvic obliquity, along with poor trunk control and balance. Surgical intervention is considered in patients with curves exceeding approximately 50°, as these curves will often continue to progress even after maturity. In patients with neuromuscular scoliosis, indications for pelvic fixation include pelvic obliquity of >15°, poor control of the trunk as indicated by lack of independent sitting or standing, and location of the apex of the curve in the lumbar spine. SAI screws are utilized as a low-profile option for pelvic fixation to avoid implant prominence and an increased risk of skin breakdown and infection, which are associated with traditional sacroiliac screws.

Expected Outcomes: Miyanji et al. reported quality outcomes in patients with cerebral palsy and Gross Motor Function Classification Scores of ≥4. In that study, caregivers completed a validated disease-specific questionnaire grading the health-related quality of life of the patient preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperatively. Complication data were prospectively collected for each patient and preoperative outcome scores were compared at each of the postoperative time points. Survey scores at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperatively were significantly higher compared with baseline preoperative values.Sponseller et al. compared the 2-year postoperative radiographic parameters of 32 pediatric patients who underwent SAI fixation and 27 patients who underwent pelvic fixation with the sacroiliac technique. Among patients who underwent SAI fixation, the mean correction of pelvic obliquity was 20° ± 11° (70% correction) and the mean Cobb angle 42° ± 25° (67%). Among patients who underwent pelvic fixation with the sacroiliac technique, those values were 10° ± 9° (50%) and 46° ± 16° (60%), respectively. SAI screws provided significantly better pelvic obliquity correction (p = 0.002) but no difference in Cobb correction or complications compared with other traditional techniques.

Important Tips: Family discussion prior to surgical treatment is paramount.Perform preoperative neurologic examination.Examine the cranium carefully for a ventriculoperitoneal shunt or prior cranial reconstruction prior to cranial traction.Transcranial neuromonitoring may be useful. Use descending neural motor evoked potentials when no signals from transcranial monitoring are obtained.Sink the SAI screw until it lines up with the S1 screw. Bury the SAI screw so it is not prominent.Measure rods longer in order to ensure adequate length for compression and distraction in correction of the pelvic obliquity.Use a T-square to verify adequate spinopelvic alignment.Postoperatively, the use of incisional vacuum-assisted closure can decrease soiling in these patients.

Acronyms And Abbreviations: SAI = Sacral alar iliacCP = Cerebral palsyAIS = Adolescent idiopathic scoliosisSMA = Spinal muscular atrophyIONM = Intraoperative neuromonitoringGMFCS = Gross Motor Functional Classification SystemDNMEP = Descending neural motor evoked potentialTXA = Tranexamic acidFFP = Fresh frozen plasmaASIS = Anterior superior iliac spineAIIS = Anterior inferior iliac spinePJK = Proximal junctional kyphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.ST.20.00060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505341PMC
August 2021

Tranexamic acid use is associated with reduced intraoperative blood loss during spine surgery for Marfan syndrome.

Spine Deform 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline Street, JHOC 5223, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Purpose: The utility of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) is uncertain given associated aberrations within the vasculature and clotting cascade. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the association of TXA use with intraoperative blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusions in patients with MFS who underwent spinal arthrodesis.

Methods: We queried our institutional database for MFS patients who underwent spinal arthrodesis for scoliosis between 2000 and 2020 by one surgeon. We excluded procedures spanning < 4 vertebral levels, those using anterior or combined anterior/posterior approaches, and those involving growing rods, postoperative infection, or spondylolisthesis. Fifty-two patients met our criteria, of whom 22 were treated with TXA and 30 were not. Mean differences in blood loss, transfusion volume, and proportions receiving transfusion were compared between TXA and the control groups using Student t, chi-squared, or Fisher exact tests. Alpha = 0.05.

Results: MFS patients treated with TXA experienced less mean (± standard deviation) intraoperative blood loss (1023 ± 534 mL) compared to the control group (1436 ± 1022 mL) (p = 0.01). The TXA group had estimated blood volume loss of 27% ± 16% compared to 36% ± 21% for controls (p = 0.05). No differences were found in allogeneic transfusion rate (p = 0.66) or transfusion volume (p = 0.15).

Conclusions: We found an association between TXA use and reduced blood loss during surgical treatment of MFS-associated scoliosis, suggesting that the connective tissue deficiency in MFS does not interfere with TXA's mechanism of action.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00416-1DOI Listing
October 2021

Arthroscopic Posterior Capsulotomy for Knee Flexion Contracture Using a Spinal Needle.

Arthrosc Tech 2021 Aug 13;10(8):e1903-e1907. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Knee flexion contractures can arise from posterior capsule arthrofibrosis secondary to trauma, surgery, or chronic degenerative disease. This leads to limited knee extension and increased mechanical stress on the contralateral joint. Depending on the severity of the contracture, a treatment option may include surgical release of the posterior capsule. Arthroscopic posterior capsular release has been reported previously to have excellent resolution of extension deficits with minimal risk of postoperative complications. These techniques typically use an array of instruments, including shavers, biters, or scissors to perform arthrolysis of the posteromedial and posterolateral capsules. Our primary objective is to present a modified arthroscopic surgical technique for percutaneous treatment of knee flexion contracture using a spinal needle to perform a posterior capsule release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2021.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355179PMC
August 2021

Cost-utility Analysis Comparing Bracing Versus Observation for Skeletally Immature Patients with Thoracic Scoliosis.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Dec;46(23):1653-1659

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Study Design: Cost-utility analysis.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the cost-utility of bracing versus observation in patients with thoracic scoliosis who would be indicated for bracing.

