Publications by authors named "Abid Hussain"

184 Publications

Compositional profile of barley landlines grown in different regions of Gilgit-Baltistan.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 24;9(5):2605-2611. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Mountain Agriculture Research Center (MARC) Juglote, Gilgit Pakistan.

The current investigation was performed to explore the nutritional and functional composition of four landlines of barley denoted as LB (Gilgit), LB (Nagar), LB (Skardu), and LB (Shigar) from different regions of Gilgit-Baltistan. The samples were examined for nutritional profile and antioxidant attributes. Total phenolic values and total flavonoid results were in the range of 1.2 to 3.1 mg/g and 0.41 to 0.55 mg/g, respectively. Nutritional profile as crude starch, fiber, protein, ash, and fat ranged from 56.3%-50.80%, 16.50%-11.73%, 16.20%-11.53%, 2.8%-2.1%, and 2.63%-1.63%, respectively. The mineral composition in terms of Mg (527-616 mg/kg) was higher in the landlines followed by Ca (312-368 mg/kg), Na (122.6-146.6 mg/kg), Fe (43.3-65.6 mg/kg), and Zn (22.5-26.6 mg/kg). It was concluded that the indigenous barley landlines had immense nutritional potential and functional attributes. Thus, it can be used for value-added food products and the development of cottage industry in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116868PMC
May 2021

Impact of thermal extrusion and microwave vacuum drying on fatty acids profile during fish powder preparation.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 13;9(5):2743-2753. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Food Engineering and Technology Faculty of Engineering and Technology University of Gezira Wad Medani Sudan.

The current study aimed to optimize the process for ready-to-eat extruded fish powder preparation and to ascertain the impact of two methods on fatty acid profiles. For the investigation, (Rohu) fish was first minced, extruded, and microwave vacuum-dried. The results show that the yield for extruded fish powder (EFP) fluctuated from 22.32% to 29.07%. The maximum retention for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was 3.24 ± 0.08 g/100 g lipids, 2.74 ± 0.05 g/100 g lipids, and 1.24 ± 0.09 g/100 g lipids, by using different extrusion parameters. Moreover, nonsignificant changes were observed during 0 days, and 1 and 3 months of storage (at 4°C and 25°C) for DHA, AA, and EPA, whereas significant results were recorded for the samples stored for 6 months at 25°C. Also, the maximum peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values (TBARS) were 1.72 ± 0.04 meq/kg fat and 0.135 ± 0.008 mg malondialdehyde/kg fat. It is anticipated from the outcomes that the study will be helpful to prepare value-added food products in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116853PMC
May 2021

Do working and living conditions influence brick-kiln productivity? Evidence from Nepal.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2021 May 18:1-9. Epub 2021 May 18.

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal.

The brick-kiln (BK) sector in Nepal is largely an informal sector. This study investigated the influence of working and living conditions (WLCs) in BKs on productivity at two levels - BK level and workers' level - using primary data collected from 781 workers and 80 BK entrepreneurs in 12 districts of Nepal. WLCs were assessed based on the provision of nine amenities to workers at BKs. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that WLCs have a positive influence on both BK level as well as workers' level productivity. Moreover, large BKs with better investment in zig-zag technology and mechanization are more likely to spend on improving WLCs than small BKs, who are reluctant to invest in WLCs due mainly to a lack of financial resources. The study suggests an integrated approach emphasizing equally improved WLCs and cleaner technology in the BK sector to transform it into a healthier and socio-environmentally responsible industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2021.1899498DOI Listing
May 2021

Antibiotyping and Genotyping of Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) Salmonella Spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples of Lahore, Pakistan.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, 54590.

Aims: Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of XDR Salmonella among local population of Lahore and genotyping of isolates for antibiotic resistant genes.

Methods And Results: A total of 200 blood samples from suspected typhoid fever patients were collected. One hundred and fifty-seven bacterial samples were confirmed as Salmonella Typhi and twenty-three samples were confirmed as Salmonella Paratyphi after biochemical, serological and PCR based molecular characterization. Antibiogram analysis classified 121 (67.2%) Salmonella isolates as MDR and 62 isolates (34.4%) as XDR. The predominant resistance gene was ampC with 47.7% prevalence, followed by gyrA, catA1, tet(A), aac (3)-la, qnrS, bla and bla genes in 45.5%, 40%, 21.6%, 18.3%, 11.6%, 2.2% and 0.5% isolates, respectively. Sequence analysis showed the presence of sul1 and dfrA7 gene cassette arrays in twelve class 1 integron integrase positive isolates.

Conclusion: Large number of clinical XDR S. Typhi resistant against third generation cephalosporins have been reported.

