Publications by authors named "Adam Dignam"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Automated Raman Micro-Spectroscopy of Epithelial Cell Nuclei for High-Throughput Classification.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.

Raman micro-spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the identification and classification of cancer cells and tissues. In recent years, the application of Raman spectroscopy to detect bladder, cervical, and oral cytological samples has been reported to have an accuracy greater than that of standard pathology. However, despite being entirely non-invasive and relatively inexpensive, the slow recording time, and lack of reproducibility have prevented the clinical adoption of the technology. Here, we present an automated Raman cytology system that can facilitate high-throughput screening and improve reproducibility. The proposed system is designed to be integrated directly into the standard pathology clinic, taking into account their methodologies and consumables. The system employs image processing algorithms and integrated hardware/software architectures in order to achieve automation and is tested using the ThinPrep standard, including the use of glass slides, and a number of bladder cancer cell lines. The entire automation process is implemented, using the open source Micro-Manager platform and is made freely available. We believe that this code can be readily integrated into existing commercial Raman micro-spectrometers.
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September 2021

IRAK1 Limits TLR3/4- and IFNAR-Driven IL-27 Production through a STAT1-Dependent Mechanism.

J Immunol 2018 10 24;201(7):2070-2081. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Institute of Immunology, Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland;

IL-27 is a cytokine exerting pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects on a broad spectrum of immune cells. Optimal IL-27 production downstream of TLR3/4 ligand stimulation relies on autocrine type I IFN signaling, defining a first and second phase in IL-27 production. This work shows that IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) limits TLR3/4- and IFNAR-induced IL-27 production. At the mechanistic level, we identified IRAK1 as a novel regulator of STAT1, IRF1, and IRF9. We found hyperactivation of STAT1 together with increased nuclear levels of IRF1 and IRF9 in IRAK1-deficient murine macrophages compared with control cells following stimulation with LPS and poly(I:C). IRAK1-deficient human microglial cells showed higher basal levels of STAT1 and STAT2 compared with control cells. Blocking the kinase activity of TBK1/IKKε in IRAK1 knockdown human microglial cells reduced the high basal levels of STAT1/2, uncovering a TBK1/IKKε kinase-dependent mechanism controlling basal levels of STAT1/2. Stimulating IRAK1 knockdown human microglial cells with IFN-β led to increased IL-27p28 expression compared with control cells. In IRAK1-deficient murine macrophages, increased IL-27 levels were detected by ELISA following IFN-β stimulation compared with control macrophages together with increased nuclear levels of p-STAT1, IRF1, and IRF9. Treatment of wild-type and IRAK1-deficient murine macrophages with fludarabine similarly reduced TLR3/4-induced IL-27 cytokine levels. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report placing IRAK1 in the IFNAR pathway and identifies IRAK1 as an important regulator of STAT1, controlling IL-27 production downstream of TLR3/4 and IFNAR signaling pathways.
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October 2018