Summary Of Background Data: There is high-quality evidence that bracing can prevent radiographic progression of spinal curvature in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with curves between 25° and 40° and Risser 0 to 2 skeletal maturity index. However, to our knowledge, the cost-utility of bracing in AIS has not been established.

Methods: A decision-analysis model comparing bracing versus observation was developed for a hypothetical 10-year old girl (Risser 0, Sanders 3) with a 35° main thoracic curve. We estimated the probability, cost, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for each node based on comprehensive review of the literature. Costs were adjusted for inflation based on Consumer Price Index and reported in terms of 2020 real dollars. Incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) was calculated based on a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations of 1000 hypothetical patients. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed by varying cost, probability, and QALY estimates.

Results: Our decision-analysis model revealed that bracing was the dominant treatment choice over observation at $50,000/QALY willingness to pay threshold. In simulation analysis of a hypothetical patient cohort, bracing was associated with lower net lifetime costs ($60,377 ± $5,340 with bracing vs. $85,279 ± $4543 with observation) and higher net lifetime QALYs (24.1 ± 2.0 with bracing vs. 23.9 ± 1.8 with observation). Bracing was associated with an INMB of $36,093 (95% confidence interval $18,894-$55,963) over observation over the patient's lifetime. The model was most sensitive to the impact of bracing versus observation on altering the probability of requiring surgery, either as an adolescent or an adult.

Conclusion: Cost-utility analysis supports scoliosis bracing as the preferred choice in management of appropriately indicated AIS patients with thoracic scoliosis.Level of Evidence: 5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004189DOI Listing
December 2021

Surgical Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury in a Young Child: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 06 10;11(2). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Case: We describe an anterior and posterior pelvic ring construct, with emphasis on the posterior construct, to treat a vertical displacement fracture in a 2-year-old girl who was struck by a motor vehicle. Eighteen months after her injury, radiographs showed intact sacroiliac joints and symmetrical pubic symphysis.

Conclusion: Although commonly performed in adults, pelvic fixation is challenging in children because of the small size of the child's pelvis and osseous fixation pathways. However, this approach enabled successful vertical stabilization of the pelvis, complete resolution of symphyseal diastasis, and recovery of function and mobility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00942DOI Listing
June 2021

Using Predictive Modeling and Supervised Machine Learning to Identify Patients at Risk for Venous Thromboembolism Following Posterior Lumbar Fusion.

Global Spine J 2021 May 26:21925682211019361. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 1501The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Objective: To use predictive modeling and machine learning to identify patients at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) for degenerative spinal pathology.

Methods: Patients undergoing single-level PLF in the inpatient setting were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Our outcome measure of VTE included all patients who experienced a pulmonary embolism and/or deep venous thrombosis within 30-days of surgery. Two different methodologies were used to identify VTE risk: 1) a novel predictive model derived from multivariable logistic regression of significant risk factors, and 2) a tree-based extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm using preoperative variables. The methods were compared against legacy risk-stratification measures: ASA and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) using area-under-the-curve (AUC) statistic.

Results: 13, 500 patients who underwent single-level PLF met the study criteria. Of these, 0.95% had a VTE within 30-days of surgery. The 5 clinical variables found to be significant in the multivariable predictive model were: age > 65, obesity grade II or above, coronary artery disease, functional status, and prolonged operative time. The predictive model exhibited an AUC of 0.716, which was significantly higher than the AUCs of ASA and CCI (all, < 0.001), and comparable to that of the XGBoost algorithm ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: Predictive analytics and machine learning can be leveraged to aid in identification of patients at risk of VTE following PLF. Surgeons and perioperative teams may find these tools useful to augment clinical decision making risk stratification tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211019361DOI Listing
May 2021

Hip-Spine Relationship: Thoracolumbar Deformation in a Patient with Limited Hip Flexion: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 Apr 21;11(2):e20.00548. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Case: We describe thoracolumbar kyphosis with severe vertebral deformation in a 13-year-old boy with cerebral palsy, hip extension contractures, and history of hip flexion-adduction releases.

Conclusion: Patients with cerebral palsy and hip extension contractures may develop thoracolumbar kyphosis to maintain sitting balance. It is important to recognize hip extension contractures as the underlying cause of the compensatory kyphosis and to be familiar with treatment options that address the hips and the spine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00548DOI Listing
April 2021

Trends in Out-of-Pocket Healthcare Expenses Before and After Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215499. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.5499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035645PMC
April 2021

Reimbursement for Orthopaedic Surgeries in Commercial and Public Payors: A Race to the Bottom.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Dec;29(23):e1232-e1238

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare surgeon professional fee reimbursement and trends from Medicare versus commercial payors for inpatient orthopaedic surgeries: total knee arthroplasty (TKA), total hip arthroplasty (THA), total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF), and posterior lumbar fusion (PLF).

Methods: Patients undergoing TKA, THA, TSA, single-level ACDF, and single-level PLF from 2010 to 2018 were queried in a commercially insured claims database. Medicare reimbursements and the work relative value unit (wRVU) of each procedure were obtained from the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule. All costs were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2018 real dollars. Compound annual growth rates were calculated to assess the mean growth rate for each procedure. Linear regression was done to assess trends.