Significance And Impact Of Study: Current study highlights the possible emergence of clinical XDR S. Typhi cases in Lahore, Pakistan. Potential attribution of phenotypic and genotypic XDR cases may help to contribute targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.15131DOI Listing
May 2021

Compatibility of and a Plant Secondary Metabolite: A Novel Modeling Approach to Invade Host Defense for Effective Control of (McGregor) on Date Palms.

Authors:
Abid Hussain

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;7(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Research and Consultancy, King Faisal University, Hofuf, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

(McGregor) is an important pest causing substantial economic losses to date palm fruits (dates). The application of mycopathogens with plant secondary metabolites, which may proceed synergistically is thus essential to augment sustainable management strategy for . In this regard, extensive laboratory experimentation involving compatibility, synergism, and host defense was performed to develop stable pest management option. The toxin-pathogen compatibility assay results revealed compatible interaction (biological index = 79-95) of ARSEF 8465 against each tested concentration of commercially available (+)-α-Pinene that provide the opportunity to further explore the time and concentration dependent mortality and defense related enzymatic regulation analysis. The time-mortality response assays that mainly comprised of various proportions of ARSEF 8465 and (+)-α-Pinene revealed that the sole application of ARSEF 8465 (LC = 19.16 mg/mL), and (+)-α-Pinene (3.41 mg/mL) found to be least lethal compared with joint applications (LC ranged from 1.32-7.06 mg/mL). The treatments complied under Scheme IV (80% (+)-α-Pinene: 20% ARSEF 8465 Conidia) led to strong synergistic interaction (joint toxicity = 755). In addition, synergistic interactions greatly induced enzymatic activities of the studied antioxidants (CAT and SOD), and defense-related enzymes (GST and AchE). We concluded that join application of ARSEF 8465 and (+)-α-Pinene is a promising option for controlling populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7050334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145493PMC
April 2021

Effectiveness of management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) through community health workers as compared to a traditional facility-based model: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatric and Child Health, Associate Director Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan.

Purpose: We compared the impact of management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) by lady health workers (LHWs) at a community level with the standard CMAM program provided at the health facility.

Methods: A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural district in sindh Pakistan. The primary outcome was recovery from SAM and secondary outcomes were relapse, defaulter and mortality rate.

Results: A total of 829 children were recruited in the trial (430 in intervention and 399 in control groups). No significant difference was noted in recovery rate between the intervention and control groups (79.2% vs 85.6%, p = 0.276). Similarly, no significant differences were noted in relapse (p = 0.757), weight gain (p = 0.609), deaths (p = 0.775) and defaulter rate (p = 0.324) across the groups. Compliance of RUTF was significantly higher in the control group (93%) than in the intervention group (87%), p < 0.000.

Conclusion: Our results showed no impact of SAM treatment on performance indicators of CMAM (recovery, relapse, death and default) between the standard CMAM programme performed at the health facility by the government and NGO staff and the programme performed at health house level by the LHWs in Pakistan. We recommend further robust trials in other settings to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02550-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Socio-Economic Implications of COVID-19 Pandemic in South Asia: Emerging Risks and Growing Challenges.

Front Sociol 2021 24;6:629693. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.

The dramatic spread of COVID-19 has threatened human lives, disrupted livelihoods, and affected trade, economy and businesses across the globe. The global economy has begun to show major disruptions and is heading toward a severe recession with an unprecedented economic crisis. As the global economy is highly integrated and interdependent through the global supply chains, it has been profoundly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although all countries have faced difficulties due to Covid-19, South Asian countries in particular have had to deal with a more challenging situation due to their large population, weak health facilities, high poverty rates, low socio-economic conditions, poor social protection systems, limited access to water and sanitation, and inadequate living space, necessary to maintain physical distancing and take other required measures to contain this pandemic. To contain the spread of the virus, South Asian countries have imposed stringent lockdowns, which have consequently affected the lives and livelihoods of millions of people in the region, where a third of world's poor live. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the existing and prospective impacts, risks and challenges of Covid-19 on key social and economic sectors including migration, tourism, informal sector, agriculture and rural livelihoods. The analysis revealed that COVID-19 is likely to affect economic growth, increase fiscal deficit and monetary burden, increase the risks of macroeconomic instability, decrease migration and remittance, reduce income from travel and tourism, and result in dwindling micro-small and medium industries and informal businesses. This is likely to deepen poverty and increase unemployment and the risks of hunger and food insecurity. If not addressed properly, this may reinforce existing inequalities, break social harmony, and increase tension and turbulence. The economic and social costs of the COVID-19 outbreak are therefore likely to be significant and long-lasting in South Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2021.629693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022444PMC
February 2021

Unraveling the Mode of Action of : Potential Biocontrol Agent against (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

