Publications by authors named "Ad Wiebenga"

32 Publications

A comparative genomics study of 23 Aspergillus species from section Flavi.

Nat Commun 2020 02 27;11(1):1106. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Technical University of Denmark, Søltoft Plads 223, 2800, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Section Flavi encompasses both harmful and beneficial Aspergillus species, such as Aspergillus oryzae, used in food fermentation and enzyme production, and Aspergillus flavus, food spoiler and mycotoxin producer. Here, we sequence 19 genomes spanning section Flavi and compare 31 fungal genomes including 23 Flavi species. We reassess their phylogenetic relationships and show that the closest relative of A. oryzae is not A. flavus, but A. minisclerotigenes or A. aflatoxiformans and identify high genome diversity, especially in sub-telomeric regions. We predict abundant CAZymes (598 per species) and prolific secondary metabolite gene clusters (73 per species) in section Flavi. However, the observed phenotypes (growth characteristics, polysaccharide degradation) do not necessarily correlate with inferences made from the predicted CAZyme content. Our work, including genomic analyses, phenotypic assays, and identification of secondary metabolites, highlights the genetic and metabolic diversity within section Flavi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14051-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046712PMC
February 2020

Macroalgae Derived Fungi Have High Abilities to Degrade Algal Polymers.

Microorganisms 2019 Dec 26;8(1). Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Marine fungi associated with macroalgae are an ecologically important group that have a strong potential for industrial applications. In this study, twenty-two marine fungi isolated from the brown seaweed sp were examined for their abilities to produce algal and plant biomass degrading enzymes. Growth of these isolates on brown and green algal biomass revealed a good growth, but no preference for any specific algae. Based on the analysis of enzymatic activities, macroalgae derived fungi were able to produce algae specific and (hemi-)cellulose degrading enzymes both on algal and plant biomass. However, the production of algae specific activities was lower than the production of cellulases and xylanases. These data revealed the presence of different enzymatic approaches for the degradation of algal biomass by macroalgae derived fungi. In addition, the results of the present study indicate our poor understanding of the enzymes involved in algal biomass degradation and the mechanisms of algal carbon source utilization by marine derived fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023191PMC
December 2019

Colonies of the fungus Aspergillus niger are highly differentiated to adapt to local carbon source variation.

Environ Microbiol 2020 03 6;22(3):1154-1166. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Saprobic fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, grow as colonies consisting of a network of branching and fusing hyphae that are often considered to be relatively uniform entities in which nutrients can freely move through the hyphae. In nature, different parts of a colony are often exposed to different nutrients. We have investigated, using a multi-omics approach, adaptation of A. niger colonies to spatially separated and compositionally different plant biomass substrates. This demonstrated a high level of intra-colony differentiation, which closely matched the locally available substrate. The part of the colony exposed to pectin-rich sugar beet pulp and to xylan-rich wheat bran showed high pectinolytic and high xylanolytic transcript and protein levels respectively. This study therefore exemplifies the high ability of fungal colonies to differentiate and adapt to local conditions, ensuring efficient use of the available nutrients, rather than maintaining a uniform physiology throughout the colony.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065180PMC
March 2020

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger xlnR and xkiA mutants grown on corn Stover and soybean hulls reveals a highly complex regulatory network.

BMC Genomics 2019 Nov 14;20(1):853. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Enzymatic plant biomass degradation by fungi is a highly complex process and one of the leading challenges in developing a biobased economy. Some industrial fungi (e.g. Aspergillus niger) have a long history of use with respect to plant biomass degradation and for that reason have become 'model' species for this topic. A. niger is a major industrial enzyme producer that has a broad ability to degrade plant based polysaccharides. A. niger wild-type, the (hemi-)cellulolytic regulator (xlnR) and xylulokinase (xkiA1) mutant strains were grown on a monocot (corn stover, CS) and dicot (soybean hulls, SBH) substrate. The xkiA1 mutant is unable to utilize the pentoses D-xylose and L-arabinose and the polysaccharide xylan, and was previously shown to accumulate inducers for the (hemi-)cellulolytic transcriptional activator XlnR and the arabinanolytic transcriptional activator AraR in the presence of pentoses, resulting in overexpression of their target genes. The xlnR mutant has reduced growth on xylan and down-regulation of its target genes. The mutants therefore have a similar phenotype on xylan, but an opposite transcriptional effect. D-xylose and L-arabinose are the most abundant monosaccharides after D-glucose in nearly all plant-derived biomass materials. In this study we evaluated the effect of the xlnR and xkiA1 mutation during growth on two pentose-rich substrates by transcriptome analysis.