Results: On average, payments from Medicare were 57% less than payments from commercial payors. From 2010 to 2018, both Medicare and commercial payments decreased significantly for each surgery (P < 0.05 for all). Compared with inflation-adjusted commercial payments, Medicare payments decreased 2.1 times faster for TKA (-2.1% versus -1.0%), 2.8 times faster for THA (-1.4% versus -0.5%), 1.3 times faster for TSA (-1.0% versus -0.8%), and 1.9 times faster for ACDF (-1.1% versus -0.6%). PLF was the only procedure for which Medicare payments declined slower than commercial payments (-0.6% versus -1.21%). Medicare payments per wRVU markedly declined for TKA (-0.83%), THA (-0.80%), TSA (-0.75%), and ACDF (-1.10%), whereas commercial payments per wRVU for those surgeries showed no notable change. For PLF, there was a notable decrease in both Medicare (-0.63%) and commercial (-1.21%) payments per wRVU.

Conclusion: Over the past decade, both commercial and Medicare surgeon payments for commonly performed inpatient orthopaedic surgeries decreased markedly, with Medicare payments decreasing an average of 1.5 times faster than commercial payments. The impact of declining reimbursements on access and quality of care merits additional investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-01397DOI Listing
December 2021

The Pulseless Supracondylar Elbow Fracture: A Rational Approach.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Feb 13;55(1):47-54. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA USA.

Background: Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of pediatric elbow fracture, accounting for 60-70% of all elbow fractures in children. Initial trauma and subsequent fracture displacement may damage surrounding neurovascular structures, leading to reports of associated neurovascular injury at rates as high as 49%, with vascular compromise reported in 3-19% of cases. This may be attributable to complete transection, kinking of the artery with reduced flow, thrombosis, intimal tear, arterial contusion or spasm, entrapment of the vessel within the fracture site or traumatic aneurysm of the brachial artery with subsequent thrombus formation.

Purpose: While there is general agreement that a child presenting with a pulseless white (dysvascular) hand associated with a displaced supracondylar humerus fracture requires emergent operative management, whether or not surgical exploration of the brachial artery is warranted in a patient with a pulseless pink hand is debatable. Given the lack of consensus, an individualized approach based on clinical findings at initial presentation, including quality of distal perfusion including doppler signal, associated median nerve injury, availability of a surgeon with microvascular skill-set, and access to vigilant post-operative monitoring, combined with an open discussion of the pros and cons of various treatment options with the family is prudent.

Methods: Herein we outline our management principles, developed with careful consideration of the available literature and informed by practical experience.

Results: We recommend emergent management of pulseless supracondylar fractures, especially those that present with a pulseless white hand or with a dense median nerve palsy, with operative fracture reduction and fixation. In all children presenting with a pulseless supracondylar humerus fracture, the vascular status should be reassessed after adequate fracture reduction and fixation, and in patients with continued signs of abnormal distal perfusion, such as weak or absent Doppler signals or sluggish capillary refill, surgical exploration of the brachial artery with reestablishment of adequate distal flow should be conducted immediately.

Conclusion: Much of the existing evidence surrounding the supracondylar humerus fracture associated with a pink, pulseless hand is of low quality. This shortcoming should serve as an impetus for establishment of an international registry of all dysvascular pediatric supracondylar fractures, with adequate documentation of the vascular exam before and after reduction, intra-operative and post-operative management and long term follow-up, to provide optimal management guidelines based on robust evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-020-00273-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851213PMC
February 2021

Spine Surgery and Preoperative Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and Hemoglobin A1c: A Systematic Review.

Global Spine J 2022 Jan 21;12(1):155-165. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Objectives: Synthesize previous studies evaluating clinical utility of preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c in patients undergoing common spinal procedures: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar decompression (LD).

Methods: We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for literature on preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c and post-operative outcomes in adult patients undergoing ACDF, PCF, PLF, or LD surgeries.

Results: Total of 4,307 publications were assessed. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria.

Pcf And Acdf: Decreased preoperative Hb/Hct were significant predictors of increased postoperative morbidity, including return to operating room, pulmonary complications, transfusions, and increased length of stay (LOS). For increased HbA1c, there was significant increase in risk of postoperative infection and cost of hospital stay.

Plf: Decreased Hb/Hct was reported to be associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events, blood transfusion, and increased LOS. Elevated HbA1c was associated with increased risk of infection as well as higher visual analogue scores (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores.

Ld: LOS and total episode of care cost were increased in patients with preoperative HbA1c elevation.

Conclusion: In adult patients undergoing spine surgery, preoperative Hb/Hct are clinically useful predictors for postoperative complications, transfusion rates, and LOS, and HbA1c is predictive for postoperative infection and functional outcomes. Using Hct values <35-38% and HbA1c >6.5%-6.9% for identifying patients at higher risk of postoperative complications is most supported by the literature. We recommend obtaining these labs as part of routine pre-operative risk stratification.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220979821DOI Listing
January 2022

Using Predictive Modeling and Machine Learning to Identify Patients Appropriate for Outpatient Anterior Cervical Fusion and Discectomy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 May;46(10):665-670

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Study Design: Retrospective, case-control.

Objective: The aim of this study was to use predictive modeling and machine learning to develop novel tools for identifying patients who may be appropriate for single-level outpatient anterior cervical fusion and discectomy (ACDF), and to compare these to legacy metrics.

Summary Of Background Data: ACDF performed in an ambulatory surgical setting has started to gain popularity in recent years. Currently there are no standardized risk-stratification tools for determining which patients may be safe candidates for outpatient ACDF.

Methods: Adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class 1, 2, or 3 undergoing one-level ACDF in inpatient or outpatient settings were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients were deemed as "unsafe" for outpatient surgery if they suffered any complication within a week of the index operation. Two different methodologies were used to identify unsafe candidates: a novel predictive model derived from multivariable logistic regression of significant risk factors, and an artificial neural network (ANN) using preoperative variables. Both methods were trained using randomly split 70% of the dataset and validated on the remaining 30%. The methods were compared against legacy risk-stratification measures: ASA and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) using area under the curve (AUC) statistic.

