Publications by authors named "Adam L Cohen"

154 Publications

Evolution of core archetypal phenotypes in progressive high grade serous ovarian cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 05 24;12(1):3039. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Monrovia, CA, USA.

The evolution of resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cells following chemotherapy is only partially understood. To understand the selection of factors driving heterogeneity before and through adaptation to treatment, we profile single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) transcriptomes of HGSOC tumors collected longitudinally during therapy. We analyze scRNA-seq data from two independent patient cohorts to reveal that HGSOC is driven by three archetypal phenotypes, defined as oncogenic states that describe the majority of the transcriptome variation. Using a multi-task learning approach to identify the biological tasks of each archetype, we identify metabolism and proliferation, cellular defense response, and DNA repair signaling as consistent cell states found across patients. Our analysis demonstrates a shift in favor of the metabolism and proliferation archetype versus cellular defense response archetype in cancer cells that received multiple lines of treatment. While archetypes are not consistently associated with specific whole-genome driver mutations, they are closely associated with subclonal populations at the single-cell level, indicating that subclones within a tumor often specialize in unique biological tasks. Our study reveals the core archetypes found in progressive HGSOC and shows consistent enrichment of subclones with the metabolism and proliferation archetype as resistance is acquired to multiple lines of therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23171-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144406PMC
May 2021

Global Landscape Review of Serotype-Specific Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Surveillance among Countries Using PCV10/13: The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) Project.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

National Public Health Organisation, 15123 Athens, Greece.

Serotype-specific surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is essential for assessing the impact of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13). The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project aimed to evaluate the global evidence to estimate the impact of PCV10/13 by age, product, schedule, and syndrome. Here we systematically characterize and summarize the global landscape of routine serotype-specific IPD surveillance in PCV10/13-using countries and describe the subset that are included in PSERENADE. Of 138 countries using PCV10/13 as of 2018, we identified 109 with IPD surveillance systems, 76 of which met PSERENADE data collection eligibility criteria. PSERENADE received data from most (n = 63, 82.9%), yielding 240,639 post-PCV10/13 introduction IPD cases. Pediatric and adult surveillance was represented from all geographic regions but was limited from lower income and high-burden countries. In PSERENADE, 18 sites evaluated PCV10, 42 PCV13, and 17 both; 17 sites used a 3 + 0 schedule, 38 used 2 + 1, 13 used 3 + 1, and 9 used mixed schedules. With such a sizeable and generally representative dataset, PSERENADE will be able to conduct robust analyses to estimate PCV impact and inform policy at national and global levels regarding adult immunization, schedule, and product choice, including for higher valency PCVs on the horizon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066045PMC
April 2021

Serotype Distribution of Remaining Pneumococcal Meningitis in the Mature PCV10/13 Period: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 1;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Landspitali-The National University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction has reduced pneumococcal meningitis incidence. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project described the serotype distribution of remaining pneumococcal meningitis in countries using PCV10/13 for least 5-7 years with primary series uptake above 70%. The distribution was estimated using a multinomial Dirichlet regression model, stratified by PCV product and age. In PCV10-using sites ( = 8; cases = 1141), PCV10 types caused 5% of cases <5 years of age and 15% among ≥5 years; the top serotypes were 19A, 6C, and 3, together causing 42% of cases <5 years and 37% ≥5 years. In PCV13-using sites ( = 32; cases = 4503), PCV13 types caused 14% in <5 and 26% in ≥5 years; 4% and 13%, respectively, were serotype 3. Among the top serotypes are five (15BC, 8, 12F, 10A, and 22F) included in higher-valency PCVs under evaluation. Other top serotypes (24F, 23B, and 23A) are not in any known investigational product. In countries with mature vaccination programs, the proportion of pneumococcal meningitis caused by vaccine-in-use serotypes is lower (≤26% across all ages) than pre-PCV (≥70% in children). Higher-valency PCVs under evaluation target over half of remaining pneumococcal meningitis cases, but questions remain regarding generalizability to the African meningitis belt where additional data are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066874PMC
April 2021

Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Serotype 1 Following Introduction of PCV10 and PCV13: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

Microorganisms 2021 03 27;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Children's Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Following PCV10/13 introduction, the incidence rate (IR) of ST1 IPD declined among all ages. After six years of PCV10/13 use, the all-site IRR was 0.05 (95% credibility interval 0.04-0.06) for all ages, 0.05 (0.04-0.05) for <5 years of age, 0.08 (0.06-0.09) for 5-17 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.08) for 18-49 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.07) for 50-64 years, and 0.05 (0.04-0.06) for ≥65 years. PCV10/13 use in infant immunization programs was followed by a 95% reduction in ST1 IPD in all ages after approximately 6 years. Limited data availability from the highest ST1 disease burden countries using a 3+0 schedule constrains generalizability and data from these settings are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066231PMC
March 2021

Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Rapid Relapse in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institution Study.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Mar 10:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

1Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for disproportionately poor outcomes in breast cancer, driven by a subset of rapid-relapse TNBC (rrTNBC) with marked chemoresistance, rapid metastatic spread, and poor survival. Our objective was to evaluate clinicopathologic and sociodemographic features associated with rrTNBC.