Results: Particular attention was given to CAZymes, metabolic pathways and transcription factors related to the plant biomass degradation. Genes coding for the main enzymes involved in plant biomass degradation were down-regulated at the beginning of the growth on CS and SBH. However, at a later time point, significant differences were found in the expression profiles of both mutants on CS compared to SBH.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the high complexity of the plant biomass degradation process by fungi, by showing that mutant strains with fairly straightforward phenotypes on pure mono- and polysaccharides, have much less clear-cut phenotypes and transcriptomes on crude plant biomass.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6235-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854810PMC
November 2019

Genomic and Genetic Insights Into a Cosmopolitan Fungus, (Eurotiales).

Front Microbiol 2018 13;9:3058. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Species in the genus , a member of the fungal order Eurotiales, are ubiquitous in nature and impact a variety of human endeavors. Here, the biology of one common species, , was explored using genomics and functional genetics. Sequencing the genome of two isolates revealed key genome and gene features in this species. A striking feature of the genome was the two-part nature, featuring large stretches of DNA with normal GC content separated by AT-rich regions, a hallmark of many plant-pathogenic fungal genomes. These AT-rich regions appeared to have been mutated by repeat-induced point (RIP) mutations. We developed methods for genetic transformation of , including forward and reverse genetics as well as crossing techniques. Using transformation and crossing, RIP activity was identified, demonstrating for the first time that RIP is an active process within the order Eurotiales. A consequence of RIP is likely reflected by a reduction in numbers of genes within gene families, such as in cell wall degradation, and reflected by growth limitations on on diverse carbon sources. Furthermore, using these transformation tools we characterized a conserved protein containing a domain of unknown function (DUF1212) and discovered it is involved in pigmentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300479PMC
December 2018

Investigation of inter- and intraspecies variation through genome sequencing of Aspergillus section Nigri.

Nat Genet 2018 12 22;50(12):1688-1695. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Aspergillus section Nigri comprises filamentous fungi relevant to biomedicine, bioenergy, health, and biotechnology. To learn more about what genetically sets these species apart, as well as about potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine, we sequenced 23 genomes de novo, forming a full genome compendium for the section (26 species), as well as 6 Aspergillus niger isolates. This allowed us to quantify both inter- and intraspecies genomic variation. We further predicted 17,903 carbohydrate-active enzymes and 2,717 secondary metabolite gene clusters, which we condensed into 455 distinct families corresponding to compound classes, 49% of which are only found in single species. We performed metabolomics and genetic engineering to correlate genotypes to phenotypes, as demonstrated for the metabolite aurasperone, and by heterologous transfer of citrate production to Aspergillus nidulans. Experimental and computational analyses showed that both secondary metabolism and regulation are key factors that are significant in the delineation of Aspergillus species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0246-1DOI Listing
December 2018

Physiological background of the remarkably high Cd tolerance of the Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 strain.

J Basic Microbiol 2018 Nov 31;58(11):957-967. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

The physiological background of the unusually high cadmium tolerance (MIC  > 2 mM) of Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 was investigated. The cadmium tolerance of the tested environmental and clinical A. fumigatus strains varied over a wide range (0.25 mM < MIC  < 1 mM). Only the Af293 strain showed a MIC value of >2 mM, and this phenotype was accompanied by increased in vivo virulence in mice. A strong correlation was found between the cadmium tolerance and the transcription of the pcaA gene, which encodes a putative cadmium efflux pump. The cadmium tolerance also correlated with the iron tolerance and the extracellular siderophore production of the strains. In addition to these findings, Af293 did not show the synergism between iron toxicity and cadmium toxicity that was detected in the other strains. Based on these results, we suggest that the primary function of PcaA should be acting as a ferrous iron pump and protecting cells from iron overload. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of pcaA may represent an attractive strain improvement strategy to construct fungal strains for use in biosorption or biomining processes or to prevent accumulation of this toxic metal in crops.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201800200DOI Listing
November 2018

Evolutionary Adaptation to Generate Mutants.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1775:133-137

Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

In this chapter we describe a method to generate mutants of filamentous fungi using their genomic plasticity and rapid adaptability to their environment. This method is based on spontaneous mutations occurring in relation to improved growth of fungi on media by repeated inoculation resulting in adaptation of the strain to the condition. The critical aspect of this method is the design of the selective media, which will depend strongly on the phenomenon that will be studied. This method is advantageous over UV or chemical random mutagenesis as it results in a lower frequency of undesired mutations and can result in strains that combined with (post)genomic approaches can enhance our understanding of the mechanisms driving various biological processes. In addition, it can be used to obtain better strains for various industrial applications. The method described here is specific for sporulating fungi and has so far not yet been tested for nonsporulating fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7804-5_12DOI Listing
February 2019

High resolution visualization and exo-proteomics reveal the physiological role of XlnR and AraR in plant biomass colonization and degradation by Aspergillus niger.

