Publications by authors named "Abid Mahmood"

40 Publications

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Brassica plants and their impact on animal health in Punjab, Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 10. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad, Punjab, 38000, Pakistan.

Growing Brassica rapa L. (Brassica rapa subsp. campestris (Linn.) Clapham) with wastewater and their use as a fodder for animals is a common practice in suburb of all cities in Punjab, Pakistan, despite the wastewater containing heavy metals is of public health concern. This study assessed the risk of heavy metals on animal health via consumption of B. rapa as fodder grown with wastewater, tube-well and canal water, and its source apportionment, in suburb of Multan City, Pakistan. Samples of B. rapa (n = 30) were collected from six agricultural farms and analyzed for cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Total target health quotient (TTHQ) values ranged 47.22 to 136.64 in wastewater irrigation farm, 2.32 to 3.71 in canal water, and 4.86 to 7.50 in tube-well water irrigation farms, respectively exhibiting high carcinogenic health risk to animals across the farms. B. rapa grown with industrial effluents exhibited the highest carcinogenic health risk, while the canal water posed the lowest risk. Multivariate statistical analyses indicated that the wastewater samples containing heavy metals and contaminated soils were common sources of B. rapa contamination. Proper treatment of wastewater for removal of toxic elements before application in agricultural fields may safeguard the health of animals, public, and the ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12370-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Synthesis, characterization, alkaline phosphatase inhibition assay and molecular modeling studies of 1-benzylidene-2-(4-tert- butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazines.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Aug 11:1-14. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Centre for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Alkaline phosphatases are homodimeric protein enzymes which removes phosphates from several types of molecules. These catalyze the hydrolysis of monoesters in phosphoric acid which in turn catalyze a transphosphorylation reaction. Thiazoles are a privileged class of heterocyclic compounds which may potentially serve as effective phosphatase inhibitors. In this regard, the present research paper reports the facile synthesis and characterization of substituted 1-benzylidene-2-(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazines with excellent yields. The synthesized compounds were tested for inhibitory potential against alkaline phosphatases. The compound 1-(4-Hydroxy, 3-methoxybenzylidene)-2-(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazine ( was found to be the most potent inhibitor of human tissue non-alkaline phosphatase in this group of molecules with an IC value of 1.09 ± 0.18 µM. The compound 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2-(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazine exhibited selectivity and potency for human intestinal alkaline phosphatase with an IC value of 0.71 ± 0.02 µM. In addition, structure activity relationship and molecular docking studies were performed to evaluate their binding modes with the target site of alkaline phosphatase. The docking analysis revealed that the most active inhibitors showed the important interactions within the binding pockets of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase and human tissue non-alkaline phosphatase and may be responsible for the inhibitory activity of the compound towards the enzymes. Therefore, the screened thiazole derivatives provided an outstanding platform for further development of alkaline phosphatase inhibitors. Alkaline phosphatase assay revealed compound (1-(4-Hydroxy, 3-methoxybenzylidene)-2-(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazine) as the most active inhibitor of with an IC value of 1.09 ± 0.18 µM. Computational evaluation clearly depicts several interactions within the binding pockets of and and maybe responsible for the inhibitory potential of the compound towards the enzymes. Highlights The synthesis of 1-(benzylidene) thiosemicarbazides was performed by reacting thiosemicarbazide with substituted aromatic aldehydes . The synthesized 1-(benzylidene) thiosemicarbazides was cyclized with 1-chloropinacolone to obtain the respective 1-benzylidene-2-(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazines . The synthesized 1-benzylidene-2-(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazines were successfully characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR and multi nuclear NMR. Alkaline phosphatase assay and computational study was performed in favor of the synthesized 1-benzylidene-2-(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl) hydrazines .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1802336DOI Listing
August 2020

Synthesis, characterization, in vitro tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) inhibition studies and computational evaluation of novel thiazole derivatives.