Methods: We included patients diagnosed with stage I-III TNBC in 1996 through 2012 who received chemotherapy at 1 of 10 academic cancer centers. rrTNBC was defined as a distant metastatic recurrence event or death ≤24 months after diagnosis. Features associated with rrTNBC were included in a multivariable logistic model upon which backward elimination was performed with a P<.10 criterion, with a final multivariable model applied to training (70%) and independent validation (30%) cohorts.

Results: Among all patients with breast cancer treated at these centers, 3,016 fit the inclusion criteria. Training cohort (n=2,112) bivariable analyses identified disease stage, insurance type, age, body mass index, race, and income as being associated with rrTNBC (P<.10). In the final multivariable model, rrTNBC was significantly associated with higher disease stage (adjusted odds ratio for stage III vs I, 16.0; 95% CI, 9.8-26.2; P<.0001), Medicaid/indigent insurance, lower income (by 2000 US Census tract), and younger age at diagnosis. Model performance was consistent between the training and validation cohorts. In sensitivity analyses, insurance type, low income, and young age were associated with rrTNBC among patients with stage I/II but not stage III disease. When comparing rrTNBC versus late relapse (>24 months), we found that insurance type and young age remained significant.

Conclusions: Timing of relapse in TNBC is associated with stage of disease and distinct sociodemographic features, including insurance type, income, and age at diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7659DOI Listing
March 2021

Vaccines work: a reason for celebration and renewed commitment.

Lancet 2021 01;397(10272):351-353

MM Global Health Consulting, Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00025-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Influenza economic burden among potential target risk groups for immunization in South Africa, 2013-2015.

Vaccine 2020 10 24;38(45):7007-7014. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: Data on influenza economic burden in risk groups for severe influenza are important to guide targeted influenza immunization, especially in resource-limited settings. However, this information is limited in low- and middle-income countries.

Methods: We estimated the cost (from a health system and societal perspective) and years of life lost (YLL) for influenza-associated illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 among (i) children aged 6-59 months, (ii) individuals aged 5-64 years with HIV, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and selected underlying medical conditions (UMC), separately, (iii) pregnant women and (iv) individuals aged ≥65 years, using publicly available data and data collected through laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance and costing studies. All costs were expressed in 2015 prices using the South Africa all-items Consumer Price Index.

Results: During 2013-2015, the mean annual cost of influenza-associated illness among the selected risk groups accounted for 52.1% ($140.9/$270.5 million) of the total influenza-associated illness cost (for the entire population of South Africa), 45.2% ($52.2/$115.5 million) of non-medically attended illness costs, 43.3% ($46.7/$107.9 million) of medically-attended mild illness costs and 89.3% ($42.0/$47.1 million) of medically-attended severe illness costs. The YLL among the selected risk groups accounted for 86.0% (262,069 /304,867 years) of the total YLL due to influenza-associated death.

Conclusion: In South Africa, individuals in risk groups for severe influenza accounted for approximately half of the total influenza-associated illness cost but most of the cost of influenza-associated medically attended severe illness and YLL. This study provides the foundation for future studies on the cost-effectiveness of influenza immunization among risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581517PMC
October 2020

Association between the 21-gene recurrence score and isolated locoregional recurrence in stage I-II, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

Radiat Oncol 2020 Aug 17;15(1):198. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck St, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: Although the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay is widely used to predict distant recurrence risk and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy among women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, the relationship between the RS and isolated locoregional recurrence (iLRR) remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the association between the RS and risk of iLRR for women with stage I-II, HR+ breast cancer.

Methods: We identified 1758 women captured in the national prospective Breast Cancer-Collaborative Outcomes Research Database who were diagnosed with stage I-II, HR+ breast cancer from 2006 to 2012, treated with mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, and received RS testing. Women who received neoadjuvant therapy were excluded. The association between the RS and risk of iLRR was examined using competing risks regression.

Results: Overall, 19% of the cohort (n = 329) had a RS ≥25. At median follow-up of 29 months, only 22 iLRR events were observed. Having a RS ≥25 was not associated with a significantly higher risk of iLRR compared to a RS < 25 (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.39-3.36, P = 0.81). When limited to women who received adjuvant endocrine therapy without chemotherapy (n = 1199; 68% of the cohort), having a RS ≥25 (n = 74) was significantly associated with a higher risk of iLRR compared to a RS < 25 (hazard ratio 3.66, 95% confidence interval 1.07-12.5, P = 0.04). In this group, increasing RS was associated with greater risk of iLRR (compared to RS < 18, hazard ratio of 1.66, 3.59, and 7.06, respectively, for RS 18-24, 25-30, and ≥ 31; P = 0.02).

Conclusions: The RS was significantly associated with risk of iLRR in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The utility of the RS in identifying patients who have a low risk of iLRR should be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-020-01640-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429461PMC
August 2020

Opportunities for improving cancer treatment using systems biology.