Environ Microbiol 2017 11 20;19(11):4587-4598. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

In A. niger, two transcription factors, AraR and XlnR, regulate the production of enzymes involved in degradation of arabinoxylan and catabolism of the released l-arabinose and d-xylose. Deletion of both araR and xlnR in leads to reduced production of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes and reduced growth on arabinan, arabinogalactan and xylan. In this study, we investigated the colonization and degradation of wheat bran by the A. niger reference strain CBS 137562 and araR/xlnR regulatory mutants using high-resolution microscopy and exo-proteomics. We discovered that wheat bran flakes have a 'rough' and 'smooth' surface with substantially different affinity towards fungal hyphae. While colonization of the rough side was possible for all strains, the xlnR mutants struggled to survive on the smooth side of the wheat bran particles after 20 and 40 h post inoculation. Impaired colonization ability of the smooth surface of wheat bran was linked to reduced potential of ΔxlnR to secrete arabinoxylan and cellulose-degrading enzymes and indicates that XlnR is the major regulator that drives colonization of wheat bran in A. niger.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13923DOI Listing
November 2017

Genetic transformation of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens using a new commercial protoplasting cocktail.

J Microbiol Methods 2017 12 4;143:38-43. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

D. squalens, a white-rot fungus that efficiently degrades lignocellulose in nature, can be used in various biotechnological applications and has several strains with sequenced and annotated genomes. Here we present a method for the transformation of this basidiomycete fungus, using a recently introduced commercial ascomycete protoplasting enzyme cocktail, Protoplast F. In protoplasting of D. squalens mycelia, Protoplast F outperformed two other cocktails while releasing similar amounts of protoplasts to a third cocktail. The protoplasts released using Protoplast F had a regeneration rate of 12.5% (±6 SE). Using Protoplast F, the D. squalens monokaryon CBS464.89 was conferred with resistance to the antibiotics hygromycin and G418 via polyethylene glycol mediated protoplast transformation with resistance cassettes expressing the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) genes, respectively. The hph gene was expressed in D. squalens using heterologous promoters from genes encoding β-tubulin or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. A Southern blot confirmed integration of a resistance cassette into the D. squalens genome. An average of six transformants (±2 SE) were obtained when at least several million protoplasts were used (a transformation efficiency of 0.8 (±0.3 SE) transformants per μg DNA). Transformation of D. squalens demonstrates the suitability of the Protoplast F cocktail for basidiomycete transformation and furthermore can facilitate understanding of basidiomycete gene function and development of improved strains for biotechnological applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2017.10.001DOI Listing
December 2017

Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important fungal genus Aspergillus.

Authors:
Ronald P de Vries Robert Riley Ad Wiebenga Guillermo Aguilar-Osorio Sotiris Amillis Cristiane Akemi Uchima Gregor Anderluh Mojtaba Asadollahi Marion Askin Kerrie Barry Evy Battaglia Özgür Bayram Tiziano Benocci Susanna A Braus-Stromeyer Camila Caldana David Cánovas Gustavo C Cerqueira Fusheng Chen Wanping Chen Cindy Choi Alicia Clum Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos André Ricardo de Lima Damásio George Diallinas Tamás Emri Erzsébet Fekete Michel Flipphi Susanne Freyberg Antonia Gallo Christos Gournas Rob Habgood Matthieu Hainaut María Laura Harispe Bernard Henrissat Kristiina S Hildén Ryan Hope Abeer Hossain Eugenia Karabika Levente Karaffa Zsolt Karányi Nada Kraševec Alan Kuo Harald Kusch Kurt LaButti Ellen L Lagendijk Alla Lapidus Anthony Levasseur Erika Lindquist Anna Lipzen Antonio F Logrieco Andrew MacCabe Miia R Mäkelä Iran Malavazi Petter Melin Vera Meyer Natalia Mielnichuk Márton Miskei Ákos P Molnár Giuseppina Mulé Chew Yee Ngan Margarita Orejas Erzsébet Orosz Jean Paul Ouedraogo Karin M Overkamp Hee-Soo Park Giancarlo Perrone Francois Piumi Peter J Punt Arthur F J Ram Ana Ramón Stefan Rauscher Eric Record Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón Vincent Robert Julian Röhrig Roberto Ruller Asaf Salamov Nadhira S Salih Rob A Samson Erzsébet Sándor Manuel Sanguinetti Tabea Schütze Kristina Sepčić Ekaterina Shelest Gavin Sherlock Vicky Sophianopoulou Fabio M Squina Hui Sun Antonia Susca Richard B Todd Adrian Tsang Shiela E Unkles Nathalie van de Wiele Diana van Rossen-Uffink Juliana Velasco de Castro Oliveira Tammi C Vesth Jaap Visser Jae-Hyuk Yu Miaomiao Zhou Mikael R Andersen David B Archer Scott E Baker Isabelle Benoit Axel A Brakhage Gerhard H Braus Reinhard Fischer Jens C Frisvad Gustavo H Goldman Jos Houbraken Berl Oakley István Pócsi Claudio Scazzocchio Bernhard Seiboth Patricia A vanKuyk Jennifer Wortman Paul S Dyer Igor V Grigoriev