Bioorg Chem 2020 09 12;102:104088. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Centre for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are a class of homodimeric enzymes which physiologically possess the dephosphorylation ability. APs catalyzes the hydrolysis of monoesters into phosphoric acid which in turn catalyze a transphosphorylation reaction. Thiazoles are nitrogen and sulfur containing aromatic heterocycles considered as effective APs inhibitors. In this context, the current research paper presents the successful synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro alkaline phosphatase inhibitory potential of new thiazole derivatives. The structure activity relationship and molecular docking studies were performed to find out the binding modes of the screened compounds with the target site of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (h-TNAP) as well as intestinal alkaline phosphatase (h-IAP). Compound 5e was found to be potent inhibitor of h-TNAP with IC value of 0.17 ± 0.01 µM. Additionally, compounds 5a and 5i were found to be highly selective toward h-TNAP with IC values of 0.25 ± 0.01 µM and 0.21 ± 0.02 µM, respectively. In case of h-IAP compound 5f was the most potent inhibitor with IC value of 1.33 ± 0.10 µM. The most active compounds were resort to molecular docking studies on h-TNAP and h-IAP to explore the possible binding interactions of enzyme-ligand complexes. Molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the overall stability of protein in apo and holo state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104088DOI Listing
September 2020

Bisthioureas of pimelic acid and 4-methylsalicylic acid derivatives as selective inhibitors of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP): Synthesis and molecular docking studies.

Bioorg Chem 2020 08 3;101:103996. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Center for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) are membrane bound metalloenzymes, distributed all over the body. Recent studies have revealed that by targeting ALPs can lead towards the treatment of many deadliest diseases including cardiac, cancerous and brain diseases. Thioureas and their derivatives are of considerable significance and are privileged scaffolds in medicinal chemistry. They show a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidants etc. On the other hand, salicylic acid and its derivatives are known for its broad spectrum of activities. The work presented comprises of synthesis of N-acyl-N'-aryl substituted bisthioureas of pimelic acid (1-7) and 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole (11), 1-aroyl-3-aryl thiourea (12) and 1,3,4-oxadiazole (13) derivatives of 4-methyl salicylic acid. Structures of all the synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR and H NMR spectroscopic analysis. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for their alkaline phosphatases inhibition potential and exhibited high potency as well as selectivity towards h-TNAP and h-IAP. Compound 7 and 12 which were the bisthiourea derivative of pimmelic acid and thiourea derivative of 4-methyl salicylic acid, respectively, showed excellent selectivity against h-TNAP and h-IAP, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.103996DOI Listing
August 2020

Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in raw milk of buffalo feeding at wastewater-irrigated agricultural farms in Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 22;27(23):29567-29579. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad, Punjab, 38000, Pakistan.

Wastewater irrigation to grow fodder for animals and cattle farming is common practice in Pakistan. Hence, this study was conducted in Multan, Pakistan, to assess heavy metal pollution, human health risk and the total target health quotient (TTHQ) of heavy metals in raw milk of buffalo feeding at different agricultural farms and to identify sources of toxicity in milk. Samples of raw milk (n = 60) were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb by ICP-OES, Perkin Elmer, USA. The TTHQ values of heavy metals ranged from 6.92 to 42.44 in raw milk of buffalo, highest at wastewater-irrigated agricultural farms and lowest at tube well water site, indicating high carcinogenic health risk to exposed population. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed that contaminated fodder like Maize and Brassica plants grown with wastewater and contaminated soil are common sources contributing the heavy metal contamination in raw milk. It invites attention of government to remediate the situation to avoid the potential risks to public health from resulting food chain contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09256-4DOI Listing
August 2020

Sulfonylhydrazones: Design, synthesis and investigation of ectonucleotidase (ALP & e5'NT) inhibition activities.

Bioorg Chem 2020 07 8;100:103827. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Medicinal importance of the sulfonylhydrazones is well-evident owing to their binding ability with zinc containing metalloenzymes. In the present study, we have synthesized different series of sulfonylhydrazones by using facile synthetic methods in good to excellent yield. All the successfully prepared sulfonylhydrazones were screened for ectonucleotidase (ALP & e5'NT) inhibitory activity. Among the chromen-2-one scaffold based sulfonylhydrazones, the compounds 7 was found to be most potent inhibitor for h-TNAP (human tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase) and h-IAP (human intestinal alkaline phosphatase) with IC values of 1.02 ± 0.13 and 0.32 ± 0.0 3 µM respectively, compared with levamisole (IC = 25.2 ± 1.90 µM for h-TNAP) and l-phenylalanine (IC = 100 ± 3.00 µM for h-IAP) as standards. Further, the chromen-2-one based molecule 5a showed excellent activity against h-ecto 5'-NT (human ecto-5'-nucleotidase) with IC value of 0.29 ± 0.004 µM compared to standard, sulfamic acid (IC = 42.1 ± 7.8 µM). However, among the series of phenyl ring based sulfonylhydrazones, compound 9d was found to be most potent against h-TNAP and h-IAP with IC values of 0.85 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Moreover, in silico studies were also carried to demonstrate their putative binding with the target enzymes. The potent compounds 5a, 7, and 9d against different ectonucleotidases (h-ecto 5'-NT, h-TNAP, h-IAP) could potentially serve as lead for the development of new therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.103827DOI Listing
July 2020