Curr Opin Syst Biol 2019 Oct 27;17:41-50. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Division of Molecular Pharmacology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Current cancer therapies target a limited set of tumor features, rather than considering the tumor as a whole. Systems biology aims to reveal therapeutic targets associated with a variety of facets in an individual's tumor, such as genetic heterogeneity and its evolution, cancer cell-autonomous phenotypes, and microenvironmental signaling. These disparate characteristics can be reconciled using mathematical modeling that incorporates concepts from ecology and evolution. This provides an opportunity to predict tumor growth and response to therapy, to tailor patient-specific approaches in real time or even prospectively. Importantly, as data regarding patient tumors is often available from only limited time points during treatment, systems-based approaches can address this limitation by interpolating longitudinal events within a principled framework. This review outlines areas in medicine that could benefit from systems biology approaches to deconvolve the complexity of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coisb.2019.10.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282416PMC
October 2019

Impact of routine vaccination against type b in The Gambia: 20 years after its introduction.

J Glob Health 2020 Jun;10(1):010416

Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Fajara, The Gambia.

Background: In 1997, The Gambia introduced three primary doses of type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine without a booster in its infant immunisation programme along with establishment of a population-based surveillance on Hib meningitis in the West Coast Region (WCR). This surveillance was stopped in 2002 with reported elimination of Hib disease. This was re-established in 2008 but stopped again in 2010. We aimed to re-establish the surveillance in WCR and to continue surveillance in Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS) in the east of the country to assess any shifts in the epidemiology of Hib disease in The Gambia.

Methods: In WCR, population-based surveillance for Hib meningitis was re-established in children aged under-10 years from 24 December 2014 to 31 March 2017, using conventional microbiology and Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). In BHDSS, population-based surveillance for Hib disease was conducted in children aged 2-59 months from 12 May 2008 to 31 December 2017 using conventional microbiology only. Hib carriage survey was carried out in pre-school and school children from July 2015 to November 2016.

Results: In WCR, five Hib meningitis cases were detected using conventional microbiology while another 14 were detected by RT-PCR. Of the 19 cases, two (11%) were too young to be protected by vaccination while seven (37%) were unvaccinated. Using conventional microbiology, the incidence of Hib meningitis per 100 000-child-year (CY) in children aged 1-59 months was 0.7 in 2015 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.0-3.7) and 2.7 (95% CI = 0.7-7.0) in 2016. In BHDSS, 25 Hib cases were reported. Nine (36%) were too young to be protected by vaccination and five (20%) were under-vaccinated for age. Disease incidence peaked in 2012-2013 at 15 per 100 000 CY and fell to 5-8 per 100 000 CY over the subsequent four years. The prevalence of Hib carriage was 0.12% in WCR and 0.38% in BHDSS.

Conclusions: After 20 years of using three primary doses of Hib vaccine without a booster Hib transmission continues in The Gambia, albeit at low rates. Improved coverage and timeliness of vaccination are of high priority for Hib disease in settings like Gambia, and there are currently no clear indications of a need for a booster dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.010416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243067PMC
June 2020

Repeat radiation with bevacizumab and minocycline in bevacizumab-refractory high grade gliomas: a prospective phase 1 trial.

J Neurooncol 2020 Jul 6;148(3):577-585. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Introduction: There are no effective treatments for gliomas after progression on radiation, temozolomide, and bevacizumab. Microglia activation may be involved in radiation resistance and can be inhibited by the brain penetrating antibiotic minocycline. In this phase 1 trial, we examined the safety and effect on survival, symptom burden, and neurocognitive function of reirradiation, minocycline, and bevacizumab.

Methods: The trial used a 3 + 3 design for dose escalation followed by a ten person dose expansion. Patients received reirradiation with dosing based on radiation oncologist judgment, bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks, and oral minocycline twice a day. Symptom burden was measured using MDASI-BT. Neurocognitive function was measured using the COGSTATE battery.

Results: The maximum tolerated dose of minocycline was 400 mg twice a day with no unexpected toxicities. The PFS3 was 64.6%, and median overall survival was 6.4 months. Symptom burden and neurocognitive function did not decline in the interval between treatment completion and tumor progression.

Conclusions: Minocycline 400 mg orally twice a day with bevacizumab and reirradiation is well tolerated by physician and patient reported outcomes in people with gliomas that progress on bevacizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03551-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438283PMC
July 2020