Results: A total of 12,492 patients who underwent single-level ACDF met the study criteria. Of these, 9.79% (1223) were deemed unsafe for outpatient ACDF given development of a complication within 1 week of the index operation. The five clinical variables that were found to be significant in the multivariable predictive model were: advanced age, low hemoglobin, high international normalized ratio, low albumin, and poor functional status. The predictive model had an AUC of 0.757, which was significantly higher than the AUC of both ASA (0.66; P < 0.001) and CCI (0.60; P < 0.001). The ANN exhibited an AUC of 0.740, which was significantly higher than the AUCs of ASA and CCI (all, P < 0.05), and comparable to that of the predictive model (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Predictive analytics and machine learning can be leveraged to aid in identification of patients who may be safe candidates for single-level outpatient ACDF. Surgeons and perioperative teams may find these tools useful to augment clinical decision-making.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003865DOI Listing
May 2021

Scapholunate Ligament: Comparing the Native Strength of the Ligament to an All-suture Anchor Construct.

J Surg Orthop Adv 2020 ;29(3):169-172

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Our aim was to compare the tensile strength of the native scapholunate ligament (SLL) with that of an all-suture anchor construct in a cadaveric model. The scaphoid and lunate were isolated, preserving all segments of the SLL. Using a servohydraulic testing machine, we increased the load until peak load-to-failure of the native SLL was reached in nine specimens (mean ± standard deviation, 273 ± 132 N). Using the same specimens, two JuggerKnot 1.4-mm suture anchors (Zimmer Biomet) were placed into the lunate and tensioned through transosseous tunnels in the scaphoid. Sutures were tied over the radial nonarticular aspect of the scaphoid. Load-to-failure testing was repeated. The mean peak load-to-failure for the all-suture anchor constructs was 172 ± 59 N versus 231 ± 117 N for the native group (p = 0.157). This represents approximately 75% of the native ligament strength. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 29(3):169-172, 2020).
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November 2020

Salter-Harris type II fractures of the distal tibia: Residual postreduction displacement and outcomes-a STROBE compliant study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Feb;99(9):e19328

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

We assessed factors associated with premature physeal closure (PPC) and outcomes after closed reduction of Salter-Harris type II (SH-II) fractures of the distal tibia. We reviewed patients with SH-II fractures of the distal tibia treated at our center from 2010 to 2015 with closed reduction and a non-weightbearing long-leg cast. Patients were categorized by immediate postreduction displacement: minimal, <2 mm; moderate, 2 to 4 mm; or severe, >4 mm. Demographic data, radiographic data, and Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) scores were recorded.Fifty-nine patients (27 girls, 31 right ankles, 26 concomitant fibula fractures) were included, with a mean (±SD) age at injury of 12.0 ± 2.2 years. Mean maximum fracture displacements were 6.6 ± 6.5 mm initially, 2.7 ± 2.0 mm postreduction, and 0.4 ± 0.7 mm at final follow-up. After reduction, displacement was minimal in 23 patients, moderate in 21, and severe in 15. Fourteen patients developed PPC, with no significant differences between postreduction displacement groups. Patients with high-grade injury mechanisms and/or initial displacement ≥4 mm had 12-fold and 14-fold greater odds, respectively, of PPC. Eighteen patients responded to the LEFS survey (mean 4.0 ± 2.1 years after injury). LEFS scores did not differ significantly between postreduction displacement groups (P = .61).The PPC rate in this series of SH-II distal tibia fractures was 24% and did not differ by postreduction displacement. Initial fracture displacement and high-grade mechanisms of injury were associated with PPC. LEFS scores did not differ significantly by postreduction displacement.Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478605PMC
February 2020

Predicting Late Follow-up and Understanding Its Consequences in Growth Modulation for Pediatric Lower Limb Deformities.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Jul;39(6):295-301

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Growth modulation with implants facilitates correction of angular deformities and limb-length discrepancies (LLDs) in children. Close follow-up is necessary when using growth modulation to prevent overcorrection. We examined factors associated with late follow-up and overcorrection rates in patients with late versus timely follow-up.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of growth modulation procedures in children at 1 institution from 2000 through 2014. Procedures were assigned to the following categories on the basis of deformity: ankle valgus, genu valgum, genu varum, knee flexion contractures, and LLDs. Radiographic and clinical parameters were assessed. Late follow-up was defined as delaying a recommended appointment by ≥6 months. Loss to follow-up was defined as failure to return for a recommended postoperative appointment. Associations were evaluated using the following tests: χ, Fisher exact, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U, and logistic regression. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: Of the 112 patients, there were 41 cases of genu valgum, 23 of ankle valgus, 18 each of genu varum and LLD, and 12 of knee flexion contractures. Twenty-two patients had late follow-up. Another 22 patients were lost to follow-up with retained implants. Patients with late follow-up had significantly higher odds of experiencing overcorrection deformities versus patients with timely follow-up (odds ratio, 19.2; 95% confidence interval, 5.2-71.4; P<0.005). The only deformity for which there was a significant difference in final alignment between patients with timely versus late follow-up was genu valgum (P<0.005). Late follow-up was associated with having a primary language other than English (P=0.05) and being obese/overweight (P=0.004).

Conclusions: Late follow-up and loss to follow-up were common, occurring in 39% of patients combined. Late follow-up was associated with overcorrection in guided-growth procedures, as were overweight/obesity and primary language other than English.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV-retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000951DOI Listing
July 2019

Medical Malpractice in Pediatric Orthopaedics: A Systematic Review of US Case Law.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Jul;39(6):e482-e486

Children's of Mississippi, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS.