Insects 2021 Feb 18;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

The entomopathogenic fungus, is a potential eco-friendly biocontrol agent. The present study revealed the entire course of infection of by with particular reference to cuticular penetration. Comparative studies on the infection of larvae by two strains of with different pathogenicity were carried out using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. We found that tended to adhere to the cuticle surfaces containing protrusions. Although conidia of the lower pathogenic strain IFCF-D58 germinated, they failed to penetrate and complete the development cycle. In contrast, the higher pathogenic strain IFCF01 began to germinate within 4 h and attached to the cuticle by a thin mucilaginous matrix within 8 h post-inoculation. After 24 h post-inoculation, germ tubes and penetrating hyphae reached the cuticular epidermis and began to enter the haemocoel. Within 36 h post-inoculation, the hyphal bodies colonized the body cavity. Hyphae penetrated from inside to outside of the body after 48 h and sporulated the cadavers. After 72 h post-inoculation, numerous conidia emerged and the mycelial covered the entire cuticular surface. The two strains showed similarities in terms of conidial size and germination rate. However, IFCF-D58 exhibited significantly fewer appressoria and longer penetrating hyphae compared to the more infective IFCF01 on all surface topographies. The current pathogen invasion sequence of events suggested that the aggressive growth and propagation along with rapid and massive in vivo production of blastospores facilitate the conidia of IFCF01 to quickly overcome the diamondback moth's defense mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12020179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922683PMC
February 2021

Historical and current distribution ranges and loss of mega-herbivores and carnivores of Asia.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e10738. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Ecosystem functioning is dependent a lot on large mammals, which are, however, vulnerable and facing extinction risks due to human impacts mainly. Megafauna of Asia has been declining for a long, not only in numbers but also in their distribution ranges. In the current study, we collected information on past and current occurrence and distribution records of Asia's megafauna species. We reconstructed the historical distribution ranges of the six herbivores and four carnivores for comparison with their present ranges, to quantify spatially explicit levels of mega-defaunation. Results revealed that historically the selected megafauna species were more widely distributed than at current. Severe range contraction was observed for the Asiatic lion, three rhino species, Asian elephant, tigers, and tapirs. Defaunation maps generated have revealed the vanishing of megafauna from parts of the East, Southeast, and Southwest Asia, even some protected Areas losing up to eight out of ten megafaunal species. These defaunation maps can help develop future conservation policies, to save the remaining distribution ranges of large mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894109PMC
February 2021

Fish protein intake is a novel dietary approach for managing diabetes-associated complications in diabetic Wistar rat model.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 23;9(2):1017-1024. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Food Engineering Faculty of Engineering University of Gezira Wad Medani Sudan.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with short term as well as long-term undesirable complications caused by persistent hyperglycemia. Recently, there has been emerging evidence that natural foods and their bioactive compounds are the key contributors to the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. This study was designed to explore the therapeutic efficacy of a fish protein-rich diet for managing diabetes and associated complications in the diabetic Wistar rat model. A high-protein (HP) diet (45% and 55% fish protein rich in ω3 fatty acids) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood samples were collected for monitoring serum glucose, oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, kidney function markers, serum proteins, and liver function markers. Results indicated that there was a noteworthy control ( < .05) of serum glucose, oxidative stress, and lipid profile in HP diet treated diabetic rats. Treatment with 45% and 55% fish diet appreciably improved the concentration of serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and exhibited a vibrant improvement in renal functions. Our results confirmed that the HP diet restored total protein and albumin concentration in blood. The HP diet treatment also restored the normal serum aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866565PMC
February 2021

Core Role of Hydrophobic Core of Polymeric Nanomicelle in Endosomal Escape of siRNA.

Nano Lett 2021 04 17;21(8):3680-3689. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Life Science, Advanced Research Institute of Multidisciplinary Science, Institute of Engineering Medicine, Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Efficient endosomal escape is the most essential but challenging issue for siRNA drug development. Herein, a series of quaternary ammonium-based amphiphilic triblock polymers harnessing an elaborately tailored pH-sensitive hydrophobic core were synthesized and screened. Upon incubating in an endosomal pH environment (pH 6.5-6.8), mPEG-P(DPA--DMAEMA)-PT (PDDT, the optimized polymer) nanomicelles (PDDT-Ms) and PDDT-Ms/siRNA polyplexes rapidly disassembled, leading to promoted cytosolic release of internalized siRNA and enhanced silencing activity evident from comprehensive analysis of the colocalization and gene silencing using a lysosomotropic agent (chloroquine) and an endosomal trafficking inhibitor (bafilomycin A1). In addition, PDDT-Ms/siPLK1 dramatically repressed tumor growth in both HepG2-xenograft and highly malignant patient-derived xenograft models. PDDT-Ms-armed siPD-L1 efficiently blocked the interaction of PD-L1 and PD-1 and restored immunological surveillance in CT-26-xenograft murine model. PDDT-Ms/siRNA exhibited ideal safety profiles in these assays. This study provides guidelines for rational design and optimization of block polymers for efficient endosomal escape of internalized siRNA and cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04468DOI Listing
April 2021