Etiology of Pediatric Meningitis in West Africa Using Molecular Methods in the Era of Conjugate Vaccines against Pneumococcus, Meningococcus, and Type b.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 08 21;103(2):696-703. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Despite the implementation of effective conjugate vaccines against the three main bacterial pathogens that cause meningitis, , type b (Hib), and serogroup A, the burden of meningitis in West Africa remains high. The relative importance of other bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens in central nervous system infections is poorly characterized. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from children younger than 5 years with suspected meningitis, presenting at pediatric teaching hospitals across West Africa in five countries including Senegal, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, and Niger. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were initially tested using bacteriologic culture and a triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for , , and used in routine meningitis surveillance A custom TaqMan Array Card (TAC) assay was later used to detect 35 pathogens including 15 bacteria, 17 viruses, one fungus, and two protozoans. Among 711 CSF specimens tested, the pathogen positivity rates were 2% and 20% by the triplex real-time PCR (three pathogens) and TAC (35 pathogens), respectively. TAC detected 10 bacterial pathogens, eight viral pathogens, and . Overall, was the most prevalent (4.8%), followed by (3.5%) and (3.5%). Multiple pathogens were detected in 4.4% of the specimens. Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and detected in CSF had high mortality. Among 220 neonates, 17% had at least one pathogen detected, dominated by gram-negative bacteria. The meningitis TAC enhanced the detection of pathogens in children with meningitis and may be useful for case-based meningitis surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410464PMC
August 2020

Influenza disease burden among potential target risk groups for immunization in South Africa, 2013-2015.

Vaccine 2020 06 7;38(27):4288-4297. Epub 2020 May 7.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: Data on influenza burden in risk groups for severe influenza are important to guide targeted influenza immunization, especially in resource limited settings. However, this information is limited overall and in particular in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to assess the mean annual national burden of medically and non-medically attended influenza-associated mild, severe-non-fatal and fatal illness among potential target groups for influenza immunization in South Africa during 2013-2015.

Methods: We used published mean national annual estimates of mild, severe-non-fatal, and fatal influenza-associated illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 and estimated the number of such illnesses occurring among the following risk groups: (i) children aged 6-59 months; (ii) individuals aged 5-64 years with HIV, and/or pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and/or selected underlying medical conditions (UMC); (iii) pregnant women; and (iv) individuals aged ≥65 years. We also estimated the number of individuals among the same risk groups in the population.

Results: During 2013-2015, individuals in the selected risk groups accounted for 45.3% (24,569,328/54,086,144) of the population and 43.5% (4,614,763/10,598,138), 86.8% (111,245/128,173) and 94.5% (10,903/11,536) of the mean annual estimated number of influenza-associated mild, severe-non-fatal and fatal illness episodes, respectively. The rates of influenza-associated illness were highest in children aged 6-59 months (23,983 per 100,000 population) for mild illness, in pregnant women (930 per 100,000 population) for severe-non-fatal illness and in individuals aged ≥65 years (138 per 100,000 population) for fatal illness.

Conclusion: Influenza immunization of the selected risk groups has the potential to prevent a substantial number of influenza-associated severe illness. Nonetheless, because of the high number of individuals at risk, South Africa, due to financial resources constrains, may need to further prioritize interventions among risk populations. Cost-burden and cost-effectiveness estimates may assist with further prioritization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870979PMC
June 2020

Challenges of targeting V600E mutations in adult primary brain tumor patients: a report of two cases.

CNS Oncol 2019 12 10;8(4):CNS48. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

Therapeutic targeting of alterations in primary brain tumor patients has demonstrated clinical activity in case reports and early trials; however, there is limited high-level evidence of the efficacy. Targeting V600E mutations with concurrent dabrafenib and trametinib in anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma resulted in a transient radiographic and clinical response and no therapeutic benefit in a patient with an epithelioid glioblastoma. / inhibition did not produce a durable treatment effect in glioblastoma or pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with alterations. Heterogenicity of related cases in the literature makes an evaluation of efficacy targeting therapies in gliomas difficult and requires additional investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cns-2019-0018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912849PMC
December 2019

Multicountry Analysis of Spectrum of Clinical Manifestations of Children <5 Years of Age Hospitalized with Diarrhea.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 12;25(12):2253-2256

After introduction of rotavirus vaccine, other pathogens might become leading causes of hospitalizations for severe diarrhea among children <5 years of age. Our study in 33 hospitals in 7 countries found acute gastroenteritis accounted for most (84%) reported hospitalizations of children with diarrhea. Bloody and persistent diarrhea each accounted for <1%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.180712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874262PMC
December 2019

Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Africa's Meningitis Belt: More Than Just Meningitis?

J Infect Dis 2019 10;220(220 Suppl 4):S263-S265

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Since the progressive introduction of the meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine within Africa's meningitis belt beginning in 2010, the burden of meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) has substantially decreased. Non-A serogroups C/W/X are now the most prevalent. Surveillance within the belt has historically focused on the clinical syndrome of meningitis, the classic presentation for NmA, and may not adequately capture other presentations of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The clinical presentation of infection due to serogroups C/W/X includes nonmeningeal IMD, and there is a higher case-fatality ratio associated with these non-A serogroups; however, data on the nonmeningeal IMD burden within the belt are scarce. Expanding surveillance to capture all cases of IMD, in accordance with the World Health Organization's updated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance standards and in preparation for the anticipated introduction of a multivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine within Africa's meningitis belt, will enhance meningococcal disease prevention across the belt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz251DOI Listing
October 2019

A cost-effectiveness analysis of antenatal influenza vaccination among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in South Africa.