Background: Compared with other orthopaedic subspecialties, pediatric orthopaedic surgeons are thought to be at greater risk for malpractice claims; however, there is scant research on this topic. The purpose of our study was to characterize publicly available malpractice cases pertaining to pediatric orthopaedics to determine the (1) most common specialties of the physicians implicated, (2) most common diagnoses involved, (3) rate of verdicts in favor of the plaintiff, (4) amount of indemnity payments resulting from all verdicts versus verdicts in which only an orthopaedic surgeon was involved, and (5) outcomes of cases that were appealed.

Methods: The Westlaw legal database was queried for jury verdicts, settlements, and appellate cases using the search terms "pediatric" AND "orthopaedic" from December 31, 1984, to January 1, 2016, yielding 176 appellate court cases and 189 jury reports/settlements. After excluding duplicate cases and those involving patients aged 21 years or older, 36 appellate and 84 jury reports/settlement cases remained for analysis.

Results: Lawsuits against orthopaedic surgeons and pediatricians were most common, in cases involving fracture diagnosis and misdiagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip, respectively. Of the 84 cases, 43 rulings favored the plaintiffs. The median (interquartile range) indemnity payment was $900,000 ($1.9 million), and for cases in which only the orthopaedic surgeon was named as the defendant, the median (interquartile range) indemnity payment was $675,000 ($827,000). Of the 34 appellate cases, 16 cases initially ruled in favor of the defendant were upheld and 13 were reversed/remanded. Five cases initially ruled in favor of the plaintiff were upheld, and none was reversed/remanded.

Conclusions: Malpractice lawsuits named orthopaedic surgeons and pediatricians more often than physicians in other specialties. Orthopaedic surgeons were sued most often for management of fractures and pediatricians for mismanagement of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Nearly 51% of malpractice cases were ruled in favor of the plaintiff, with high indemnity payments. However, when cases that were ruled in favor of the physician were appealed, most verdicts were upheld.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001348DOI Listing
July 2019

Comparison of Sacral-Alar-Iliac and Iliac-Only Methods of Pelvic Fixation in Early-Onset Scoliosis at 5.8 Years' Mean Follow-up.

Spine Deform 2019 03;7(2):364-370

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective.

Objective: Compare clinical outcomes in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients treated with sacral-alar-iliac (SAI) versus iliac-only methods of pelvic fixation at two years' minimum follow-up.

Summary Of Background Data: Pelvic fixation in EOS is challenged by poor bone, anchor migration, and displacement. The long-term outcomes of SAI fixation in EOS is unknown.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed EOS patients in a single center from 2000 to 2017. Inclusion criteria were posterior spinal instrumentation with pelvic fixation before age 10 and 2 years' minimum follow-up. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed using chi-squared and Student t tests (significance defined as p <.05).

Results: Seven subjects were included in the iliac-only fixation group (Galveston technique = 2, iliac screws = 5) and 17 in the SAI group. For the iliac-only group (mean follow-up = 6.8 years), pelvic obliquity improved from a mean of 18° at initial presentation to 11° at first instrumentation (p = .096), to 9° at end follow-up (p = .060), whereas the major curve improved correspondingly from a mean of 84° to 50° (p = .002) to 39° (p = .006). For the SAI group (mean follow-up = 5.5 years) at the same time points, pelvic obliquity improved from a mean of 25° to 6° (p <.001) to 5° (p <.001), whereas the major curve improved from a mean of 83° to 38° (p <.001) to 29° (p <.001). SAI fixation was associated with fewer complications (11 complications in 17 patients) compared to iliac-only fixation (10 complications in 7 patients) (p = .04). Neither method was associated with pelvic growth disturbances or neurologic deficits.

Conclusions: In EOS patients at 2 years' minimum (5.8 years' mean) follow-up, both SAI and iliac-only methods corrected major curve, only SAI fixation corrected pelvic obliquity, and neither was associated with pelvic growth disturbances. SAI fixation was also associated with fewer complications. These findings may be due to the length and direction of the SAI anchors and abutment on the iliac cortex.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2018.08.007DOI Listing
March 2019

Growth-Friendly Spine Surgery in Escobar Syndrome.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Aug;39(7):e506-e513

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Background: The aims of this study were to characterize the spinal deformity of patients with Escobar syndrome, describe results of growth-friendly treatments, and compare these results with those of an idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (EOS) cohort to determine whether the axial stiffness in Escobar syndrome limited correction.

Methods: We used 2 multicenter databases to review the records of 8 patients with EOS associated with Escobar syndrome who had at least 2-year follow-up after initiation of growth-friendly treatment from 1990 to 2016. An idiopathic EOS cohort of 16 patients matched for age at surgery (±1 y), postoperative follow-up (±1 y), and initial curve magnitude (±10 degrees) was identified. A randomized 1:2 matching algorithm was applied (α=0.05).

Results: In the Escobar group, spinal deformity involved 7 to 13 vertebrae and ranged from no vertebral anomalies in 3 patients to multiple segmentation defects in 6 patients. Mean age at first surgery was 5 years (range, 1.4 to 7.8 y) with a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (range, 4.0 to 10 y). Mean major curve improved from 76 degrees at initial presentation, to 43 degrees at first instrumentation, to 37 degrees at final follow-up (both P<0.001). Mean pelvic obliquity improved from 16 degrees (range, 5 to 31 degrees) preoperatively to 4 degrees (range, 0 to 8 degrees) at final follow-up (P=0.005). There were no differences in the mean percentage of major curve correction between the idiopathic EOS and Escobar groups at the immediate postoperative visit (P=0.743) or final follow-up (P=0.511). There were no differences between the cohorts in T1-S1 height at initial presentation (P=0.129) or in growth per month (P=0.211).