Interaction of TLR4 and TLR8 in the Innate Immune Response against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 4;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

The interaction and crosstalk of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is an established pathway in which the innate immune system recognises and fights pathogens. In a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis of an Indian cohort, we found evidence for both TLR4-399T and TRL8-1A conveying increased susceptibility towards tuberculosis (TB) in an interdependent manner, even though there is no established TLR4 ligand present in (Mtb), which is the causative pathogen of TB. Docking studies revealed that TLR4 and TLR8 can build a heterodimer, allowing interaction with TLR8 ligands. The conformational change of TLR4-399T might impair this interaction. With immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we precipitated TLR4 with TLR8-targeted antibodies, indicating heterodimerisation. Confocal microscopy confirmed a high co-localisation frequency of TLR4 and TLR8 that further increased upon TLR8 stimulation. The heterodimerisation of TLR4 and TLR8 led to an induction of IL12p40, NF-κB, and IRF3. TLR4-399T in interaction with TLR8 induced an increased NF-κB response as compared to TLR4-399C, which was potentially caused by an alteration of subsequent immunological pathways involving type I IFNs. In summary, we present evidence that the heterodimerisation of TLR4 and TLR8 at the endosome is involved in Mtb recognition via TLR8 ligands, such as microbial RNA, which induces a Th1 response. These findings may lead to novel targets for therapeutic interventions and vaccine development regarding TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913854PMC
February 2021

The role of a clinical pharmacist in spurious Penicillin allergy: a narrative review.

Int J Clin Pharm 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Allergy and Immunology, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Background A label of penicillin allergy is held by 6-10% of the general population and 15-20% of inpatients. > 90% of these labels are found to be spurious after formal allergy assessment. Carrying an unnecessary label of penicillin allergy is not benign. Such patients may receive second line, more expensive antibiotics, representing a significant impediment to antimicrobial stewardship. Aim of the review To (a) Explain the burden of spurious penicillin allergy, and evaluate the safety of direct oral penicillin challenge in 'low risk' patients (b) appraise the place for a clinical pharmacist-led penicillin allergy de-labelling programme. Method Narrative review. Search engines: PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane reviews. Search criteria: English language; search terms: penicillin allergy, antimicrobial stewardship, antimicrobial resistance, clostridium difficile, vancomycin resistant enterococci, risk stratification, clinical pharmacist and direct oral provocation test Results Penicillin allergy labels are associated with: longer hospital stay, higher readmission rates, enhanced risk of surgical site infections, risk of Clostridioides difficile infection and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, a delay in the first dose of an antibiotic in sepsis and higher healthcare costs. A direct oral penicillin challenge in 'low risk' patients has proven to be safe. Discussion Recent studies including those led by a clinical pharmacist have demonstrated safety of a direct oral penicillin challenge in 'low risk' patients. This intervention needs validation within individual health services. Conclusion Direct oral penicillin challenge reduces the adverse impact of spurious penicillin allergy. A pharmacist-led penicillin allergy de-labelling program needs further validation in prospective multi-centre studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01226-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Embedment of MWCNTs for Enhancement of Physical and Mechanical Performance of Medium Density Fiberboard.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Dec 24;11(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Center for NanoCellulose Future Composites, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea.

In this research work effect of embedment of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the physical and mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard (MDF) have been investigated. The MWCNTs were embedded in urea formaldehyde resin (UF) at 0, 1.5%, 3% and 5% concentrations by weight for the manufacturing of nano-MDF. The addition of these nanoparticles enhanced thermal conductivity by 24.2% reduced curing time by 20% and controlled formaldehyde emission by 59.4%. The internal bonding (I.B), modulus elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), thickness swelling (Ts) and water absorption (WA) properties were improved significantly by 21.15%, 30.2%, 28.3%, 44.8% and 29% respectively as compared to controlled MDF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11010029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824487PMC
December 2020

Insights into the Immune-Related Transcriptomic Profiling to Combat Naturally Invading Pathogens.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Oct 18;6(4). Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Laboratory of Bio-Control and Molecular Biology, Department of Arid Land Agriculture, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Hofuf 31982, Saudi Arabia.