Vaccine 2019 10 28;37(46):6874-6884. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Pregnant women and infants are at increased risk of severe disease from influenza. Antenatal influenza vaccination is safe and can reduce the risk of illness for women and their infants. We evaluated for South Africa the health effects of antenatal influenza vaccination among pregnant women and their infants aged <6 months old and assessed its cost-effectiveness.

Methods: We constructed a decision tree model to simulate the population of pregnant women and infants aged <6 months in South Africa using TreeAge Pro Suite 2015. The model evaluated the change in societal costs and outcomes associated with a vaccination campaign that prioritized HIV-infected over HIV-uninfected pregnant women compared with no vaccination. We also examined the impacts of a campaign without prioritization. Upper and lower 90% uncertainty intervals (90% UI) were generated using probabilistic sensitivity analysis on 10000 Monte Carlo simulations. The cost-effectiveness threshold was set to the 2015 per capita gross domestic product of South Africa, US$5724.

Results: Antenatal vaccination with prioritization averted 9070 (90% UI: 7407-11217) total cases of influenza among pregnant women and infants, including 411 (90% UI: 305-546) hospitalizations and 30 (90% UI: 22-40) deaths. This corresponds to an averted fraction of 13.5% (90% UI: 9.0-20.5%). Vaccinating without prioritization averted 7801 (90% UI: 6465-9527) cases of influenza, including 335 (90% UI: 254-440) hospitalizations and 24 (90% UI: 18-31) deaths. This corresponds to an averted fraction of 11.6% (90% UI: 7.8-17.4%). Vaccinating the cohort of pregnant women with prioritization had societal cost of $4689 (90% UI: $3128-$7294) per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) gained while vaccinating without prioritization had a cost of $5924 (90% UI: $3992-$9056) per QALY.

Conclusions: Antenatal influenza vaccination campaigns in South Africa would reduce the impact of influenza and could be cost-effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.059DOI Listing
October 2019

Influenza and tuberculosis co-infection: A systematic review.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2020 01 30;14(1):77-91. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: There are limited data on risk of severe disease or outcomes in patients with influenza and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) co-infection compared to those with single infection.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of published literature on the interaction of influenza viruses and PTB. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they presented data on prevalence, disease association, presentation or severity of laboratory-confirmed influenza among clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed PTB cases. We searched eight databases from inception until December 2018. Summary characteristics of each study were extracted, and a narrative summary was presented. Cohort or case-control studies were assessed for potential bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.

Results: We assessed 5154 abstracts, reviewed 146 manuscripts and included 19 studies fulfilling selection criteria (13 human and six animal). Of seven studies reporting on the possible effect of the underlying PTB disease in patients with influenza, three of four analytical studies reported no association with disease severity of influenza infection in those with PTB, whilst one study reported PTB as a risk factor for influenza-associated hospitalization. An association between influenza infection and PTB disease was found in three of five analytical studies; whereas the two other studies reported a high frequency of PTB disease progression and complications among patients with seasonal influenza co-infection.

Conclusion: Human analytical studies of an association between co-infection and severe influenza- or PTB-associated disease or increased prevalence of influenza co-infection in individuals' hospitalized for PTB were not conclusive. Data are limited from large, high-quality, analytical epidemiological studies with laboratory-confirmed endpoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928059PMC
January 2020

The performance of different case definitions for severe influenza surveillance among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children aged <5 years in South Africa, 2011-2015.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(9):e0222294. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a new severe influenza surveillance case definition, which has not been evaluated in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting. Our study aimed to assess the performance of this proposed case definition in identifying influenza among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children aged <5 years in South Africa. We prospectively enrolled children aged <5 years hospitalised with physician-diagnosed lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) at two surveillance sites from January 2011 to December 2015. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected. We tested nasopharyngeal aspirates for influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with influenza positivity among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. We calculated sensitivity and specificity for different signs and symptoms and combinations of these for laboratory-confirmed influenza. We enrolled 2,582 children <5 years of age with LRTI of whom 87% (2,257) had influenza and HIV results, of these 14% (318) were HIV-infected. The influenza detection rate was 5% (104/1,939) in HIV-uninfected and 5% (16/318) in HIV-infected children. Children with measured fever (≥38°C) were two times more likely to test positive for influenza than those without measured fever among the HIV-uninfected (OR 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5-3.4; p<0.001). No significant association was observed between fever and influenza infection among HIV-infected children. Cough alone had sensitivity of 95% (95% CI 89-98%) in HIV-uninfected and of 100% (95% CI 79-100%) in HIV-infected children but low specificity: 7% (95% CI 6-8%) and 6% (95% CI 3-9%) in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children, respectively. The WHO post-2014 case definition for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI-an acute respiratory infection with history of fever or measured fever of ≥ 38°C and cough; with onset within the last ten days and requires hospitalization), had a sensitivity of 66% (95% CI 56-76%) and specificity of 46% (95% CI 44-48%) among HIV-uninfected and a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI 35-84%) and a specificity of 42% (95% CI 36-48%) among HIV-infected children. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO post-2014 case definition for SARI were similar among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Our findings support the adoption of the 2014 WHO case definition for children aged <5 years irrespective of HIV infection status.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222294PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752836PMC
March 2020

Global impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus hospitalisations among children under 5 years of age, 2008-16: findings from the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 07;7(7):e893-e903

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Rotavirus vaccine use in national immunisation programmes has led to declines in hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children; however, the global impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction has not been described using primary data. We describe the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on admissions for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in primarily low-income and middle-income countries, using 9 years of data from the WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network (GRSN).