Genome Biol 2017 02 14;18(1):28. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA, 94598, USA.

Background: The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eight aspergilli have already been explored to investigate aspects of fungal biology, raising questions about evolution and specialization within this genus.

Results: We have generated genome sequences for ten novel, highly diverse Aspergillus species and compared these in detail to sister and more distant genera. Comparative studies of key aspects of fungal biology, including primary and secondary metabolism, stress response, biomass degradation, and signal transduction, revealed both conservation and diversity among the species. Observed genomic differences were validated with experimental studies. This revealed several highlights, such as the potential for sex in asexual species, organic acid production genes being a key feature of black aspergilli, alternative approaches for degrading plant biomass, and indications for the genetic basis of stress response. A genome-wide phylogenetic analysis demonstrated in detail the relationship of the newly genome sequenced species with other aspergilli.

Conclusions: Many aspects of biological differences between fungal species cannot be explained by current knowledge obtained from genome sequences. The comparative genomics and experimental study, presented here, allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases linked genome differences to phenotype. Insights gained could be exploited for biotechnological and medical applications of fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-017-1151-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307856PMC
February 2017

Penicillium subrubescens is a promising alternative for Aspergillus niger in enzymatic plant biomass saccharification.

N Biotechnol 2016 Dec 25;33(6):834-841. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Division of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter 1, University of Helsinki, Finland.

In industrial applications, efficient mixtures of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are needed to convert plant biomass into fermentable sugars. Most of the commercially produced lignocellulolytic enzymes are from a limited number of filamentous fungi, such as Trichoderma and Aspergillus species. In contrast, the plant biomass-degrading capacity of Penicillia has been less explored. We performed growth profiling of several Penicillia on diverse plant biomass-related substrates demonstrating the capacity particularly of Penicillium subrubescens to degrade crude lignocellulose feedstock, as well as polysaccharides, and metabolise their monomeric components. We focussed on the lignocellulolytic potential of P. subrubescens FBCC1632, which produced a variable set of (hemi-)cellulolytic activities on plant biomass substrates with activity levels comparable to those of Aspergillus niger. The good ability of the extracellular enzyme mixtures produced by P. subrubescens to saccharify complex plant biomasses, wheat bran and sugar beet pulp, indicated a high potential for this strain as a producer of industrial enzyme cocktails.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2016.07.014DOI Listing
December 2016

Protease and lipase activities of fungal and bacterial strains derived from an artisanal raw ewe's milk cheese.

Int J Food Microbiol 2016 Nov 13;237:17-27. Epub 2016 Aug 13.

Fungal Physiology, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

We previously identified the microbiota present during cheese ripening and observed high protease and lipase activity in Divle Cave cheese. To determine the contribution of individual isolates to enzyme activities, we investigated a range of species representing this microbiota for their proteolytic and lipolytic ability. In total, 17 fungal, 5 yeast and 18 bacterial strains, previously isolated from Divle Cave cheese, were assessed. Qualitative protease and lipase activities were performed on skim-milk agar and spirit-blue lipase agar, respectively, and resulted in a selection of strains for quantitative assays. For the quantitative assays, the strains were grown on minimal medium containing irradiated Divle Cave cheese, obtained from the first day of ripening. Out of 16 selected filamentous fungi, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium cavernicola and Penicillium olsonii showed the highest protease activity, while Mucor racemosus was the best lipase producer. Yarrowia lipolytica was the best performing yeast with respect to protease and lipase activity. From the 18 bacterial strains, 14 and 11 strains, respectively showed protease and lipase activity in agar plates. Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus stratosphericus, Brevibacterium antiquum, Psychrobacter glacincola and Pseudomonas proteolytica displayed the highest protease and lipase activity. The proteases of yeast and filamentous fungi were identified as mainly aspartic protease by specific inhibition with Pepstatin A, whereas inhibition by PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) indicated that most bacterial enzymes belong to serine type protease. Our results demonstrate that aspartic proteases, which usually have high milk clotting activity, are predominantly derived from fungal strains, and therefore fungal enzymes appear to be more suitable for use in the cheese industry. Microbial enzymes studied in this research might be alternatives for rennin (chymosin) from animal source because of their low cost and stable availability. Future studies will aim to purify these enzymes to test their suitability for use in similar artisanal cheeses or in large scale commercial cheeses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.08.007DOI Listing
November 2016

