Publications by authors named "Adam Bretholz"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fruit-Induced Anaphylaxis: Clinical Presentation and Management.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Data are sparse regarding the clinical characteristics and management of fruit-induced anaphylaxis.

Objective: To assess clinical characteristics and management of patients with fruit-induced anaphylaxis and determine factors associated with severe reactions and epinephrine use.

Methods: Over 9 years, children and adults presenting with anaphylaxis to seven emergency departments in four Canadian provinces and patients requiring emergency medical services in Outaouais, Quebec were recruited as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry. A standardized form documenting symptoms, triggers, and management was collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with severe reactions and epinephrine treatment in the pre-hospital setting.

Results: We recruited 250 patients with fruit-induced anaphylaxis, median age 10.2 years (interquartile range, 3.6-23.4 years); 48.8% were male. The most common fruit triggers were kiwi (15.6%), banana (10.8%), and mango (9.2%). Twenty-three patients reported having eczema (9.3%). Epinephrine use was low in both the pre-hospital setting and the emergency department (28.4% and 40.8%, respectively). Severe reactions to fruit were more likely to occur in spring and among those with eczema (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.23; and 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03-1.34, respectively). Patients with moderate and severe reactions (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43) and those with a known food allergy (aOR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24-1.54) were more likely to be treated with epinephrine in the pre-hospital setting.

Conclusions: Severe anaphylaxis to fruit is more frequent in spring. Cross-reactivity to pollens is a potential explanation that should be evaluated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.02.055DOI Listing
March 2021

Specific IgE antibody levels during and after food-induced anaphylaxis.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Feb 9;51(2):364-368. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13796DOI Listing
February 2021

Anaphylaxis as a presenting symptom of food allergy in children with no known food allergy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 09 26;8(8):2811-2813.e2. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.033DOI Listing
September 2020

A Novel Smartphone App to Support Learning and Maintaining Competency With Bier Blocks for Pediatric Forearm Fracture Reductions: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2018 Dec 21;7(12):e10363. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Distal forearm fractures are among the most common injuries presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED). Bier block (BB), or intravenous regional anesthesia, is a safe and effective alternative to procedural sedation for closed reduction of forearm fractures; it is associated with fewer adverse events, a shorter length of stay, and reduced costs. BB has long remained relatively underutilized; however, with an increasing emphasis on efficient resource use and patient-centered care, there is renewed interest in this technique.

Objective: Our tertiary PED recently became the first in Canada to successfully implement an active BB program. Subsequently, we developed a mobile BB smartphone app designed to support the sustained departmental use of BB. The app can be used for training and maintenance of competency and incorporates instructional material, as well as our institutional BB protocol, printable medication order sheets, and monitoring forms. The present report describes the development and functionality of the BB smartphone app.

Methods: We have described app development and content. App dissemination metrics will be tracked, and user feedback will be analyzed using a self-administered electronic survey. Additionally, app utilization in our PED will be compared with real-world clinical use of BB for fracture reductions.

Results: The first iteration of the BB app was launched in 2015, with the most recent update in September 2018. App metric tracking is planned for January 2020 until December 2021.

Conclusions: We have highlighted how the BB app serves as a paradigm of an educational tool designed not only for individual users but also for supporting the department-wide implementation and dissemination of a new technique. App dissemination and use metrics will be tracked and correlated with clinical use of BB in the PED.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/10363.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/10363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320428PMC
December 2018

Reduced Length of Stay and Adverse Events Using Bier Block for Forearm Fracture Reduction in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Jan;35(1):58-62

Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: Forearm fractures are among the most common pediatric injuries. Procedural sedation is frequently used for analgesia during fracture reduction but requires a prolonged recovery period and can be associated with adverse events. Bier block is a safe alternative for fracture reduction analgesia. This study sought to compare Bier block and procedural sedation for forearm fracture reduction.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients aged 6 to 18 years, presenting with forearm fractures requiring closed reduction from June 2012 to March 2014. Outcomes assessed were emergency department length of stay, reduction success rates, adverse events, and unscheduled return visits.