Methods: Between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2016, children younger than 5 years of age who were admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis were prospectively enrolled in GRSN sites. We included sites that enrolled children and collected stool specimens monthly and tested at least 100 specimens annually in the impact analysis, with a separate analysis taking into account site continuity. We compared proportions of acute gastroenteritis cases positive for rotavirus in the pre-vaccine and post-vaccine periods and calculated mean proportion changes for WHO regions, with 95% CIs; these findings were then compared with interrupted time series analyses. We did further sensitivity analyses to account for rotavirus vaccination coverage levels and sites that collected specimens for at least 11 months per year and tested at least 80 specimens per year. We also analysed the age distribution of rotavirus-positive cases before and after vaccine introduction.

Findings: 403 140 children younger than 5 years of age admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis from 349 sites in 82 countries were enrolled over the study period, of whom 132 736 (32·9%) were positive for rotavirus. We included 305 789 children from 198 sites in 69 countries in the impact analysis. In countries that had not introduced rotavirus vaccine in their national immunisation programmes, rotavirus was detected in 38·0% (95% CI 4·8-73·4) of admissions for acute gastroenteritis annually whereas in those that have introduced the vaccine, rotavirus was detected in 23·0% (0·7-57·7) of admissions for acute gastroenteritis, showing a 39·6% (35·4-43·8) relative decline following introduction. Interrupted time series analyses confirmed these findings. Reductions by WHO regions ranged from 26·4% (15·0-37·8) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to 55·2% (43·0-67·4) in the European Region and were sustained in nine countries (contributing up to 31 sites) for 6-10 years. The age distribution of children with rotavirus gastroenteritis shifted towards older children after rotavirus vaccine introduction.

Interpretation: A significant and sustained reduction in the proportion of hospital admissions for acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus was seen among children younger than 5 years in GRSN sites following rotavirus vaccine introduction. These findings highlight the need to incorporate rotavirus vaccines into immunisation programmes in countries that have not yet introduced them and underline the importance of high-quality surveillance.

Funding: The GRSN receives funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No specific funding was provided for this Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30207-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336990PMC
July 2019

Health and economic burden of influenza-associated illness in South Africa, 2013-2015.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 09 11;13(5):484-495. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Economic burden estimates are essential to guide policy-making for influenza vaccination, especially in resource-limited settings.

Methods: We estimated the cost, absenteeism, and years of life lost (YLL) of medically and non-medically attended influenza-associated mild and severe respiratory, circulatory and non-respiratory/non-circulatory illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) worksheet based tool for estimating the economic burden of seasonal influenza. Additionally, we restricted the analysis to influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI; subsets of all-respiratory illnesses) as suggested in the WHO manual.

Results: The estimated mean annual cost of influenza-associated illness was $270.5 million, of which $111.3 million (41%) were government-incurred costs, 40.7 million (15%) were out-of-pocket expenses, and $118.4 million (44%) were indirect costs. The cost of influenza-associated medically attended mild illness ($107.9 million) was 2.3 times higher than that of severe illness ($47.1 million). Influenza-associated respiratory illness costs ($251.4 million) accounted for 93% of the total cost. Estimated absenteeism and YLL were 13.2 million days and 304 867 years, respectively. Among patients with influenza-associated WHO-defined ILI or SARI, the costs ($95.3 million), absenteeism (4.5 million days), and YLL (65 697) were 35%, 34%, and 21% of the total economic and health burden of influenza.

Conclusion: The economic burden of influenza-associated illness was substantial from both a government and a societal perspective. Models that limit estimates to those obtained from patients with WHO-defined ILI or SARI substantially underestimated the total economic and health burden of influenza-associated illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6692552PMC
September 2019

The Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Exposure on Respiratory Syncytial Virus-associated Severe Respiratory Illness in South African Infants, 2011-2016.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 11;69(12):2208-2211

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

From 2011 through 2016, we conducted surveillance for severe respiratory illness in infants. Human immunodeficiency virus exposure significantly increased the risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalization in infants aged <5 months. More than 60% of RSV-associated hospitalizations occurred in the first 4 months of life and may be preventable through maternal vaccination or birth-dose monoclonal antibody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934254PMC
November 2019

The contribution of the rs55705857 G allele to familial cancer risk as estimated in the Utah population database.

BMC Cancer 2019 Mar 1;19(1):190. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Division of Oncology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Background: IDH1/2 mutated glioma has been associated with a germline risk variant, the rs55705857 G allele. The Utah Population Database (UPDB), a computerized genealogy of people in Utah, is a unique resource to evaluate cancer risk in related individuals.