Expansion of Signal Transduction Pathways in Fungi by Extensive Genome Duplication.

Curr Biol 2016 06 26;26(12):1577-1584. Epub 2016 May 26.

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA.

Plants and fungi use light and other signals to regulate development, growth, and metabolism. The fruiting bodies of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus are single cells that react to environmental cues, including light, but the mechanisms are largely unknown [1]. The related fungus Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic human pathogen that changes its mode of growth upon receipt of signals from the environment to facilitate pathogenesis [2]. Understanding how these organisms respond to environmental cues should provide insights into the mechanisms of sensory perception and signal transduction by a single eukaryotic cell, and their role in pathogenesis. We sequenced the genomes of P. blakesleeanus and M. circinelloides and show that they have been shaped by an extensive genome duplication or, most likely, a whole-genome duplication (WGD), which is rarely observed in fungi [3-6]. We show that the genome duplication has expanded gene families, including those involved in signal transduction, and that duplicated genes have specialized, as evidenced by differences in their regulation by light. The transcriptional response to light varies with the developmental stage and is still observed in a photoreceptor mutant of P. blakesleeanus. A phototropic mutant of P. blakesleeanus with a heterozygous mutation in the photoreceptor gene madA demonstrates that photosensor dosage is important for the magnitude of signal transduction. We conclude that the genome duplication provided the means to improve signal transduction for enhanced perception of environmental signals. Our results will help to understand the role of genome dynamics in the evolution of sensory perception in eukaryotes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5089372PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.038DOI Listing
June 2016

Secretion of small proteins is species-specific within Aspergillus sp.

Microb Biotechnol 2017 03 7;10(2):323-329. Epub 2016 May 7.

Faculté des Sciences et Technologies BP 70239, UMR1136 INRA-Université de Lorraine "Interactions Arbres/Micro-organismes", Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex, F-54506, France.

Small secreted proteins (SSP) have been defined as proteins containing a signal peptide and a sequence of less than 300 amino acids. In this analysis, we have compared the secretion pattern of SSPs among eight aspergilli species in the context of plant biomass degradation and have highlighted putative interesting candidates that could be involved in the degradative process or in the strategies developed by fungi to resist the associated stress that could be due to the toxicity of some aromatic compounds or reactive oxygen species released during degradation. Among these candidates, for example, some stress-related superoxide dismutases or some hydrophobic surface binding proteins (HsbA) are specifically secreted according to the species . Since these latter proteins are able to recruit lytic enzymes to the surface of hydrophobic solid materials and promote their degradation, a synergistic action of HsbA with the degradative system may be considered and need further investigations. These SSPs could have great applications in biotechnology by optimizing the efficiency of the enzymatic systems for biomass degradation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.12361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5328806PMC
March 2017

Genetic Interaction of Aspergillus nidulans galR, xlnR and araR in Regulating D-Galactose and L-Arabinose Release and Catabolism Gene Expression.

PLoS One 2015 18;10(11):e0143200. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Fungal Physiology, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

In Aspergillus nidulans, the xylanolytic regulator XlnR and the arabinanolytic regulator AraR co-regulate pentose catabolism. In nature, the pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose are both main building blocks of the polysaccharide arabinoxylan. In pectin and arabinogalactan, these two monosaccharides are found in combination with D-galactose. GalR, the regulator that responds to the presence of D-galactose, regulates the D-galactose catabolic pathway. In this study we investigated the possible interaction between XlnR, AraR and GalR in pentose and/or D-galactose catabolism in A. nidulans. Growth phenotypes and metabolic gene expression profiles were studied in single, double and triple disruptant A. nidulans strains of the genes encoding these paralogous transcription factors. Our results demonstrate that AraR and XlnR not only control pentose catabolic pathway genes, but also genes of the oxido-reductive D-galactose catabolic pathway. This suggests an interaction between three transcriptional regulators in D-galactose catabolism. Conversely, GalR is not involved in regulation of pentose catabolism, but controls only genes of the oxido-reductive D-galactose catabolic pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143200PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4651341PMC
June 2016

Enhancing saccharification of wheat straw by mixing enzymes from genetically-modified Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger.