Results: Overall, 274 patients were included (Bier block, n = 109; procedural sedation, n = 165). Mean length of stay was 82 minutes shorter for Bier block patients (279 vs 361 minutes, P < 0.001). Subanalysis revealed a reduced length of stay among Bier block patients with forearm fractures involving a single bone (286 vs 388 minutes, P < 0.001) and both bones (259 vs 321 minutes, P < 0.05). Reduction success did not differ between Bier block and procedural sedation (98.2% vs 97.6%, P = 0.74). There were no major adverse events in either group, but Bier block patients experienced fewer minor adverse events (2.7% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001). Return visit rates were similar between Bier block and procedural sedation (17.6% vs 16.9%, P = 0.92).

Conclusions: Compared with procedural sedation, forearm fracture reduction performed with Bier block was associated with a reduced emergency department length of stay and fewer adverse events, with no differences in reduction success or return visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000963DOI Listing
January 2019

Simulation and Web-based learning increases utilization of Bier block for forearm fracture reduction in the pediatric emergency department.

CJEM 2017 Nov 21;19(6):434-440. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

*Division of Pediatric of Pediatric Emergency Medicine,The Montreal Children's Hospital,McGill University Health Centre,Montreal,QC.

Objectives: Bier block (BB) is a safe and effective alternative to procedural sedation for analgesia during forearm fracture reductions, yet remains infrequently used in the pediatric emergency department (PED). No standardized methods of BB training have previously been described. The objective of this study was to determine whether a multimodal instructional course increases comfort with BB and translates to increased use of this technique.

Methods: A novel interdisciplinary simulation and Web-based training course was developed to teach the use of BB for forearm fracture reduction at a tertiary PED. Participants were surveyed pre-/post-training, and at 2 and 6 months regarding their comfort with BB. In parallel, we prospectively assessed the clinical use of BB for children ages 6 to 18 years requiring closed reduction of forearm fractures during the 24-month post-course period.

Results: Course participation included 26 physicians and 12 nurses. Survey response rate was 100%. Course participation increased both comfort (10% pre-training v. 89% post-training, p<0.001) and the willingness to use BB (51% pre-training v. 95% post-training, p<0.001), an effect sustained at 6 months post-course (66% and 92%, respectively, p<0.001 for both). In clinical practice, there were no BBs performed prior to course administration. We observed a consistent and sustained increase in clinical use among the BB-trained physicians, with 37% of all forearm reductions performed using BB at 24 months post-course completion.

Conclusions: A novel combined simulation and Web-based training course increased comfort and willingness to use BB and was associated with increased use of this technique for forearm fracture reduction in the PED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cem.2016.392DOI Listing
November 2017

A presurvey and postsurvey of a web- and simulation-based course of ultrasound-guided nerve blocks for pediatric emergency medicine.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2012 Jun;28(6):506-9

Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: Fracture pain in the pediatric emergency department generally is treated with systemic analgesia using opioids. Fracture pain can alternatively be controlled with ultrasound (U/S)-guided nerve blocks for which only minimal training is available to pediatric emergency medicine physicians. This study evaluated the effects of a Web- and half-day simulation-based U/S course. Outcome measures were physician comfort level with and intention to use U/S-guided nerve blocks in clinical practice.

Methods: We conducted a presurvey and postsurvey study targeting pediatric emergency medicine physicians. Participants completed a Web-based tutorial and a half-day simulation program. Participants completed survey questionnaires to document their comfort level and intention to use U/S-guided nerve blocks. Questionnaires were completed before, immediately after, and 1 month after course.

Results: Eleven physicians participated in the study. The participants' comfort with and intention to use U/S-guided ulnar and femoral nerve blocks increased immediately after course, but neither increase was sustained 1 month after course. Immediately following the course, participants reported that the course addressed their learning needs (91%) and that they would consider advanced training (91%). One month after course, participants reported that they would partake in refresher courses (82%), particularly if offered once per year (64%).

Conclusions: This study suggests that Web- and simulation-based learning can increase comfort and intention to use U/S-guided nerve blocks and the need for follow-on training. Participants reported that their learning needs were met but that they would need annual refresher courses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0b013e3182586f42DOI Listing
June 2012

The use of OpdA in rat models of organic phosphorus (OP) poisoning.

Toxicology 2009 Mar 24;257(3):172; author reply 173. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2008.10.027DOI Listing
March 2009