An efficient synthetic approach toward a sporadic heterocyclic scaffold: 1,3-Oxathiol-2-ylidenes; alkaline phosphatase inhibition and molecular docking studies.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2020 07 4;30(13):127238. Epub 2020 May 4.

Centre for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan.

We developed a simple and robust method for synthesis of 1,3-oxathiol-2-ylidene benzamides (4a-m) a sporadic class of heterocycles, by reacting freshly prepared aroyl isothiocyanates, with ethyl 2-chloroacetoacetate in presence of N-methylimidazole in dry acetonitrile. The synthesized compounds were explored for their inhibition against alkaline phosphatases and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results suggest that almost all the compounds possess good % inhibition against both enzymes, with compound 4m showing dual inhibition while 4g and 4i as potent and selective inhibitors of TNAP and c-IAP respectively. Structure activity relationship for the active members of series has been carried out based on molecular docking studies. The result of SAR shows the involvement of active inhibitors in H-bonding at various sites with different amino acid residues in addition to secondary metal ion interactions with Zn ions inside the active pocket of the enzyme. The π-π interactions between the 1,3-oxathiole ring and imidazole ring of His321 and His 317 further defines the dual mode of inhibition by compound 4m. These compounds also possess inhibition potential against cervical cell lines in the range of 2.42-69.03% with the maximum inhibition shown by the unsubstituted member 4a compared to the reference drug cisplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127238DOI Listing
July 2020

Spin-related optical behaviors of dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnSe:Ni(II) nanobelts.

Nanotechnology 2020 Aug 5;31(32):325002. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Beijing Key Lab of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China.

There are varied spin states in dilute magnetic semiconductors, and carriers are not the only elementary excitations that carry the spin. This article reports a study of spin interactions in excitons of ZnSe:NiI(II) nanostructures. High-quality ZnSe:NiI(II) nanobelts (NBs) prepared by chemical vapor deposition show a zinc blende structure by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra of doped NBs show independent free exciton (FX) and exciton magnetic polaron (EMP) peaks at room temperature with ferromagnetically coupled Ni ions. A single-mode lasing profile was obtained with femtosecond laser excitation due to condensation of EMPs over a threshold. The luminescence lifetimes at different pump powers indicated different relaxation profiles, confirming the formation of coherent EMP aggregates. At a slightly higher dopant concentration, a weak peak at the high-energy side of the FX peak showed up separately at low temperature; this should be the magnetic polaron emission band from the antiferromagnetically coupled Ni(II) pair binding with a FX (antiferromagnetic magnetic polaron). These results illustrate the typical spectroscopic characteristics of spin-spin magnetic coupling, exciton-spin or phonon interactions in dilute magnetic semiconductor nanostructures, showing that their different coupled spin types could work as exciton binders for their collective excitons, with possible use in spin nanophotonic devices and quantum modulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab7cecDOI Listing
August 2020

Noise Exposure on the London Underground, an Observational Study over a Decade.

Laryngoscope 2020 12 7;130(12):2891-2895. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Otolaryngology / Head & Neck Surgery, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Objectives: There are no hearing protection regulations in place for passengers using public transport, such as the London Underground. In light of this, we sought to examine sound pressure levels experienced by regular users of the London Underground.

Methods: Sound pressure levels (A-weighted decibels: dBA) were taken on moving London Underground carriages between Euston and South Wimbledon on the Northern Line, and between Euston and Vauxhall on the Victoria Line, during 2006 and 2018. In addition, carriage sound pressure levels travelling within Zone 1 of the London Underground were tested in 2019. Three experimental and three technical repeats were undertaken using a hand-held calibrated multi-function sound level meter.