Biotechnol Lett 2016 Jan 9;38(1):65-70. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for plant biomass conversion into renewable biofuel and chemicals.

Results: By overexpressing the point mutation A824 V transcriptional activator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei, carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiosidase and β-D-glucosidase activities of the best mutant were increased from 1.8 IU/ml, 0.1 IU/ml and 0.05 IU/ml to 4.8 IU/ml, 0.4 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml, respectively. The sugar yield of wheat straw saccharification by combining enzymes from this mutant and the Aspergillus niger genetically modified strain ΔcreA/xlnR c/araR c was improved up to 7.5 mg/ml, a 229 % increase compared to the combination of wild type strains.

Conclusions: Mixing enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger combined with the genetic modification of transcription factors is a promising strategy to increase saccharification efficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-015-1951-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706842PMC
January 2016

Closely related fungi employ diverse enzymatic strategies to degrade plant biomass.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2015 1;8:107. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Fungal Physiology, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre and Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Plant biomass is the major substrate for the production of biofuels and biochemicals, as well as food, textiles and other products. It is also the major carbon source for many fungi and enzymes of these fungi are essential for the depolymerization of plant polysaccharides in industrial processes. This is a highly complex process that involves a large number of extracellular enzymes as well as non-hydrolytic proteins, whose production in fungi is controlled by a set of transcriptional regulators. Aspergillus species form one of the best studied fungal genera in this field, and several species are used for the production of commercial enzyme cocktails.

Results: It is often assumed that related fungi use similar enzymatic approaches to degrade plant polysaccharides. In this study we have compared the genomic content and the enzymes produced by eight Aspergilli for the degradation of plant biomass. All tested Aspergilli have a similar genomic potential to degrade plant biomass, with the exception of A. clavatus that has a strongly reduced pectinolytic ability. Despite this similar genomic potential their approaches to degrade plant biomass differ markedly in the overall activities as well as the specific enzymes they employ. While many of the genes have orthologs in (nearly) all tested species, only very few of the corresponding enzymes are produced by all species during growth on wheat bran or sugar beet pulp. In addition, significant differences were observed between the enzyme sets produced on these feedstocks, largely correlating with their polysaccharide composition.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that Aspergillus species and possibly also other related fungi employ significantly different approaches to degrade plant biomass. This makes sense from an ecological perspective where mixed populations of fungi together degrade plant biomass. The results of this study indicate that combining the approaches from different species could result in improved enzyme mixtures for industrial applications, in particular saccharification of plant biomass for biofuel production. Such an approach may result in a much better improvement of saccharification efficiency than adding specific enzymes to the mixture of a single fungus, which is currently the most common approach used in biotechnology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-015-0285-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522099PMC
August 2015

Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Laccaria bicolor CAZome reveals insights into polysaccharides remodelling during symbiosis establishment.

Fungal Genet Biol 2014 Nov 28;72:168-181. Epub 2014 Aug 28.

INRA, Interactions Arbres - Microorganismes, UMR1136, F-54280 Champenoux, France; Université de Lorraine, Interactions Arbres - Microorganismes, UMR1136, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, living in soil forests, are required microorganisms to sustain tree growth and productivity. The establishment of mutualistic interaction with roots to form ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is not well known at the molecular level. In particular, how fungal and plant cell walls are rearranged to establish a fully functional ectomycorrhiza is poorly understood. Nevertheless, it is likely that Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZyme) produced by the fungus participate in this process. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling during ECM development was used to examine how the CAZome of Laccaria bicolor is regulated during symbiosis establishment. CAZymes active on fungal cell wall were upregulated during ECM development in particular after 4weeks of contact when the hyphae are surrounding the root cells and start to colonize the apoplast. We demonstrated that one expansin-like protein, whose expression is specific to symbiotic tissues, localizes within fungal cell wall. Whereas L. bicolor genome contained a constricted repertoire of CAZymes active on cellulose and hemicellulose, these CAZymes were expressed during the first steps of root cells colonization. L. bicolor retained the ability to use homogalacturonan, a pectin-derived substrate, as carbon source. CAZymes likely involved in pectin hydrolysis were mainly expressed at the stage of a fully mature ECM. All together, our data suggest an active remodelling of fungal cell wall with a possible involvement of expansin during ECM development. By contrast, a soft remodelling of the plant cell wall likely occurs through the loosening of the cellulose microfibrils by AA9 or GH12 CAZymes and middle lamella smooth remodelling through pectin (homogalacturonan) hydrolysis likely by GH28, GH12 CAZymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2014.08.007DOI Listing
November 2014

A genomic survey of proteases in Aspergilli.