Conclusions: Multiple congenital fusions and spinal curve deformity are common in Escobar syndrome. Despite large areas of congenital fusion, growth-friendly constructs facilitate spinal growth and improve curve correction. These results are comparable to those in idiopathic EOS.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-case-control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001315DOI Listing
August 2019

Risk Factors for Concomitant Collateral Ligament Injuries in Children and Adolescents With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Nov 21;6(11):2325967118810389. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Investigation performed at the Division of Orthopaedics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Risk factors for concomitant ligament injuries (CLIs) of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) in children and adolescents with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are unknown.

Purpose: To determine whether body mass index (BMI), sex, age, and injury mechanism are associated with CLIs in children and adolescents with ACL tears and whether CLIs are associated with meniscal and chondral injuries and a delay to surgery.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: We reviewed the records of patients aged ≤18 years with ACL tears from 2009 through 2013 for sex, age, height, weight, CLI, injury mechanism, intra-articular injury, and time to surgery. Patients were assigned to groups according to the presence of a CLI (CLI group) compared with the presence of an isolated ACL tear (ACL group). BMI was categorized as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. The older group was defined as age ≥14 years for girls and ≥16 years for boys. Logistic regression, Mann-Whitney tests, and chi-square tests were performed (alpha = 0.05).

Results: We included 509 patients (267 girls) with a mean age of 15 years (range, 6-18 years) at the time of injury. There were 396 patients (78%) in the ACL group and 113 patients (22%) in the CLI group (90 with MCL, 11 with LCL, and 12 with both MCL and LCL injuries). Groups had similar proportions of overweight/obese patients ( = .619) and girls ( = .104). Older age (odds ratio [OR], 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3-3.3]) and contact injuries (OR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.4-3.4]) were associated with CLIs. The CLI group had a higher proportion of chondral injuries ( = .001) but not meniscal injuries ( = .295) and presented to surgery earlier than the ACL group ( = .002).

Conclusion: Older age and contact injuries were associated with CLIs in children and adolescents with ACL tears, whereas BMI category and sex were not. CLIs were associated with a higher proportion of chondral injuries but not meniscal injuries and were not associated with a delay to surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967118810389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249661PMC
November 2018

The Spatial Order of Physeal Maturation in the Normal Human Knee Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Apr;39(4):e318-e322

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Background: The spatial order of physeal maturation around the distal tibia has been shown to place adolescent patients at risk for certain transitional injuries, such as Tillaux or triplane fractures. Less is known about physeal maturation around the knee. The purpose of this study was to establish the spatial order of physeal maturation in the normal human knee using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: We retrospectively collected all knee MRI scans from patients presenting to our institution from January 2004 to January 2014. Patients who were suspected on the basis of clinical or radiographic findings of having abnormal knee physeal development or injury were excluded. We then applied a previously described MRI staging system of knee physeal maturation to the MRI scans of the remaining patients at 8 defined knee locations. Associations between the stage of maturation and mean chronological age were then evaluated across the 8 knee locations. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities were assessed.

Results: A total of 165 knee MRI scans (from 98 boys, 67 girls) met the inclusion criteria. Significant differences were found between each stage of physeal maturation and the mean chronological ages at all 8 knee locations for both boys and girls (each, P<0.001). Interestingly, within each stage of physeal maturation, no significant difference was found in the mean chronological ages at any of the 8 knee locations, suggesting that physeal development occurs uniformly in the normal human knee for both boys and girls. Interrater and intrarater reliability were nearly perfect at all locations.

Conclusions: The spatial order of physeal maturation in the normal human knee was uniform across 8 knee locations for both boys and girls. This uniformity may help to explain why transitional injuries do not follow a recognizable pattern in the knee. Furthermore, the uniformity aids with surgical decision making, because minimal growth modulation or disturbance is likely when early physeal closure is present in a portion of the physis.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001298DOI Listing
April 2019

Incidence of C5 Palsy: Meta-Analysis and Potential Etiology.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 2;122:e828-e837. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Among the proposed hypotheses for C5 palsy, the most acceptable etiologies have been the tethering effect of the spinal nerve or reperfusion injury of the spinal cord. We performed a meta-analysis to determine a potential etiology of C5 palsy.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to 2017 for relevant studies of the incidence of C5 palsy after cervical decompression surgery. Relevant incident estimates of C5 palsy stratified by the surgical approach and underlying diagnosis were calculated using an appropriate meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 107 studies were included for our meta-analysis. The pooled incidence of C5 palsy was 0.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00-0.01) for anterior decompression in patients with radiculopathy, 0.04 (95% CI, 0.03-0.05) for anterior decompression and 0.07 (95% CI, 0.06-0.08) for posterior decompression in patients with myelopathy. A two-tailed t test with unequal variance accepted the null hypothesis of no differences in the incidence between anterior and posterior decompression in patients with myelopathy (P = 0.999) and rejected the hypothesis of no differences in the incidence between the patients with radiculopathy and myelopathy in anterior decompression (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: With no significant difference found in the incidence of C5 palsy between anterior and posterior cervical decompression in patients with myelopathy, the tethering effect of the spinal nerve might not be a plausible etiology for C5 palsy. In contrast, we found a significantly greater incidence of C5 palsy in patients with myelopathy compared with those with radiculopathy undergoing anterior decompression, which might support the reperfusion injury of the spinal cord as the etiology of C5 palsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.10.159DOI Listing
February 2019

Obesity and recovery of muscle strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in pediatric patients.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2018 May-Aug;26(3):2309499018806631

2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose:: To explore factors influencing muscle strength after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in pediatric patients. We hypothesized that obesity/overweight, autograft hamstring tendon, and concomitant injuries would be associated with slower muscle recovery.