Methods: One hundred and two individuals with IDH1/2 mutant or 1p/19q co-deleted glioma were genotyped and linked to the UPDB. DNA came from blood (21), tumor tissue (43), or both (38). We determined congruence between somatic and germline samples and estimated the relative risk for developing cancer to first and second-degree relatives of G and A allele carriers at rs55705857.

Results: Somatic (glioma) DNA had 85.7% sensitivity (CI 57.2-98.2%) and 95.8% specificity (CI 78.9-99.89%) for germline rs55705857 G allele. Forty-one patients were linked to pedigrees in the UPDB with at least three generations of data. First-degree relatives of rs55705857 G allele carriers were at significantly increased risk for developing cancer (RR = 1.72, p = 0.045, CI 1.02-2.94), and specifically for oligodendroglioma (RR = 57.61, p = 0.017, CI 2.96-320.98) or prostate cancer (RR = 4.10, p = 0.008, CI 1.62-9.58); relatives of individuals without the G allele were not at increased risk. Second-degree relatives of G allele carriers also had significantly increased risk for developing cancer (RR = 1.50, p = 0.007, CI 1.15-2.01).

Conclusions: Tumor DNA may approximate genotype at the rs55705857 locus. We confirmed this locus confers an increased risk of all cancers and especially of oligodendroglioma. No increased cancer or brain tumor risk is seen in family members of individuals without the high-risk G allele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5381-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397494PMC
March 2019

A multicenter phase II study of temozolomide plus disulfiram and copper for recurrent temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma.

J Neurooncol 2019 May 15;142(3):537-544. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested promising activity for the combination of disulfiram and copper (DSF/Cu) against glioblastoma (GBM) including re-sensitization to temozolomide (TMZ). A previous phase I study demonstrated the safety of combining DSF/Cu with adjuvant TMZ for newly diagnosed GBM. This phase II study aimed to estimate the potential effectiveness of DSF/Cu to re-sensitize recurrent GBM to TMZ.

Methods: This open-label, single-arm phase II study treated recurrent TMZ-resistant GBM patients with standard monthly TMZ plus concurrent daily DSF 80 mg PO TID and Cu 1.5 mg PO TID. Eligible patients must have progressed after standard chemoradiotherapy and within 3 months of the last dose of TMZ. Known isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant or secondary GBMs were excluded. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), and the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), clinical benefit (response or stable disease for at least 6 months), and safety.

Results: From March 2017 to January 2018, 23 recurrent TMZ-resistant GBM patients were enrolled across seven centers, and 21 patients were evaluable for response. The median duration of DSF/Cu was 1.6 cycles (range: 0.1-12.0). The ORR was 0%, but 14% had clinical benefit. Median PFS was 1.7 months, and median OS was 7.1 months. Only one patient (4%) had dose-limiting toxicity (grade three elevated alanine transaminase).

Conclusions: Addition of DSF/Cu to TMZ for TMZ-resistant IDH-wild type GBM appears well tolerated but has limited activity for unselected population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-019-03125-yDOI Listing
May 2019

Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 immunotherapy promotes a survival benefit with intratumoral and systemic immune responses in recurrent glioblastoma.

Nat Med 2019 03 11;25(3):477-486. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Medical and Molecular Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor survival. The Ivy Foundation Early Phase Clinical Trials Consortium conducted a randomized, multi-institution clinical trial to evaluate immune responses and survival following neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab in 35 patients with recurrent, surgically resectable glioblastoma. Patients who were randomized to receive neoadjuvant pembrolizumab, with continued adjuvant therapy following surgery, had significantly extended overall survival compared to patients that were randomized to receive adjuvant, post-surgical programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade alone. Neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade was associated with upregulation of T cell- and interferon-γ-related gene expression, but downregulation of cell-cycle-related gene expression within the tumor, which was not seen in patients that received adjuvant therapy alone. Focal induction of programmed death-ligand 1 in the tumor microenvironment, enhanced clonal expansion of T cells, decreased PD-1 expression on peripheral blood T cells and a decreasing monocytic population was observed more frequently in the neoadjuvant group than in patients treated only in the adjuvant setting. These findings suggest that the neoadjuvant administration of PD-1 blockade enhances both the local and systemic antitumor immune response and may represent a more efficacious approach to the treatment of this uniformly lethal brain tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0337-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408961PMC
March 2019

Global Review of the Age Distribution of Rotavirus Disease in Children Aged <5 Years Before the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccination.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 08;69(6):1071-1078

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.

We sought datasets with granular age distributions of rotavirus-positive disease presentations among children <5 years of age, before the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. We identified 117 datasets and fit parametric age distributions to each country dataset and mortality stratum. We calculated the median age and the cumulative proportion of rotavirus gastroenteritis events expected to occur at ages between birth and 5.0 years. The median age of rotavirus-positive hospital admissions was 38 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 25-58 weeks) in countries with very high child mortality and 65 weeks (IQR, 40-107 weeks) in countries with very low or low child mortality. In countries with very high child mortality, 69% of rotavirus-positive admissions in children <5 years of age were in the first year of life, with 3% by 10 weeks, 8% by 15 weeks, and 27% by 26 weeks. This information is critical for assessing the potential benefits of alternative rotavirus vaccination schedules in different countries and for monitoring program impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736387PMC
August 2019

Household Transmission of Seasonal Influenza From HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals in South Africa, 2013-2014.