BMC Genomics 2014 Jun 25;15:523. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Center, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht 3584 CT, The Netherlands.

Background: Proteases can hydrolyze peptides in aqueous environments. This property has made proteases the most important industrial enzymes by taking up about 60% of the total enzyme market. Microorganisms are the main sources for industrial protease production due to their high yield and a wide range of biochemical properties. Several Aspergilli have the ability to produce a variety of proteases, but no comprehensive comparative study has been carried out on protease productivity in this genus so far.

Results: We have performed a combined analysis of comparative genomics, proteomics and enzymology tests on seven Aspergillus species grown on wheat bran and sugar beet pulp. Putative proteases were identified by homology search and Pfam domains. These genes were then clusters based on orthology and extracellular proteases were identified by protein subcellular localization prediction. Proteomics was used to identify the secreted enzymes in the cultures, while protease essays with and without inhibitors were performed to determine the overall protease activity per protease class. All this data was then integrated to compare the protease productivities in Aspergilli.

Conclusions: Genomes of Aspergillus species contain a similar proportion of protease encoding genes. According to comparative genomics, proteomics and enzymatic experiments serine proteases make up the largest group in the protease spectrum across the species. In general wheat bran gives higher induction of proteases than sugar beet pulp. Interesting differences of protease activity, extracellular enzyme spectrum composition, protein occurrence and abundance were identified for species. By combining in silico and wet-lab experiments, we present the intriguing variety of protease productivity in Aspergilli.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4102723PMC
June 2014

The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown.

BMC Genomics 2014 Jun 18;15:486. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

INRA, UMR1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, Aix-Marseille Université, Polytech Marseille, 163 avenue de Luminy, CP 925, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France.

Background: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and white biotechnology.

Results: The 33.6 megabase genome of P. cinnabarinus was sequenced and assembled, and the 10,442 predicted genes were functionally annotated using a phylogenomic procedure. In-depth analyses were carried out for the numerous enzyme families involved in lignocellulosic biomass breakdown, for protein secretion and glycosylation pathways, and for mating type. The P. cinnabarinus genome sequence revealed a consistent repertoire of genes shared with wood-decaying basidiomycetes. P. cinnabarinus is thus fully equipped with the classical families involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, whereas its pectinolytic repertoire appears relatively limited. In addition, P. cinnabarinus possesses a complete versatile enzymatic arsenal for lignin breakdown. We identified several genes encoding members of the three ligninolytic peroxidase types, namely lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and versatile peroxidase. Comparative genome analyses were performed in fungi displaying different nutritional strategies (white-rot and brown-rot modes of decay). P. cinnabarinus presents a typical distribution of all the specific families found in the white-rot life style. Growth profiling of P. cinnabarinus was performed on 35 carbon sources including simple and complex substrates to study substrate utilization and preferences. P. cinnabarinus grew faster on crude plant substrates than on pure, mono- or polysaccharide substrates. Finally, proteomic analyses were conducted from liquid and solid-state fermentation to analyze the composition of the secretomes corresponding to growth on different substrates. The distribution of lignocellulolytic enzymes in the secretomes was strongly dependent on growth conditions, especially for lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

Conclusions: With its available genome sequence, P. cinnabarinus is now an outstanding model system for the study of the enzyme machinery involved in the degradation or transformation of lignocellulosic biomass.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4101180PMC
June 2014

Aspergillus niger RhaR, a regulator involved in L-rhamnose release and catabolism.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014 Jun 28;98(12):5531-40. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Microbiology & Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is rich in genes encoding pectinases, a broad class of enzymes that have been extensively studied due to their use in industrial applications. The sequencing of the A. niger genome provided more knowledge concerning the individual pectinolytic genes, but little is known about the regulatory genes involved in pectin degradation. Understanding regulation of the pectinolytic genes provides a tool to optimize the production of pectinases in this industrially important fungus. This study describes the identification and characterization of one of the activators of pectinase-encoding genes, RhaR. Inactivation of the gene encoding this regulator resulted in down-regulation of genes involved in the release of L-rhamnose from the pectin substructure rhamnogalacturonan I, as well as catabolism of this monosaccharide. The rhaR disruptant was unable to grow on L-rhamnose, but only a small reduction in growth on pectin was observed. This is likely caused by the presence of a second, so far unknown regulator that responds to the presence of D-galacturonic acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5607-9DOI Listing
June 2014

Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus.

