Publications by authors named "Adam Bobbey"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging in Diagnosing Pulmonary Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis in a Pediatric Patient.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH.

Abstract: A 15-year-old girl with a history of complex congenital heart disease and prior pulmonary valve replacement presented with suspected endocarditis. PET/CT imaging with 18F-FDG was performed to evaluate the potential presence of intracardiac vegetations after previously inconclusive findings from CT angiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and transesophageal echocardiography. PET/CT detected heterogeneous, asymmetric, increased 18F-FDG uptake in the region of the pulmonary valve prosthesis, typical for infection, and confirmed diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis. This report highlights the utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging to complement the Duke criteria for determining the diagnosis and therapeutic management of pediatric patients with infective endocarditis.
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April 2021

Pediatric adaptions are needed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid ultrasound using TI-RADS.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, FB Suite 6B.1, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) is validated in adults but not yet in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of TI-RADS in predicting thyroid malignancy for pediatric nodules, and to compare the diagnostic accuracy to the current American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines.

Methods: A single institution retrospective review was performed of patients younger than 21 years who underwent thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Two radiologists were blinded to the pathology and independently classified all biopsied thyroid nodules based on TI-RADS. ATA and TI-RADS guidelines were analyzed to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of both scoring systems.

Results: 115 patients (median age 15.5 years, 90 females) with 138 nodules were scored using TI-RADS. There was moderate inter-rater agreement between radiologists (Kappa = 0.51; p < 0.0001). Evaluating several potential TI-RADS criteria, 23.2%-68.1% of nodules were recommended for FNAB, compared to 82.6% of nodules using ATA guidelines. Using TI-RADS ≥ 3 (without size cutoff) as an indication for FNAB had 100% sensitivity with no missed suspicious or malignant nodules on cytology or pathology.

Conclusions: Using TI-RADS for diagnostic management of pediatric thyroid nodules improves accuracy in predicting malignancy.
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February 2021

Spirulina breath test indicates differences in gastric emptying based on age, gender, and BMI.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jan 23:e14079. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: Measurements of gastric emptying (GE) by scintigraphy in the pediatric population are based on adult standards. Due to radiation exposure, scintigraphy cannot be performed on healthy children to establish norms of GE in the pediatric population. Stable isotope breath tests (GEBTs) pose no such health risk to children. This study sought to determine the feasibility of a GEBT in children and to investigate whether GE may differ by age, gender, or body mass index (BMI).

Methods: Fifty healthy children 6 to 18 years underwent a C-Spirulina platensis GEBT. Breath samples were obtained at baseline, every 15 min for 1 h, and at 30-min intervals for 3 h thereafter. Seventeen similarly aged patients with dyspeptic symptoms concurrently underwent scintigraphy and the GEBT.

Key Results: Forty-six healthy subjects were included in the final analysis. Females had an overall slower rate of GE than did males. At nearly all timepoints, children with a BMI >85 percentile had slower GE than normally weighted children. The GE rate of children aged 6-9 reached a maximum later than did the rate of older children. Thirteen patients undergoing scintigraphy were included in the comparative analysis. The agreement between scintigraphic and GEBT half-times as measured by the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.383 (95% CI: 0.02-0.65).

Conclusions And Inferences: GEBT was easily accomplished in healthy children. Differences of GE rates by age, gender, and BMI support the need for establishing pediatric standards of GE. One way to establish such standards may be through the use of a GEBT.
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January 2021

Noninvasive Detection of Active Microcalcification in an Occlusive Peripheral Vascular Aneurysm Using 18F-NaF PET/CT Imaging.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Dec;45(12):1029-1031

From the Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus.

A 65-year-old man with an occluded popliteal artery aneurysm and calf claudication underwent PET/CT imaging with F-NaF to assess the status of active microcalcification in the aneurysm site and additional lower extremity arteries. CT imaging revealed macrocalcification of the aneurysm that colocalized with elevated retention of F-NaF on PET images. PET/CT detected additional distal arterial sites with focal uptake of F-NaF that did not coincide with CT-detectable macrocalcification. This report highlights a case of active microcalcification in an occlusive peripheral aneurysm using PET/CT. PET/CT may provide molecular insight into the remodeling of lower extremity aneurysms and atherosclerotic lesions.
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December 2020

SPECT/CT Imaging: A Noninvasive Approach for Evaluating Serial Changes in Angiosome Foot Perfusion in Critical Limb Ischemia.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2020 03 24;9(3):103-110. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

The Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.

