Publications by authors named "Adam Kuperavage"

3 Publications

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Earliest Known Hominin Calcar Femorale in Orrorin tugenensis Provides Further Internal Anatomical Evidence for Origin of Human Bipedal Locomotion.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 11 19;301(11):1834-1839. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Laboratory for the Comparative Study of Morphology, Mechanics and Molecules, Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, 16801.

The calcar femorale (CF), a plate of dense bone internal to the lesser trochanter, is visible on computed tomographic images of the 6 million-year-old femoral fragment BAR 1003'00 (from the taxon Orrorin tugenensis), among the oldest specimens relevant to reconstructing the evolution of human bipedal locomotion. A strongly expressed CF has been used previously as an indicator of bipedality. If true, then there should be a quantifiable difference in the CF among hominoids. Absolute and normalized CF lengths were measured from computed tomographic images at five anatomical locations along the proximal portion of BAR 1003'00 in addition to samples of nine H. sapiens and ten P. troglodytes femora. The span of the CF superiorly to inferiorly within the proximal femur was measured by counting the number of cross-sections on which the CF occurred. A Bayesian approach was used to classify the BAR 1003'00 sample based on normalized lengths. The P. troglodytes femora were more variable both in the occurrence of the trait and, where present, its span in the proximal femur. The H. sapiens sample exhibited CF lengths that were consistently larger at each location than the P. troglodytes in absolute terms, but the normalized lengths overlap substantially. The Bayesian posterior probability test classifies the CF of BAR 1003'00 with H. sapiens. The BAR 1003'00's calcar femorale has a strong anatomical similarity to the H. sapiens sample, supporting the conclusion that O. tugenensis is an early bipedal hominin. Anat Rec, 301:1834-1839, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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November 2018

Comparison of male and female lower limb segment inertial properties.

J Biomech 2012 Oct 9;45(15):2690-2. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Biomechanics Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-3408, USA.

Many studies have examined human segmental inertial parameters, but these studies have focused more on male rather than female data. The purpose of this study was to determine the lower limb segmental inertial parameters for a large sample (n>1500) of both males and females. The participants in this study were those measured as part of a survey of the anthropometry of US army personnel. The sample comprised 1774 males (mean height 1.756±0.079 m, mean mass of 78.49±0.11 kg, and mean age of 27.21±6.81 years), and 2208 females (mean height 1.629±0.072 m, mean mass of 62.01±0.08 kg, and mean age of 26.18±5.70 years). Anthropometric measurements were used to determine the inertial properties of the lower limb segments by modeling them as series of geometric solids. An analysis of variance revealed that the normalized inertial parameters for each of the segments were statistically significantly different (p>0.001) between the two groups. The time for each segment to swing through the range of motion of the swing phase of gait, produced shorter swing times for the male segments. The differences between the segmental inertial properties for the sexes have implications for how these parameters are customized to experimental subjects.
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October 2012