Results: Passengers are routinely and consistently subjected to sound pressure levels exceeding 80 dBA, with levels sometimes reaching over 100 dBA.

Conclusion: This study is unique within the literature, with no published studies outlining exposure levels for London Underground passengers. It provides evidence of elevated noise exposure to passengers, consistently along large stretches of the London Underground, over a prolonged study period (2006-2019).

Key Words: Sensorineural hearing losssound pressureexposureLondonundergroundtube.

Level Of Evidence: N/A Laryngoscope, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28547DOI Listing
December 2020

Effective plant-endophyte interplay can improve the cadmium hyperaccumulation in Brachiaria mutica.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Nov 18;35(12):188. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Soil and Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P. O. Box 577, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Soil contamination due to cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental problem for which inexpensive remediation alternatives are required. Phytoaccumulation, the use of plants to extract and accumulate heavy metals from the contaminated environment, is such an alternative. In this study, we aimed at establishing effective plant-bacteria interplay between Brachiaria mutica and Cd-resistant endophytic bacteria eventually leading to improved phytoremediation. B. mutica was grown in a Cd-contaminated soil and inoculated with three Cd-tolerant endophytic bacteria individually as well as in combination. Plant physiological parameters, biomass production, bacterial colonization, and Cd-accumulation were observed at four different Cd exposures, i.e., 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg kg of soil. The combined application of endophytic bacteria was more effective as compared to their individual applications at all concentrations. Nevertheless, highest performance of consortium was seen at 100 mg Cd kg of soil, i.e., root length was enhanced by 46%, shoot length by 62%, chlorophyll content by 40%, and dry biomass by 64%; which was reduced with the increase in Cd concentration. The bacterial population was highest in the root interior followed by rhizosphere and shoot interior. Concomitantly, plants inoculated with bacterial consortium displayed more Cd-accumulation in the roots (95%), shoots (55%), and leaves (44%). Higher values of BCF (> 1), and lower values for BCF and TF (< 1) indicates capability of B. mutica to accumulate high amounts of Cd in the roots as compared to the aerial parts. The present study concludes that plant-endophyte interplay could be a sustainable and effective strategy for Cd removal from the contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-019-2757-zDOI Listing
November 2019

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of trinary benzocoumarin-thiazoles-azomethines derivatives as effective and selective inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase.

Bioorg Chem 2019 10 23;91:103137. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Centre for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Design, synthesis and characterization of new trinary Benzocoumarin-Thiazoles-Azomethine derivatives having three bioactive scaffolds in a single structural unit were carried out. The newly synthesized molecules were investigated for the inhibitory activity on human tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (h-TNAP) and human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (h-IAP) isozymes. All the tested compounds exhibited the potent inhibition profile on both isozymes of alkaline phosphatase i.e., h-TNAP and h-IAP. Molecular docking studies were performed to explore the putative binding mode of interactions of selective inhibitors. Moreover, the synthesized derivatives were evaluated against cervical cancer cell line, HeLa and a few compounds exhibited significant inhibition in the range of 21.0-69.7%. The derivatives can be potential and selective alkaline phosphatase inhibitors for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103137DOI Listing
October 2019

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of essential oils from different parts of Daphne mucronata Royle.

Chem Cent J 2018 Dec 17;12(1):135. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

This research work was executed to determine chemical composition, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial potential of the essential oils extracted from the leaves and stem of Daphne mucronata Royle. From leaves and stem oils fifty-one different constituents were identified through GC/MS examination. The antioxidant potential evaluated through DPPH free radical scavenging activity and %-inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The stem's essential oil showed the good antioxidant activity as compared to leaves essential oil. Results of Antimicrobial activity revealed that both stem and leaves oils showed strong activity against Candida albicans with large inhibition zone (22.2 ± 0.01, 18.9 ± 0.20 mm) and lowest MIC values (0.98 ± 0.005, 2.44 ± 0.002 mg/mL) respectively. Leaves essential was also active against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone of 8.88 ± 0.01 mm and MIC values of 11.2 ± 0.40 mg/mL. These results suggested that the plant's essential oils would be a potential cradle for the natural product based antimicrobial as well as antioxidant agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13065-018-0495-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768045PMC
December 2018

Screening of cardiometabolic risks clustering in young Pakistani adults classified by anthropometric traits.