Natural pathogen pressure is an important factor that shapes the host immune defense mechanism. The current study primarily aimed to explore the molecular basis of the natural immune defense mechanism of a sporadic pest, , during swarming by constructing cDNA libraries of the female mid-gut, male mid-gut, testes, and ovaries. The Illumina HiSeq platform generated an average of 7.9 G, 11.77 G, 10.07 G, and 10.07 G bases of outputs from the male mid-gut, female mid-gut, testes, and ovaries and libraries, respectively. The transcriptome of two-spotted field crickets was assembled into 233,172 UniGenes, which yielded approximately 163.58 million reads. On the other hand, there were 43,055 genes in common that were shared among all the biological samples. Gene Ontology analysis successfully annotated 492 immune-related genes, which comprised mainly Pattern Recognition Receptors (62 genes), Signal modulators (57 genes), Signal transduction (214 genes), Effectors (36 genes), and another immune-related 123 genes. In summary, the identified wide range of immune-related genes from indicates the existence of a sophisticated and specialized broad spectrum immune mechanism against invading pathogens, which provides, for the first time, insights into the molecular mechanism of disease resistance among two-spotted field crickets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6040232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711483PMC
October 2020

In Lyl1 mice, adipose stem cell vascular niche impairment leads to premature development of fat tissues.

Stem Cells 2021 01 13;39(1):78-91. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Montpellier, France.

Lyl1 encodes a hematopoietic- and endothelial-specific bHLH transcription factor. Lyl1-deficient mice are viable, but they display mild hematopoietic and vascular defects. Specifically, LYL1 is required for the maturation and stabilization of blood vessel endothelial adherens junctions. Here, we report that young adult Lyl1 mice exhibit transient overweight associated with general expansion of adipose tissue, without signs of metabolic disorder and unrelated to food intake. The increased fat tissue development in Lyl1 mice resulted from earlier differentiation of adipose stem cells (ASCs) into adipocytes through noncell autonomous mechanisms. Specifically, we found that in Lyl1 mice, the adipose tissue vascular structures are immature, as indicated by their high permeability, reduced coverage by pericytes, lower recruitment of VE-cadherin and ZO1 at cell junctions, and more prone to angiogenesis. Together, our data show that in Lyl1 mice, the impaired vascular compartment of the adipose niche promotes ASC differentiation, leading to early adipocyte expansion and premature ASC depletion. Our study highlights the major structural role of the adipose tissue vascular niche in coordinating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation into adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821250PMC
January 2021

[email protected] based SERS for facile screening of thiabendazole and ferbam in liquid milk.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jan 3;245:118908. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China; Academy of Contemporary Food Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, China; Engineering and Technological Research Centre of Guangdong Province on Intelligent Sensing and Process Control of Cold Chain Foods, & Guangdong Province Engineering Laboratory for Intelligent Cold Chain Logistics Equipment for Agricultural Products, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China; Food Refrigeration and Computerized Food Technology (FRCFT), Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on thioglycolic acid (TGA) functionalized silver-coated gold nanoparticles ([email protected]) was developed for the facile screening of thiabendazole (TBZ) and ferbam (0.025-10 ppm) in liquid milk for the first time. Results showed that silver-coated gold nanoparticles ([email protected]) with a core size of 32 nm and a shell thickness of 5 nm was successfully modified with 3 nm TGA. The sensitive [email protected] could enhance TBZ and ferbam signals by factors of 6.4 × 10 and 9.8 × 10, respectively, and achieved the detection of TBZ and ferbam with limits of detection of 0.12 and 0.003 ppm, R of 0.988 and 0.9821, percent recoveries of 88-103% and of 87.2-103.5%, and relative standard deviations of 4.1-9.2% and 3.5-8.3%, respectively. The current simple and green method could thus be used to detect other unsafe chemicals in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118908DOI Listing
January 2021

Sustainable, Renewable and Environmental-Friendly Insulation Systems for High Voltages Applications.

Molecules 2020 Aug 27;25(17). Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila 47050, Pakistan.

With the inception of high voltage (HV), requisites on the insulating permanence of HV equipment is becoming increasingly crucial. Mineral/synthetic oil liquid insulation-together with solid insulation materials (paper, pressboard)-is the fundamental insulation constituent in HV apparatuses; their insulation attributes perform a substantial part in a reliable and steady performance. Meanwhile, implications on the environment, scarcity of petroleum oil supplies and discarding complications with waste oil have stimulated investigators to steer their attention towards sustainable, renewable, biodegradable and environmentally friendly insulating substances. The contemporary insulating constituent's evolution is driven by numerous dynamics-in particular, environmental obligations and other security and economic issues. Consequently, HV equipment manufacturers must address novel specifications concerning to these new standards. Renewable, sustainable and environmentally friendly insulating materials are continuously substituting conventional insulating items in the market place. These are favorable to traditional insulating materials, due to their superior functionality. The also offer explicit security and eco-friendly advantages. This article discusses cutting-edge technology of environmentally friendly insulating materials, including their fabrication, processing and characterization. The new renewable, insulating systems used in HV equipment are submitted and their fundamental gains stated in comparison with conventional insulating materials. Several experimental efforts carried out in various parts of the world are presented, offering an outline of the existing research conducted on renewable insulating systems. The significance of this article lies in summarizing prior investigations, classifying research essence, inducements and predicting forthcoming research trends. Furthermore, opportunities and constraints being experienced in the field of exploration are evidently reported. Last but not least, imminent research proposals and applications are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503315PMC
August 2020

Myasthenia Gravis Masquerading as an Idiopathic Unilateral Facial Paralysis (Bell's Palsy)-A Very Rare and Unique Clinical Find.