BMC Genomics 2013 Sep 30;14:663. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present.

Results: In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were identified and their expression was studied in different growth stages of A. bisporus. We correlated the expression of genes encoding plant and fungal polysaccharide modifying enzymes identified in the A. bisporus genome to the soluble carbohydrates and the composition of mycelium grown compost, casing layer and fruiting bodies.

Conclusions: The compost grown vegetative mycelium of A. bisporus consumes a wide variety of monosaccharides. However, in fruiting bodies only hexose catabolism occurs, and no accumulation of other sugars was observed. This suggests that only hexoses or their conversion products are transported from the vegetative mycelium to the fruiting body, while the other sugars likely provide energy for growth and maintenance of the vegetative mycelium. Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates. Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies. In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3852267PMC
September 2013

Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize.

BMC Genomics 2012 Sep 2;13:444. Epub 2012 Sep 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome.

Results: P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood.

Conclusions: The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3463431PMC
September 2012

The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes.

Science 2012 Jun;336(6089):1715-9

Biology Department, Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610, USA.

Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non-lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1221748DOI Listing
June 2012

Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen.

New Phytol 2012 Jun 28;194(4):1001-13. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04128.xDOI Listing
June 2012

Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Apr 20;109(14):5458-63. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.

Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do so with relatively little cellulose degradation. To investigate the basis for selective ligninolysis, we conducted comparative genome analysis of C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium. Genes encoding manganese peroxidase numbered 13 and five in C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium, respectively. In addition, the C. subvermispora genome contains at least seven genes predicted to encode laccases, whereas the P. chrysosporium genome contains none. We also observed expansion of the number of C. subvermispora desaturase-encoding genes putatively involved in lipid metabolism. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis showed substantial up-regulation of several desaturase and MnP genes in wood-containing medium. MS identified MnP proteins in C. subvermispora culture filtrates, but none in P. chrysosporium cultures. These results support the importance of MnP and a lignin degradation mechanism whereby cleavage of the dominant nonphenolic structures is mediated by lipid peroxidation products. Two C. subvermispora genes were predicted to encode peroxidases structurally similar to P. chrysosporium lignin peroxidase and, following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, the enzymes were shown to oxidize high redox potential substrates, but not Mn(2+). Apart from oxidative lignin degradation, we also examined cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems in both fungi. In summary, the C. subvermispora genetic inventory and expression patterns exhibit increased oxidoreductase potential and diminished cellulolytic capability relative to P. chrysosporium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119912109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3325662PMC
April 2012

The plant cell wall-decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi.

Science 2011 Aug 14;333(6043):762-5. Epub 2011 Jul 14.

College of Science, University of Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.

Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood--residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon--and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the "dry rot" fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1205411DOI Listing
August 2011

Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, and stealth pathogenesis.

PLoS Genet 2011 Jun 9;7(6):e1002070. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici) causes septoria tritici blotch, a disease that greatly reduces the yield and quality of wheat. This disease is economically important in most wheat-growing areas worldwide and threatens global food production. Control of the disease has been hampered by a limited understanding of the genetic and biochemical bases of pathogenicity, including mechanisms of infection and of resistance in the host. Unlike most other plant pathogens, M. graminicola has a long latent period during which it evades host defenses. Although this type of stealth pathogenicity occurs commonly in Mycosphaerella and other Dothideomycetes, the largest class of plant-pathogenic fungi, its genetic basis is not known. To address this problem, the genome of M. graminicola was sequenced completely. The finished genome contains 21 chromosomes, eight of which could be lost with no visible effect on the fungus and thus are dispensable. This eight-chromosome dispensome is dynamic in field and progeny isolates, is different from the core genome in gene and repeat content, and appears to have originated by ancient horizontal transfer from an unknown donor. Synteny plots of the M. graminicola chromosomes versus those of the only other sequenced Dothideomycete, Stagonospora nodorum, revealed conservation of gene content but not order or orientation, suggesting a high rate of intra-chromosomal rearrangement in one or both species. This observed "mesosynteny" is very different from synteny seen between other organisms. A surprising feature of the M. graminicola genome compared to other sequenced plant pathogens was that it contained very few genes for enzymes that break down plant cell walls, which was more similar to endophytes than to pathogens. The stealth pathogenesis of M. graminicola probably involves degradation of proteins rather than carbohydrates to evade host defenses during the biotrophic stage of infection and may have evolved from endophytic ancestors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3111534PMC
June 2011

Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level.

BMC Genomics 2011 Jan 17;12:38. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Microbiology & Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses.

Results: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars), chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment.

Conclusions: CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-12-38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3032700PMC
January 2011