J Infect Dis 2019 04;219(10):1605-1615

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: We estimated the household secondary infection risk (SIR) and serial interval (SI) for influenza transmission from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected index cases.

Methods: Index cases were the first symptomatic person in a household with influenza-like illness, testing influenza positive on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from household contacts every 4 days were tested by rRT-PCR. Factors associated with SIR were evaluated using logistic regression.

Results: We enrolled 28 HIV-infected and 57 HIV-uninfected index cases. On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected index cases were less likely to transmit influenza to household contacts (odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.6; SIR 16%, 18/113 vs 27%, 59/220). Factors associated with increased SIR included index age group 1-4 years (OR 3.6; 95% CI, 1.2-11.3) and 25-44 years (OR 8.0; 95% CI, 1.8-36.7), and contact age group 1-4 years (OR 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2-10.3) compared to 5-14 years, and sleeping with index case (OR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.5). HIV infection of index case was not associated with SI.

Conclusions: HIV-infection was not associated with SI. Increased infectiousness of HIV-infected individuals is likely not an important driver of community influenza transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804374PMC
April 2019

Quantifying How Different Clinical Presentations, Levels of Severity, and Healthcare Attendance Shape the Burden of Influenza-associated Illness: A Modeling Study From South Africa.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 08;69(6):1036-1048

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Burden estimates of medically and nonmedically attended influenza-associated illness across syndromes and levels of severity are lacking.

Methods: We estimated the national burden of medically and nonmedically attended influenza-associated illness among individuals with different clinical presentations (all-respiratory, all-circulatory, and nonrespiratory/noncirculatory) and levels of severity (mild, fatal, and severe, nonfatal) using a combination of case-based (from laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance) and ecological studies, as well as data from healthcare utilization surveys in South Africa during 2013-2015. In addition, we compared estimates of medically attended influenza-associated respiratory illness, obtained from case-based and ecological studies. Rates were reported per 100 000 individuals in the population.

Results: The estimated mean annual number of influenza-associated illness episodes was 10 737 847 (19.8% of 54 096 705 inhabitants). Of these episodes, 10 598 138 (98.7%) were mild, 128 173 (1.2%) were severe, nonfatal, and 11 536 (0.1%) were fatal. There were 2 718 140 (25.6%) mild, 56 226 (43.9%) severe, nonfatal, and 4945 (42.8%) medically attended should be after fatal episodes. Influenza-associated respiratory illness accounted for 99.2% (10 576 146) of any mild, 65.5% (83 941) of any severe, nonfatal, and 33.7% (3893) of any fatal illnesses. Ecological and case-based estimates of medically attended, influenza-associated, respiratory mild (rates: ecological, 1778.8, vs case-based, 1703.3; difference, 4.4%), severe, nonfatal (rates: ecological, 88.6, vs case-based, 75.3; difference, 15.0%), and fatal (rates: ecological, 3.8, vs case-based, 3.5; difference, 8.4%) illnesses were similar.

Conclusions: There was a substantial burden of influenza-associated symptomatic illness, including severe, nonfatal and fatal illnesses, and a large proportion was nonmedically attended. Estimates, including only influenza-associated respiratory illness, substantially underestimated influenza-associated, severe, nonfatal and fatal illnesses. Ecological and case-based estimates were found to be similar for the compared categories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804385PMC
August 2019

Expenditures on vaccine-preventable disease surveillance: Analysis and evaluation of comprehensive multi-year plans (cMYPs) for immunization.

Vaccine 2018 10 17;36(45):6850-6857. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), Department of Immunizations, Vaccines, and Biologicals (IVB), World Health Organization (WHO), Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Despite the importance of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) surveillance, little is known about the costs of monitoring disease. We used Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans for Immunization (cMYPs) - developed by countries following guidelines from the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund - to estimate expenditures on VPD surveillance at the country level in 2015 US Dollars (USD) in 63 low- and middle-income countries. To evaluate the reliability of cMYP estimates, we also compared cMYP data with findings from previous research studies and assessed whether countries explicitly budgeted for major categories of surveillance activities in their plans for immunization. According to our analysis of cMYPs, countries spent an annual median of $406,108 on VPD surveillance ($0.04 per capita and $1.47 per infant), with reported expenditures ranging from $1,098 (Kiribati) to $21,644,770 (Nigeria). However, the majority of countries failed to explicitly mention several key categories of surveillance activities in their plans, especially laboratory-related surveillance activities. Our results show a large amount of variation in surveillance expenditures (total, per capita, and per infant) between countries and provide insights to improve costing guidelines and practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530543PMC
October 2018