J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Dec;67(12):1825-1832

Department of Biochemistry, PMAS - Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi.

Objective: To estimate frequencies of metabolic risk phenotypes and their associations in body mass index and waist circumference-based obesity categories.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from August 2014 to March 2016. Anthropometric and clinical data of young adults was collected. All subjects were categorised into body mass index, waist circumference-based obesity categories and common metabolic risk phenotypes (hypertension, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia) frequencies and their associations were estimated in age and gender adjusted models. Data was analysed using SPSS 21.

Results: Of the 2,000 participants, 800(40%) were females and 1,200(60%) were males. There were 500(25%) participants in each group, i.e. underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. The overall mean age was 23.68±4.33 years (range: 16-30 years). All clinical parameters were significantly raised in general and abdominally obese class (p<0.05). Based on body mass index and waist circumference, the frequency of general obesity was 324(16.2%) and abdominal obesity was 994(49.7%). Co-morbid metabolic risk phenotypes were as follows: hypertension 1,098(54.9%) and 924(46.2%); hyperglycaemia 1,116(55.8%) and 550(27.5%); dyslipidaemia 300(15%) and 194(9.7%), respectively. The strongest associations of body mass index and waist circumference alone catergorised obesity were found with hyperglycaemia, (Odds ratio: 7.23, 6.49) followed by dyslipidemia (Odds ratio: 5.60, 5.67) and hypertension (Odds ratio: 3.28, 3.02). .

Conclusions: Body mass index and waist circumference were found to be powerful, discriminating predictors of co-morbidities linked with general and abdominal obesity.
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December 2017

Biochar application increased the growth and yield and reduced cadmium in drought stressed wheat grown in an aged contaminated soil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Feb 19;148:825-833. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Cadmium (Cd) and drought stress in plants is a worldwide problem, whereas little is known about the effect of biochar (BC) under combined Cd and drought stress. The current study was conducted to determine the impact of BC on Cd uptake in wheat sown in Cd-contaminated soil under drought stress. Wheat was grown in a soil after incubating the soil for 15 days with three levels of BC (0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/w). Three levels of drought stress (well-watered, mild drought and severe drought containing 70%, 50%, and 35% of soil water holding capacity respectively) were applied to 45-d-old wheat plants. Drought stress decreased plant height, spike length, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange parameters, root and shoot dry biomasses and grain yields. Drought stress also caused oxidative stress and decreased the antioxidant enzymes activities whereas increased the Cd concentration in plants. Biochar increased morphological and physiological parameters of wheat under combined drought and Cd stress and reduced the oxidative stress and Cd contents and increased antioxidant enzymes activities. The decrease in Cd concentration with BC application in drought-stressed plant might be attributed to BC-induced increase in crop biomass production and reduction in oxidative stress. These results indicate that BC could be used as an amendment in metal contaminated soil for improving wheat growth and reducing Cd concentrations under semiarid conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.11.063DOI Listing
February 2018

Foliar application of aspartic acid lowers cadmium uptake and Cd-induced oxidative stress in rice under Cd stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Sep 6;24(27):21938-21947. Epub 2017 Aug 6.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Cadmium (Cd) contamination of farmland soils is a widespread problem around the globe, and rice (Oryza sativa L.) tends to accumulate more Cd and is considered as one of the major sources of Cd intake in humans, especially consuming rice-derived products. The current study investigated the effects of foliar applied aspartic acid (Asp) on growth parameters, biomass, chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange characteristics, Cd uptake, and antioxidative capacity in the shoots and roots of rice seedlings exposed to Cd stress. For this, 30-day-old rice nursery was transferred in the soil with aged Cd contamination (2.86 mg kg). After 2 weeks of growth, different concentrations (0, 10, 15, and 20 mg L) of Asp were foliar applied four times with a 7-day interval, and the crop was harvested after 10 weeks of transplanting. Foliar applied Asp increased the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, chlorophyll concentration, and gas exchange parameters, while it reduced the Cd concentrations in both shoots and roots as well as shoot to root Cd translocation factor compared to the control. Foliar application of Asp reduced the malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage in rice parts compared to the control in a dose-additive manner. The activities of key antioxidant enzymes increased while peroxidase activity decreased by exogenous Asp. The increase in plant weight and photosynthesis might be due to lower Cd concentrations in plants which may reduce the oxidative stress and also help the plants to minimize direct damage caused by Cd to the photosynthetic organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9860-1DOI Listing
September 2017

Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Jan 28;10(1):73. Epub 2017 Jan 28.