Methods:: We retrospectively reviewed the records of pediatric ACLR patients during a 3-year period. Muscle recovery was defined as ≥85% of peak torque compared with the contralateral side. We categorized patients as either obese/overweight or normal weight. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U, analysis of variance, and χ tests ( α level < 0.05).

Results:: The study group consisted of 330 patients, of whom 198 (60%) and 231 (70%) met quadriceps and hamstring recovery criteria, respectively, at final testing (mean: 7.0 ± 3.2 months). Patients recovered hamstring and quadriceps strength at a mean of 5.3 ± 2.2 months and 6.1 ± 2.3 months, respectively. Hamstring muscle recovery took significantly longer in obese/overweight patients (mean: 5.7 ± 2.2 months) versus normal-weight patients (mean: 5.1 ± 2.1 months; p = 0.025), but quadriceps recovery did not (obese/overweight mean: 6.5 ± 2.6 months; normal-weight mean: 5.9 ± 2.1 months; p = 0.173).

Conclusion:: Concomitant injuries and graft type were not associated with length of time to recovery of muscle strength. Obesity/overweight was associated with delay in recovery of hamstring but not quadriceps strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2309499018806631DOI Listing
September 2019

Motion analysis in the axial plane after realignment surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Gait Posture 2018 10 19;66:181-188. Epub 2018 Aug 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, United States.

Background: This study aimed to define changes occurring in axial plane motion after scoliosis surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using gait analysis. Pre- and postoperative axial plane motion was compared to healthy/control subjects. This may potentially improve our understanding of how motion is impacted by deformity and subsequent surgical realignment.

Methods: 15 subjects with AIS underwent pre- and postoperative radiographic and gait analysis, with focus on axial plane motion (clockwise [CW] and counterclockwise [CCW]). Age, weight, and gender-matched controls (n = 13) were identified for gait analysis. Control, preoperative and postoperative groups were compared with paired student's t-tests.

Results: Surgical realignment resulted in significantly decreased in upper thoracic, thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar Cobb angles pre-to-postoperatively (36.7° vs. 15.2°, 60.1° vs. 25.6°, 47.7° vs. 17.7° and 27.2° vs. 4.8°, respectively) (all p < 0.05), with no significant change in thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, central sacral vertical line, pelvic incidence, and sagittal vertical axis. However, pelvic tilt significantly increased from 4.9° to 8.1° (p = 0.035). Using gait analysis: preoperative thoracic axial rotation differed (mean CW and CCW rotation was 1.9° and 3.1° [p = 0.01]), whereas mean CW & CCW pelvic rotation remained symmetric (2.0° and 3.0°; p = 0.44). Postoperatively, CCW thoracic rotation range of motion decreased (CW: 0.6° and CCW: 1.4°; p = 0.31). No significant difference in postoperative pelvic rotation occurred (1.1° and 3.4°; p = 0.10). Compared to controls, AIS patients demonstrated no significant difference in total CW & CCW thoracic motion relative to the pelvis both pre- (14.9° and 12.3°, respectively; p = 0.45) and postoperatively (12.9° and 12.3°, respectively; p = 0.82).

Significance: AIS patients demonstrated abnormal gait patterns in the axial plane compared to normal controls. After surgical realignment and de-rotation, marked improvement in axial plane motion was observed, highlighting how motion analysis can afford surgeons three-dimensional perspective into the patient's functional status.
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October 2018

Robot-assisted vs freehand pedicle screw fixation in spine surgery - a systematic review and a meta-analysis of comparative studies.

Int J Med Robot 2018 Jun 19;14(3):e1892. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China.

Background: Medical robotics has progressively become more compelling in modern orthopaedic surgery. Several studies comparing robot-assisted (RA) and freehand (FH) conventional techniques for pedicle screw fixation have been published, but the results are unclear. Here, we assessed current evidence regarding the efficiency, safety and accuracy of RA compared with FH techniques.

Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science was performed to compare the differences between RA and FH in spine surgery. Two reviewers independently reviewed included studies, conducted a risk of bias assessment, and extracted data.

Results: Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six retrospective comparative studies included a total of 750 patients (3625 pedicle screws). No significant differences were noted between RA and FH in pedicle screw accuracy (95.5% compared with 92.9%; odds ratio: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 3.30; P=0.51), overall complication rate (1.33% compared with 3.45%; odds ratio: 0.46; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.43; P=0.18) and radiation exposure time (weighted mean difference [WMD]:8.49; 95% CI, -15.43 to 32.40; P=0.49). While RA was associated with a longer operative time (WMD: 39.63; 95% CI, 5.27 to 73.99; P= 0.02), percutaneous or minimal robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation (M-RA) had a shorter radiation exposure time than FH (WMD: -33.10; 95% CI, -38.18 to -28.02; P=0.00) CONCLUSIONS: The current literature did not prove that RA supersedes FH, although several studies are more optimistic about this procedure. Future well-designed RCTs assessing RA and FH are needed to confirm and update the findings of this analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcs.1892DOI Listing
June 2018

Fracture Patterns Differ Between Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Routine Pediatric Fractures.

J Pediatr Orthop 2018 Apr;38(4):e207-e212

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background: It is important to estimate the likelihood that a pediatric fracture is caused by osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), especially the least severe type of OI (type 1).