Front Neurol 2020 28;11:709. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an uncommon autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder manifesting as fluctuating weakness of skeletal muscles. To add to its repertoire of mimicking a wide range of neurological disorders, the present case report is, to the best of our knowledge, the very first to describe MG masquerading as an idiopathic unilateral facial paralysis (Bell's palsy, BP). Our case report is distinct, highlights a novel clinical occurrence, offers new insights of how different neurological disorders may overlap with each other, and reminds neurologists to have a very broad and thorough comprehension for effective diagnoses and treatment plans. Several other conditions that produce facial nerve palsy identical to BP have also been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399091PMC
July 2020

Soil applied boron (B) improves growth, yield and fiber quality traits of cotton grown on calcareous saline soil.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(8):e0231805. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.

Boron (B) is required during all growth stages of cotton crop, especially during boll formation. However, Typic Haplocambid soils of cotton growing belt in Pakistan are B-deficient, which results in low yield and economic returns. Foliar application of B improves cotton productivity; however, information is limited on the role of soil applied B in improving cotton growth and yield. The current study investigated the role of soil applied B in improving growth, yield and fiber quality of cotton crop. Five different B doses (i.e., 0.00, 2.60, 5.52, 7.78 and 10.04 mg kg-1 of soil) and two cotton cultivars (i.e., CIM-600 and CIM-616) were included in the study. Soil applied B (2.60 mg kg-1) significantly improved growth, yield, physiological parameters and fiber quality, while 10.04 mg kg-1 application improved B distribution in roots, seeds, leaves and stalks. Significant improvement was noted in plant height (12%), leaf area (3%), number of bolls (48%), boll size (59%), boll weight (52%), seed cotton yield (52%), photosynthesis (50%), transpiration rate (10%), stomatal conductance (37%) and water use efficiency (44%) of CIM-600 with 2.60 mg kg-1 compared to control treatment of CIM-616. Similarly, B accumulation in roots, seeds, leaves and stalk of CIM-600 was improved by 76, 41, 86 and 70%, respectively compared to control treatment. The application of 2.60 mg kg-1 significantly improved ginning out turn (6%), staple length (3.5%), fiber fineness (17%) and fiber strength (5%) than no B application. The results indicated that cultivar CIM-600 had higher ginning out turn (1.5%), staple length (5.4%), fiber fineness (15.5%) and fiber strength (1.8%) than CIM-616. In crux, 2.60 mg kg-1 soil B application improved growth, yield, physiological and fiber quality traits of cotton cultivar CIM-600. Therefore, cultivar CIM-600 and 2.60 mg kg-1 soil B application is recommended for higher yield and productivity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231805PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410288PMC
September 2020

Reduced graphene oxide-TiO/sodium alginate 3-dimensional structure aerogel for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 19;261:127702. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, graphene oxide and titanium dioxide in combination with sodium alginate were used to synthesize the reduced graphene oxide-TiO/sodium alginate (RGOT/SA) aerogel. The potential of RGOT/SA aerogel was evaluated for the photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole and was compared with that of bare titanium dioxide nanoparticles. More than 99% removal of both the contaminants was obtained within 45-90 min by using the RGOT/SA aerogel under UV-A light. Mineralization of both the pollutants was also higher in case of RGOT/SA aerogel as compared to bare TiO nanoparticles. The optimal mass ratio of TiO nanoparticles with respect to graphene oxide was 2:1 in RGOT/SA aerogel in the presence of 1 wt% sodium alginate solution. High photodegradation of Ibuprofen was observed at neutral pH and acidic to neutral pH was found suitable for the photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole. Three-dimensional interconnected macroporous assembly, large surface area for settling TiO nanoparticles, efficient charge partitioning, and enhanced physical and chemical adsorption of ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole on the surface of RGOT/SA aerogel were the significant characteristics of RGOT/SA aerogels. Moreover, ease of separation and recyclability of the RGOT/SA aerogel could further save the extra energy used to separate nanoparticles from the effluent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127702DOI Listing
December 2020