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road,Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: The seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis were studied at animal and herd level using a combination of culture, serological and molecular methods. The study was conducted in 253 randomly selected cattle herds of the Potohar plateau, Pakistan from which a total of 2709 serum (1462 cattle and 1247 buffaloes) and 2330 milk (1168 cattle and 1162 buffaloes) samples were collected. Data on risk factors associated with seroprevalence of brucellosis were collected through interviews using questionnaires. Univariable and multivariable random effects logistic regression models were used for identifying important risk factors at animal and herd levels.

Results: One hundred and seventy (6.3%) samples and 47 (18.6%) herds were seropositive for brucellosis by Rose Bengal Plate test. Variations in seroprevalence were observed across the different sampling sites. At animal level, sex, species and stock replacement were found to be potential risk factors for brucellosis. At herd level, herd size (≥9 animals) and insemination method used were important risk factors. The presence of Brucella DNA was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) in 52.4% out of 170 serological positive samples. In total, 156 (6.7%) milk samples were positive by milk ring test. B. abortus biovar 1 was cultured from 5 positive milk samples.

Conclusion: This study shows that the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis is high in some regions in Pakistan. Prevalence was associated with herd size, abortion history, insemination methods used, age, sex and stock replacement methods. The infected animal may act as source of infection for other animals and for humans. The development of control strategies for bovine brucellosis through implementation of continuous surveillance and education programs in Pakistan is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2394-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5273848PMC
January 2017

Delivery of Therapeutic Proteins: Challenges and Strategies.

Curr Drug Targets 2016 ;17(10):1172-88

Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Recent advances in genetic engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology have made possible to combat life-threatening diseases with efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins. These advancements have increased the significance of therapeutic proteins in pharmaceutical market, but their therapeutic delivery to the targeted site is still a major obstacle to achieve desired therapeutic outcomes. In most cases, majority of the therapeutic proteins are usually administered via oral routes which encounter many problems notably enzymatic degradation, poor solubility and nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Besides this route, many other routes like mucosal, intra-nasal, intra-vaginal, pulmonary and transdermal have also been used for the delivery of therapeutic proteins. In order to keep these therapeutic proteins safe from enzymatic degradation and improve their therapeutic efficacy, several strategies have been designed and investigated various therapeutic delivery routes for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins to the targeted site with minimal side effects. In this article, we have comprehensively summarized the recent advances and developments that have been adopted for delivery systems of these therapeutic proteins via invasive and/or non-invasive routes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450117666151209120139DOI Listing
August 2017

Evaluation of cotton leaf curl virus resistance in BC1, BC2, and BC3 progenies from an interspecific cross between Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum.

PLoS One 2014 5;9(11):e111861. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germpalsm Enhancement, MOE Hybrid Cotton R&D Engineering Research Center, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is an important constraint to cotton production. The resistance of G. arboreum to this devastating disease is well documented. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility of transferring genes for resistance to CLCuD from G. arboreum (2n = 26) cv 15-Mollisoni into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) cv CRSM-38 through conventional breeding. We investigated the cytology of the BC1 to BC3 progenies of direct and reciprocal crosses of G. arboreum and G. hirsutum and evaluated their resistance to CLCuD. The F1 progenies were completely resistant to this disease, while a decrease in resistance was observed in all backcross generations. As backcrossing progressed, the disease incidence increased in BC1 (1.7-2.0%), BC2 (1.8-4.0%), and BC3 (4.2-7.0%). However, the disease incidence was much lower than that of the check variety CIM-496, with a CLCuD incidence of 96%. Additionally, the disease incidence percentage was lower in the direct cross 2(G. arboreum)×G. hirsutum than in that of G. hirsutum×G. arboreum. Phenotypic resemblance of BC1 ∼BC3 progenies to G. arboreum confirmed the success of cross between the two species. Cytological studies of CLCuD-resistant plants revealed that the frequency of univalents and multivalents was high in BC1, with sterile or partially fertile plants, but low in BC2 (in both combinations), with shy bearing plants. In BC3, most of the plants exhibited normal bearing ability due to the high frequency of chromosome associations (bivalents). The assessment of CLCuD through grafting showed that the BC1 to BC3 progenies were highly resistant to this disease. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the possibility of introgressing CLCuD resistance genes from G. arboreum to G. hirsutum.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111861PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221200PMC
July 2015

Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia in a patient presenting with gastroenteritis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2014 Sep;24(9):700

Department of Pathology (Laboratory), Dr. Sulaiman Al-Habib Hospital, Olaya Medical Complex, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/09.2014/JCPSP.700700DOI Listing
September 2014

Yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality responses of carrot, radish and turnip to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

J Sci Food Agric 2013 Oct 14;93(13):3237-44. Epub 2013 May 14.

Department of Chemistry, University College of Science Shankar, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan; Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Background: Future concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is very important due to its apparent economic and environmental impact in terms of climate change. However, a compressive assessment of its effect on the nutritional and chemical characteristics of food crops has yet to be established. In the present study the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality of three root vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. T-1-111), radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Mino) and turnip (Brassica rapa L. cv. Grabe) has been investigated.

Results: The yield of carrot, radish and turnip increased by 69, 139 and 72%, respectively, when grown under elevated CO2 conditions. Among the proximate composition, protein, vitamin C and fat contents decreased significantly for all the vegetables while sugar and fibre contents were increased. Response of the vegetables to elevated CO2 , in terms of elemental composition, was different with a significant decrease in many important minerals. Elevated CO2 decreased the amount of majority of the fatty acids and amino acids in these vegetables.

Conclusions: It was observed that elevated CO2 increased the yield of root vegetables but many important nutritional parameters including protein, vitamin C, minerals, essential fatty acids and amino acids were decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6165DOI Listing
October 2013

The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

Environ Monit Assess 2013 Jan 2;185(1):205-14. Epub 2012 Mar 2.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.

The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2544-xDOI Listing
January 2013

Acute parapharyngeal abscess secondary to streptococcal mastoiditis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2009 Dec;19(12):798-9

ENT Department, Combined Military Hospital, Gujranwala.

A rare case of parapharyngeal abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae presenting as neck abscess is reported. The patient had 20 days history of cough, fever and swelling behind right ear. He had not responded to multiple antibiotic treatments given earlier. On the basis of clinical examination and CT scan finding, he was diagnosed as having parapharyngeal abscess pointing in the neck. The abscess was drained and the patient was treated with injectable Ceftriaxone, due to identification of penicillin - resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
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http://dx.doi.org/12.2009/JCPSP.798799DOI Listing
December 2009

Biosorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous effluents by blackgram bran (BGB).

J Hazard Mater 2009 Sep 9;168(2-3):1622-5. Epub 2009 Mar 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

Biosorption of Cu(II) ions onto blackgram bran (BGB) waste biomass in a well stirred batch system was investigated and optimum conditions were determined. The maximum Cu(II) uptake capacity of BGB was 107.65 mg L(-1) at pH 5, biosorbent dose 0.025 g/100mL, biosorbent particle size <0.250 mm at an initial metal concentration of 50 mg L(-1) achieved after equilibrium time of 480 min. The equilibrium data fitted very well to Langmuir isotherm model as compared to the isothermal model of Freundlich. The pseudo 1st and 2nd order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data fitted well to 2nd order kinetic model. Due to its outstanding Cu(II) ions uptake capacity, BGB biomass proved to be an excellent material of bioorigin for accumulating Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.135DOI Listing
September 2009

A survey of infection control practices in the delivery room and nursery to investigate and control the high rate of neonatal sepsis: an experience at a secondary care hospital.

J Pak Med Assoc 2008 May;58(5):237-40

Department of Pathology, Combined Military Hospital, Gujranwala Cantt.

Objective: To survey the infection control practices in the delivery room and the nursery so that the ongoing high rate of neonatal sepsis can be controlled.