Methods: We reviewed records of 29,101 pediatric patients with fractures from 2003 through 2015. We included patients with closed fractures not resulting from motor vehicle accidents, gunshot wounds, nonaccidental trauma, or bone lesions. Patients with OI of any type were identified through International Classification of Diseases-9 code. We randomly sampled 500 pediatric patients in whom OI was not diagnosed to obtain a control (non-OI) group. We reviewed age at time of fracture, sex, fracture type, laterality, and bone and bone region fractured. Bisphosphonate use and OI type were documented for OI patients. Subanalysis of patients with type-1 OI was performed. The Fisher exact and χ tests were used to compare fracture rates between groups. P<0.05 was considered significant. Positive likelihood ratios for OI were calculated by fracture pattern.

Results: The non-OI group consisted of 500 patients with 652 fractures. The OI group consisted of 52 patients with 209 fractures. Non-OI patients were older at the time of fracture (mean, 9.0±5.0 y) than OI patients (mean, 5.5±4.4 y) (P<0.001). OI patients had more oblique, transverse, diaphyseal, and bilateral long-bone fractures than non-OI patients (all P<0.001). Non-OI patients had more buckle (P=0.013), metaphyseal (P<0.001), and physeal (P<0.001) fractures than OI patients. For patients with type-1 OI and long-bone fractures (n=18), rates of transverse and buckle fractures were similar compared with controls. Transverse humerus (15.2), olecranon (13.8), and diaphyseal humerus (13.0) fractures had the highest positive likelihood ratios for OI, and physeal (0.09) and supracondylar humerus (0.1) fractures had the lowest.

Conclusions: Transverse and diaphyseal humerus and olecranon fractures were most likely to indicate OI. Physeal and supracondylar humerus fractures were least likely to indicate OI. Radiographic fracture pattern is useful for estimating likelihood of OI.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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April 2018

Incidence of Fractures From Perioperative Blood Pressure Cuff Use, Tourniquet Use, and Patient Positioning in Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Jan;39(1):e68-e70

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics.

Background: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare connective tissue disease with varying severity. Patients with OI are highly susceptible to skeletal fractures. Optimal perioperative management of these patients is not well defined. We investigated the risks associated with intraoperative use of noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) cuffs, tourniquets, and intra-arterial catheters, and patient positioning in children with OI.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients younger than 21 years with OI who underwent surgery with general anesthesia from 2010 to 2016 at our tertiary care center. The primary outcome of interest was iatrogenic fracture caused by NIBP cuff use, tourniquet use, or patient positioning. The secondary outcome of interest was complications associated with intra-arterial catheter use.

Results: Thirty-seven patients (15 girls) with a mean age of 10±4.8 years underwent 96 orthopaedic procedures (lower extremity, upper extremity, and spine) and 2 nonorthopaedic procedures (myringotomy, dental rehabilitation). Blood pressure was monitored with NIBP cuffs in 81 surgeries and intra-arterial catheters in 17 surgeries. Tourniquets (all applied to the lower extremity at a pneumatic pressure of 250 mm Hg) were used to minimize bleeding in 30 surgeries. There were no iatrogenic fractures associated with NIBP cuff use. One patient had a left humerus fracture that occurred during preoperative patient positioning. There were no fractures associated with tourniquet use and no complications related to intra-arterial catheters.

Conclusions: In pediatric patients with OI, intraoperative use of NIBP cuffs and tourniquets was not associated with iatrogenic fracture. There were no complications related to intra-arterial catheter use. Care should be used during the perioperative period to prevent fractures during body positioning.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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January 2019

Body Mass Hides the Curve: Thoracic Scoliometer Readings Vary by Body Mass Index Value.

J Pediatr Orthop 2017 Jun;37(4):e255-e260

*Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital ‡Department of Math and Computer Science, St. John's University, Queens, NY †Department of Biostatistics, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Guidelines suggest referral for scoliosis when rib slope (scoliometer measurement, angle of trunk rotation) is ≥7 degrees. We hypothesized that overweight and obese patients would have lower scoliometer measurements compared with normal-weight and underweight patients for a given spinal curvature, causing overweight and obese patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis to present for treatment later and with larger curves. Our goal was to determine the association between scoliometer readings and major curve magnitudes in relation to body mass index (BMI).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study at a tertiary referral center included 483 patients (420 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean age, 14±1.6 y) with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who presented to 1 orthopaedic surgeon for initial evaluation of spinal deformity from 2010 to 2015. Records were reviewed for BMI percentile for age and sex (underweight, ≤fourth percentile; normal weight, fifth to 84th percentile; overweight, 85th to 94th percentile; obese, ≥95th percentile), patient characteristics, thoracic scoliometer measurements, and thoracic major curves.

Results: Of the 483 patients, 23 were underweight, 372 were normal weight, 52 were overweight, and 36 were obese. Obese patients had a larger mean major curve (44 degrees) than normal-weight patients (34 degrees) (P=0.004). The odds of presenting with a major curve ≥20 degrees were 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-22; P=0.037) times higher for obese versus normal-weight patients. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of major curves (≥20 vs. <20 degrees) estimated the scoliometer values with the greatest sensitivity and specificity to be 8 degrees for underweight patients, 7 degrees for normal-weight patients, 6 degrees for overweight patients, and 5 degrees for obese patients.

Conclusions: Obese patients presented with larger thoracic curves versus normal-weight patients. Differences in chest-wall thickness in patients with different BMI values may alter scoliometer measurements for a given rotational deformity. Our data suggest new referral criteria for the scoliometer test based on BMI values. Specifically, obese patients should be referred at an angle of trunk rotation of 5 degrees.

Level Of Evidence: Level II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422115PMC
June 2017
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