Rapid detection of ziram residues in apple and pear fruits by SERS based on octanethiol functionalized bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Aug 13;236:118357. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China; Academy of Contemporary Food Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, China; Engineering and Technological Research Centre of Guangdong Province on Intelligent Sensing and Process Control of Cold Chain Foods, & Guangdong Province Engineering Laboratory for Intelligent Cold Chain Logistics Equipment for Agricultural Products, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China; Food Refrigeration and Computerized Food Technology, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

Existing approaches for the screening of unsafe materials in food matrices are time-consuming, tiresome and destructive in nature. Therefore, in the current study, a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method based on octanethiol-functionalized core-shell nanoparticles (Oct/[email protected]) was established for rapid detection of ziram in apple and pear fruits. The morphology of substrate was evaluated using high-resolution TEM images and superimposed HAADF-STEM-EDS elemental mapping images, which confirmed that [email protected] having gold (Au) core size of 28 nm in diameter and silver (Ag) shell of 5.5 nm in thickness were successfully grafted with octanethiol. The SERS method with the sensitive nanoparticles could detect ziram of up to 0.015 and 0.016 ppm in apple and pear with high coefficients of determination (R) of 0.9987 and 0.9993, respectively. Furthermore, satisfactory recoveries (80-106%) were also accomplished for the fungicide in real samples. This work demonstrated that the functionalized silver-coated gold nanoparticles were easy to prepare and could be used as sensitive SERS platforms for monitoring of other agrochemicals in foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118357DOI Listing
August 2020

Potential Synergy between Spores of and Plant Secondary Metabolite, 1-Chlorooctadecane for Effective Natural Acaricide Development.

Molecules 2020 Apr 20;25(8). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Bio-Control and Molecular Biology, Department of Arid Land Agriculture, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Hofuf 31982, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Date palm dust mites are important pests severely infesting valuable nutritious fruits (dates) of date palm. In search of an alternative to acaricides, joint action of EBCL 02049 spores and 1-Chlorooctadecane was evaluated as a potential candidate for the management of through natural products. In this regard, in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the interaction of spores with multiple doses of 1-Chlorooctadecane (0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, and 4.0 mg/mL). Compatibility bioassay results evidenced from vegetative growth (77.7-84.40 mm), sporulation (5.50-7.30 × 10 spores/mL), and germination (96.70-98.20%), revealed that all the tested doses are compatible (biological index > 82) with the spores of . The impact of combined treatment of spores with 1-Chlorooctadecane in different proportions (Scheme I, II, III, and IV) compared to their sole application against was evaluated by concentration-mortality response bioassays. Results showed that all the combined treatments revealed high mortality compared to the sole application, which showed relatively slow mortality response over time. Toxicity recorded from Scheme IV combinations (80% 1-Chlorooctadecane: 20% Spores), exhibited strong synergistic interaction (joint toxicity = 713). Furthermore, potent interactions have overcome the host antioxidant defense at the final stage of infection by tremendously reducing catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities. These experiments demonstrated fungal-toxin joint synergistic interaction as a promising date palm dust mite management option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221990PMC
April 2020

Generalized tonic-clonic seizures with post-ictal atrial fibrillation.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2020 30;13:100343. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Neurology, University of Louisville, 500 South Jackson Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Convulsive seizures are known to cause severe cardiopulmonary changes and increased autonomic activity. Limited reports describe peri-ictal cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). We present a unique case of a healthy 23-year-old male patient with new onset prolonged AF in the setting of new onset seizures, occurring on three independent occasions. Over two years, our patient had multiple hospitalizations for seizures with an electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis of AF made on three different occasions, occurring during his post-ictal state (all within 30 min of seizure onset). These seizures were never captured by electroencephalography (EEG) or witnessed by the medical staff, but were reported by family and/or reviewed on video provided by them. After his first GTCS, his AF persisted and was medically cardioverted. Two additional instances of AF after witnessed GTCS have been captured. After his second unprovoked seizure, an anti-seizure drug (ASD) was prescribed. A multi-disciplinary approach may be adopted to address comorbidities associated with seizures. Aggressive evaluation and treatment should be employed for newly diagnosed and refractory seizure patients associated with arrhythmias, in our case AF. Peri-ictal arrhythmias may be considered a potential marker for increased sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebr.2019.100343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170332PMC
October 2019

Controlling antibiotic usage-A national analysis of General Practitioner/Family Doctor practices links overall antibiotic levels to demography, geography, comorbidity factors with local discretionary prescribing choices.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Aug 4;74(8):e13515. Epub 2020 May 4.

The School of Medicine and Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Introduction: Ecological studies show association between antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and inappropriate oral antibiotics use. Moderating antibiotic prescribing requires an understanding of all drivers of local prescribing. The aim was to quantify how much is determined by external factors compared with discretionary clinical choices.