To investigate the feasibility of serial radiotracer-based imaging as a noninvasive approach for quantifying volumetric changes in microvascular perfusion within angiosomes of the foot following lower extremity revascularization in the setting of critical limb ischemia (CLI). A CLI patient with a nonhealing foot ulcer underwent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) imaging of the feet before and after balloon angioplasty of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal artery. SPECT/CT imaging was used to evaluate serial changes in angiosome perfusion, which was compared to quantitative changes in peripheral vascular anatomy and hemodynamics, as assessed by standard clinical tools that included digital subtraction angiography (DSA), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and toe-brachial index (TBI). Following revascularization, upstream quantitative improvements in stenosis of the SFA (pre: 35.4% to post: 11.9%) and popliteal artery (pre: 59.1% to post: 21.7%) shown by DSA were associated with downstream angiosome-dependent improvements in SPECT microvascular foot perfusion that ranged from 2% to 16%. ABI measurement was not possible due to extensive arterial calcification, while TBI values decreased from 0.26 to 0.16 following revascularization. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of assessing noninvasive volumetric changes in angiosome foot perfusion in response to lower extremity revascularization in a patient with CLI by utilizing radiotracer-based imaging. SPECT/CT imaging allows for quantification of serial perfusion changes within angiosomes containing nonhealing ulcers and provides physiological assessment that is complementary to conventional anatomical (DSA) and hemodynamic (ABI/TBI) measures in the evaluation of lower extremity revascularization.
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March 2020

Evaluation of femoral head viability via bone scintigraphy in the postoperative pediatric patient.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 03 27;48(3):350-358. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Evaluating postoperative patients with hardware is challenging following surgical intervention for hip maladies such as femoral neck fractures and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). These children are at increased risk of developing avascular necrosis, and imaging may be requested to confirm or exclude this diagnosis. Children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease can be monitored for restoration of blood flow to the capital femoral epiphysis to guide management and help with prognosis. Although MRI is sensitive for detecting early avascular necrosis, the presence of hardware degrades image quality.

Objective: This report examines the utility of bone scans for evaluating femoral head perfusion in children who have undergone surgery for femoral neck fractures, SCFE or Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of 20 patients (22 scans) after fixation for femoral neck fracture, SCFE or Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease from 2012 to 2015 was performed. The bone scan findings were correlated with the intraoperative findings or clinical follow-up.

Results: Twenty-one of the 22 (95%) bone scans in 19 of the 20 (95%) patients demonstrated findings consistent with clinical outcomes and/or the intraoperative appearance of the femoral head. Four of 20 patients (20%) had bone scan features of avascular necrosis, defined as "absent" or "moderately diminished" femoral head activity, which were confirmed intraoperatively and resulted in poor outcomes.

Conclusion: Radionuclide imaging of hips in the postoperative setting is a valuable modality for assessing the risk of avascular necrosis, a complication of femoral neck fractures and SCFE and for evaluating the restoration of flow to the capital femoral epiphyses of children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
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March 2018

68Ga-DOTATATE Compared with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide and Conventional Imaging for Pulmonary and Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Nucl Med 2016 Jun 14;57(6):872-8. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Veterans Affairs Hospital, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee

Unlabelled: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors with increasing incidence and prevalence. Current reports suggest that (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging improves diagnosis and staging of NETs compared with (111)In-DTPA-octreotide and conventional imaging. We performed a systematic review of (68)Ga-DOTATATE for safety and efficacy compared with octreotide and conventional imaging to determine whether available evidence supports U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval.

Methods: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Reviews electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to September 2015. Results were restricted to human studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of (68)Ga-DOTATATE with octreotide or conventional imaging for pulmonary or gastroenteropancreatic NET and for human studies reporting safety/toxicity for (68)Ga-DOTATATE with 10 subjects or more thought to have NETs. Direct communication with corresponding authors was attempted to obtain missing information. Abstracts meeting eligibility criteria were collected by a research librarian and assembled for reviewers; 2 reviewers independently determined whether or not to include each abstract. If either reviewer chose inclusion, the abstract was accepted for review.

Results: Database and bibliography searches yielded 2,479 articles, of which 42 were eligible. Three studies compared the 2 radiopharmaceuticals in the same patient, finding (68)Ga-DOTATATE to be more sensitive than octreotide. Nine studies compared (68)Ga-DOTATATE with conventional imaging. (68)Ga-DOTATATE estimated sensitivity, 90.9% (95% confidence interval, 81.4%-96.4%), and specificity, 90.6% (95% confidence interval, 77.8%-96.1%), were high. Five studies were retained for safety reporting only. Report of harm possibly related to (68)Ga-DOTATATE was rare (6 of 974), and no study reported major toxicity or safety issues.

Conclusion: No direct comparison of octreotide and (68)Ga-DOTATATE imaging for diagnosis and staging in an unbiased population of NETs has been published. Available information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding diagnostic efficacy and safety supports the use of (68)Ga-DOTATATE for imaging of NETs where it is available.
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June 2016

Modulation of sodium/iodide symporter expression in the salivary gland.

Thyroid 2013 Aug 17;23(8):1029-36. Epub 2013 Jul 17.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine-induced damage following (131)I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland.

Methods: NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative (123)I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after (123)I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients.

Results: NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of (123)I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of (123)I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake.

Conclusions: NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated to excretory ducts in salivary ductal cells. NIS expression in salivary glands is decreased during inflammation and tumor formation. Further investigation may identify molecular targets and/or pharmacologic agents that allow selective inhibition of NIS expression/activity in salivary glands during radioactive iodine treatment.
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August 2013