Method: A prospective study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Paediatrics and Gynae/obst Combined Military Hospital, Gujranwala. Situation analysis was carried out, according to which a total of 56 cases of neonatal sepsis were diagnosed on the basis of clinical and lab criteria during a six month period from November 2005 to April 2006. The routine being followed in relation to neonates was observed by a team of doctors in the delivery room and the nursery. Certain observations were made regarding breach of infection control practices and specimens were collected from suspected sources of infections for cultures. Recommendations were made in the light of observations and the results of cultures of the specimens to interrupt the chain of infection and to eradicate the source/reservoir of infections in the delivery room and the nursery environment. The gynaecologist and the paediatrician in charge of the delivery room and the nursery respectively remained involved during the whole process and the paramedical staff was given necessary training in the light of recommendations.

Results: After the implementation of the control measures, the rate of neonatal sepsis was drastically reduced from 63/1000 to 14/1000 live births over the next 3 months.

Conclusion: Survey of the delivery room and nursery regarding infection control practices and training of the paramedical staff helped in reducing the nosocomial neonatal sepsis.
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May 2008

Nocardia canaliculitis presenting as pouted punctum.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2008 Jan;18(1):55-7

Department of Ophthalmology, Combined Military Hospital, Gujranwala Cantt.

A rare case of culture-positive Nocardia canaliculitis is reported that presented with a history of chronic conjunctivitis and epiphora for the last 1.4 years, refractory to multiple treatment courses. Chronic conjunctivitis and a pouted punctum were observed in the right lower eyelid. Probing and sac syringing was performed. The "Sulfur granules" were expressed and subjected to various microbiological analyses. Nocardia sp was grown on culture. The patient was successfully managed with surgical removal of concretions and topical/systemic antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/01.2008/JCPSP.5557DOI Listing
January 2008

Molecular characterization of cDNA encoding resistance gene-like sequences in Buchloe dactyloides.

Mol Biotechnol 2006 Nov;34(3):293-301

Sabanci University, Biological Science and Bioengineering Program, Orhanli, 34956, Tuzla/Istanbul, Turkey.

Current knowledge of resistance (R) genes and their use for genetic improvement in buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides [Nutt.] Engelm.) lag behind most crop plants. This study was conducted to clone and characterize cDNA encoding R gene-like (RGL) sequences in buffalograss. This report is the first to clone and characterize of buffalograss RGLs. Degenerate primers designed from the conserved motifs of known R genes were used to amplify RGLs and fragments of expected size were isolated and cloned. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones and analysis of putative translation products revealed that most encoded amino acid sequences shared the similar conserved motifs found in the cloned plant disease resistance genes RPS2, MLA6, L6, RPM1, and Xa1. These results indicated diversity of the R gene candidate sequences in buffalograss. Analysis of 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), applied to investigate upstream of RGLs, indicated that regulatory sequences such as TATA box were conserved among the RGLs identified. The cloned RGL in this study will further enhance our knowledge on organization, function, and evolution of R gene family in buffalograss. With the sequences of the primers and sizes of the markers provided, these RGL markers are readily available for use in a genomics-assisted selection in buffalograss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/MB:34:3:293DOI Listing
November 2006

Frequency of HIV infection amongst hospital visitors at Tubmanburg Town in Liberia.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2006 Apr;16(4):313-4

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http://dx.doi.org/4.2006/JCPSP.313314DOI Listing
April 2006

Combined Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infection.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005 Jul;15(7):443-4

Department of Pathology, Pak FD Level II Hospital, Unmil, Tubmanburg, Liberia, West Africa.

An imported case of combined Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infection occurring in Liberia is reported. A young girl of 15 years, who had recently returned from the neighbouring country of Guinea, presented with 04 months history of passing blood in stools. Schistosoma mansoni ova were found in stool and Schistosoma haematobium ova in urine. She was treated with tablet praziquantel. She became symptom-free in four weeks and the number of ova passed in stool and urine decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/07.2005/JCPSP.443444DOI Listing
July 2005

Drug sensitivity pattern of organisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media.

Authors:
Abid Mahmood

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005 Jun;15(6):378-9; authors reply 379

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http://dx.doi.org/06.2005/JCPSP.378379DOI Listing
June 2005

Frequency and clinical course of hepatitis E.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005 Jan;15(1):60-1; author reply 61-2

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http://dx.doi.org/01.2005/JCPSP.6061DOI Listing
January 2005