Methods: Oral antibiotic usage taken from England General Practitioner/Family Doctor practice prescribing data was aggregated using WHO/ATC defined daily doses (DDDs). The average annual antibiotic daily prescribing rate (AAADPR) in each practice was the total DDD of oral antibiotics divided by registered population and 365. The AAADPR of English practices in 2017_18 was linked by regression to factors including demographics, geography, medical comorbidities, clinical performance, patient satisfaction, medical workforce characteristics and prescribing selection. The regression coefficients for modifiable prescribing selection factors were applied to the difference between the median and top decile practice values to establish overall reduction opportunities through changing prescribing behaviour.

Results: Twenty five factors accounted for 58% of the AAADPR variation in 5889 practices supporting 49.8 million patients. Non-modifiable factors linked increased AAADPR to more northerly location, higher prevalence of diabetes, COPD, CHD, and asthma; higher white ethnicity; higher patient satisfaction and lower population density. Modifiable behaviour accounted for 11% of the variation in AAADPR, with increases associated with a wider range of antibiotics, higher proportion taken as liquids, higher doses in each prescription, lower guideline compliance, lower targeted antibiotics, lower spend/dose, and less seasonal variation. If all practices achieved the level of modifiable factors of the top decile, this model suggests that overall AAADPR could reduce by 31%.

Conclusion: Such analysis is associative and does not infer causation. However, demographics, location, medical condition of the population, and prescribing selection are drivers of overall antibiotic prescribing. This analysis provides benchmarks for both non-modifiable and modifiable factors against which practices could evaluate their opportunities to reduce antibiotic prescribing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13515DOI Listing
August 2020

Bimetallic core shelled nanoparticles ([email protected]) for rapid detection of thiram and dicyandiamide contaminants in liquid milk using SERS.

Food Chem 2020 Jul 19;317:126429. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China; Academy of Contemporary Food Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, China; Engineering and Technological Research Centre of Guangdong Province on Intelligent Sensing and Process Control of Cold Chain Foods, & Guangdong Province Engineering Laboratory for Intelligent Cold Chain Logistics Equipment for Agricultural Products, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Existing methods for contaminants detection in liquid milk are complex, requires chemicals and time-consuming experimental procedure. In this study, SERS based on bimetallic core shelled nanoparticles was employed for simultaneous and fast detection of thiram and dicyandiamide (DCD) in the milk. Spectra ranging from 400 to 1700 cm were selected to examine thiram (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 ppm) and DCD (20, 40, 80,160 and 320 ppm), by employing 28 nm gold cores and silver-shell thickness of 8 nm. A strong peak at 1379 cm was ascribed to thiram with LOD of 0.21 ppm and R of 0.9896, whereas a band at 929 cm was associated with DCD, delivering LOD of 14.88 ppm and R of 0.9956. The proposed method could achieve results within 34 min and this ecofriendly method can be further employed for simultaneous and rapid screening of other accidental contaminants in milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126429DOI Listing
July 2020

SERS detection of sodium thiocyanate and benzoic acid preservatives in liquid milk using cysteamine functionalized core-shelled nanoparticles.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Mar 29;229:117994. Epub 2019 Dec 29.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China; Academy of Contemporary Food Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, China; Engineering and Technological Research Centre of Guangdong Province on Intelligent Sensing and Process Control of Cold Chain Foods, & Guangdong Province Engineering Laboratory for Intelligent Cold Chain Logistics Equipment for Agricultural Products, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China; Food Refrigeration and Computerized Food Technology (FRCFT), Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

A cysteamine functionalized core shelled nanoparticles ([email protected]) was presented for simultaneous and rapid detection of sodium thiocyanate (STC) and benzoic acid (BA) preservatives in liquid milk using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. A spectrum covering 350-2350 cm region was selected to detect STC with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 10 mg/L and BA with concentrations ranging from 15 to 240 mg/L in milk samples. Characterization of nanoparticles using high-resolution TEM confirmed that the successful synthesis of [email protected] with core (gold) size of 28 nm and shell (silver) thickness of about 5 nm was grafted with 120 μL of 0.1 nM cysteamine hydrochloride. Results showed that [email protected] could be used to detect STC up to 0.03 mg/L with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.039 mg/L and a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.9833 in the milk sample. For detecting BA, it could be screened up to 9.8 mg/L with LOQ of 10.2 mg/L and R of 0.9903. The proposed substrate was also highly sensitive and the employed method involved only minor sample pretreatment steps. It is thus hoped that the new substrate could be used in the screening of prohibited chemicals in complex food matrices in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.117994DOI Listing
March 2020

The adverse impact of penicillin allergy labels on antimicrobial stewardship in sepsis and associated pharmacoeconomics: An observational cohort study (IMPALAS study).

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 May 7;8(5):1747-1749.e4. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Allergy and Immunology, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Institute of Immunology & Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.12.030DOI Listing
May 2020